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Letter XXXVIII. To Marcella.

Blæsilla, the daughter of Paula and sister of Eustochium, had lost her husband seven months after her marriage. A dangerous illness had then led to her conversion, and she was now famous throughout Rome for the length to which she carried her austerities. Many censured her for what they deemed her fanaticism, and Jerome, as her spiritual adviser, came in for some of the blame. In the present letter he defends her conduct, and declares that persons who cavil at lives like hers have no claim to be considered Christians. Written at Rome in 385 a.d.

1. When Abraham is tempted to slay his son the trial only serves to strengthen his faith. 758 When Joseph is sold into Egypt, his sojourn there enables him to support his father and his brothers. 759 When Hezekiah is panic-stricken at the near approach of death, his tears and prayers obtain for him a respite of fifteen years. 760 If the faith of the apostle, Peter, is shaken by his Lord’s passion, it is that, weeping bitterly, he may hear the soothing words: “Feed my sheep.” 761 If Paul, that ravening wolf, 762 that little Benjamin, 763 is blinded in a trance, it is that he may receive his sight, and may be led, by the sudden horror of surrounding darkness, to call Him Lord Whom before he persecuted as man. 764

2. So is it now, my dear Marcella, with our beloved Blæsilla. The burning fever from which we have seen her suffering unceasingly for nearly thirty days has been p. 48 sent to teach her to renounce her over-great attention to that body which the worms must shortly devour. The Lord Jesus has come to her in her sickness, and has taken her by the hand, and behold, she arises and ministers unto Him. 765 Formerly her life savored somewhat of carelessness; and, fast bound in the bands of wealth, she lay as one dead in the tomb of the world. But Jesus was moved with indignation, 766 and was troubled in spirit, and cried aloud and said, Blæsilla, come forth. 767 She, at His call, has arisen and has come forth, and sits at meat with the Lord. 768 The Jews, if they will, may threaten her in their wrath; they may seek to slay her, because Christ has raised her up. 769 It is enough that the apostles give God the glory. Blæsilla knows that her life is due to Him who has given it back to her. She knows that now she can clasp the feet of Him whom but a little while ago she dreaded as her judge. 770 Then life had all but forsaken her body, and the approach of death made her gasp and shiver. What succour did she obtain in that hour from her kinsfolk? What comfort was there in their words lighter than smoke? She owes no debt to you, ye unkindly kindred, now that she is dead to the world and alive unto Christ. 771 The Christian must rejoice that it is so, and he that is vexed must admit that he has no claim to be called a Christian.

3. A widow who is “loosed from the law of her husband” 772 has, for her one duty, to continue a widow. But, you will say, a sombre dress vexes the world. In that case, John the Baptist would vex it, too; and yet, among those that are born of women, there has not been a greater than he. 773 He was called an angel; 774 he baptized the Lord Himself, and yet he was clothed in raiment of camel’s hair, and girded with a leathern girdle. 775 Is the world displeased because a widow’s food is coarse? Nothing can be coarser than locusts, and yet these were the food of John. The women who ought to scandalize Christians are those who paint their eyes and lips with rouge and cosmetics; whose chalked faces, unnaturally white, are like those of idols; upon whose cheeks every chance tear leaves a furrow; who fail to realize that years make them old; who heap their heads with hair not their own; who smooth their faces, and rub out the wrinkles of age; and who, in the presence of their grandsons, behave like trembling school-girls. A Christian woman should blush to do violence to nature, or to stimulate desire by bestowing care upon the flesh. “They that are in the flesh,” the apostle tells us, “cannot please God.” 776

4. In days gone by our dear widow was extremely fastidious in her dress, and spent whole days before her mirror to correct its deficiencies. Now she boldly says: “We all with unveiled face, beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image, from glory to glory, even as by the spirit of the Lord.” 777 In those days maids arranged her hair, and her head, which had done no harm, was forced into a waving head-dress. Now she leaves her hair alone, and her only head-dress is a veil. In those days the softest feather-bed seemed hard to her, and she could scarcely find rest on a pile of mattresses. Now she rises eager for prayer, her shrill voice cries Alleluia before every other, she is the first to praise her Lord. She kneels upon the bare ground, and with frequent tears cleanses a face once defiled with white lead. After prayer comes the singing of psalms, and it is only when her neck aches and her knees totter, and her eyes begin to close with weariness, that she gives them leave reluctantly to rest. As her dress is dark, lying on the ground does not soil it. Cheap shoes permit her to give to the poor the price of gilded ones. No gold and jewels adorn her girdle; it is made of wool, plain and scrupulously clean. It is intended to keep her clothes right, and not to cut her waist in two. Therefore, if the scorpion looks askance upon her purpose, and with alluring words tempts her once more to eat of the forbidden tree, she must crush him beneath her feet with a curse, and say, as he lies dying in his allotted dust: 778 “Get thee behind me, Satan.” 779 Satan means adversary, 780 and one who dislikes Christ’s commandments, is more than Christ’s adversary; he is anti-christ.

5. But what, I ask you, have we ever done that men should be offended at us? Have we ever imitated the apostles? We are told of the first disciples that they forsook their boat and their nets, and even their aged father. 781 The publican stood up from the receipt of custom and followed the Saviour once for all. 782 And when a disciple p. 49 wished to return home, that he might take leave of his kinsfolk, the Master’s voice refused consent. 783 A son was even forbidden to bury his father, 784 as if to show that it is sometimes a religious duty to be undutiful for the Lord’s sake. 785 With us it is different. We are held to be monks if we refuse to dress in silk. We are called sour and severe if we keep sober and refrain from excessive laughter. The mob salutes us as Greeks and impostors 786 if our tunics are fresh and clean. They may deal in still severer witticisms if they please; they may parade every fat paunch 787 they can lay hold of, to turn us into ridicule. Our Blæsilla will laugh at their efforts, and will bear with patience the taunts of all such croaking frogs, for she will remember that men called her Lord, Beelzebub. 788



Gen. xxii.


Gen. xxxvii., xlvi.


2 Kings 20:0, Isa. 38:0.


Luke 22:54, John 21:16.


Gen. xlix. 27.


Ps. lxviii. 27.


Acts ix. 3-18.


Cf. Mark 1:30, 31.


John xi. 38, R.V. marg.


Joh. xi. 38-44.


Joh. xii. 2.


Joh. xii. 10.


Luke vii. 38.


Rom. vi. 11.


Rom. vii. 2.


Luke vii. 28.


Luke vii. 27. The word “angel” means “messenger.”


Matt. iii. 4.


Rom. viii. 8.


2 Cor. iii. 18, R.V.


Gen. iii. 14.


Matt. xvi. 23.


1 Pet. v. 8.


Matt. iv. 18-22.


Matt. ix. 9.


Luke 9:61, 62.


Matt. viii. 21.


Luke xiv. 26.


Cf. Letter LIV. § 5.


Pinguis aqualiculus—Pers. i. 57.


Matt. x. 25.

Next: Letter XXXIX