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Chapter 21.—David Not Lustful, Though He Fell into Adultery.

But when King David had suffered this injury at the hands of his impious and unnatural son, he not only bore with him in his mad passion, but mourned over him in his death.  He certainly was not caught in the meshes of carnal jealousy, seeing that it was not his own injuries but the sins of his son that moved him.  For it was on this account he had given orders that his son should not be slain if he were conquered in battle, that he might have a place of repentance after he was subdued; and when he was baffled in this design, he mourned over his son’s death, not because of his own loss, but because he knew to what punishment so impious an adulterer and parricide had been hurried. 1875   For prior to this, in the case of another son who had been guilty of no crime, though he was dreadfully afflicted for him while he was sick, yet he comforted himself after his death. 1876

31.  And with what moderation and self-restraint those men used their wives appears chiefly in this, that when this same king, carried away by the heat of passion and by temporal prosperity, had taken unlawful possession of one woman, whose husband also he ordered to be put to death, he was accused of his crime by a prophet, who, when he had come to show him his sin, set before him the parable of the poor man who had but one ewe-lamb, and whose neighbor, though he had many, yet when a guest came to him spared to take of his own flock, but set his poor neighbor’s one lamb before his guest to eat.  And David’s anger being kindled against the man, he commanded that he should be put to death, and the lamb restored fourfold to the poor man; thus unwittingly condemning the sin he had wittingly committed. 1877   And when he had been shown this, and God’s punishment had been denounced against him, he wiped out his sin in deep penitence.  But yet in this parable it was the adultery only that was indicated by the poor man’s ewe-lamb; about the killing of the woman’s husband,—that is, about the murder of the poor man himself who had the one ewe-lamb,—nothing is said in the parable, so that the sentence of condemnation is pronounced against the adultery alone.  And hence we may understand with what temperance he possessed a number of wives when he was forced to punish himself for transgressing in regard to one woman.  But in his case the immoderate desire did not take up its abode with him, but was only a passing guest.  On this account the unlawful appetite is called even by the accusing prophet, a guest.  For he did not say that he took the poor man’s ewe-lamb to make a feast for his king, but for his guest.  In the case of his son Solomon, however, this lust did not come and pass away like a guest, but reigned as a king.  And about him Scripture is not silent, but accuses him of being a lover of strange women; for in the beginning of his reign he was inflamed with a desire for wisdom, but after he had attained it through spiritual love, he lost it through carnal lust. 1878



Comp. 2 Sam. 16:22, 2 Sam. 18:5, 2 Sam. 19:1.


2 Sam. 12.19-23.


2 Sam. 12.1-6.


2 Chr. 1:10, 1 Kings 11:1.

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