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Chapter 19.—Of the Dress and Habits of the Christian People.

It is a matter of no moment in the city of God whether he who adopts the faith that brings men to God adopts it in one dress and manner of life or another, so long only as he lives in conformity with the commandments of God.  And hence, when philosophers themselves become Christians, they are compelled, indeed, to abandon their erroneous doctrines, but not their dress and mode of living, which are no obstacle to religion.  So that we make no account of that distinction of sects which Varro adduced in connection with the Cynic school, provided always nothing indecent or self-indulgent is retained.  As to these three modes of life, the contemplative, the active, and the composite, although, so long as a man’s faith is preserved, he may choose any of them without detriment to his eternal interests, yet he must never overlook the claims of truth and duty.  No man has a right to lead such a life of contemplation as to forget in his own ease the service due to his neighbor; nor has any man a right to be so immersed in active life as to neglect the contemplation of God.  The charm of leisure must not be indolent vacancy of mind, but the investigation or discovery of truth, that thus every man may make solid attainments without grudging that others do the same.  And, in active life, it is not the honors or power of this life we should covet, since all things under the sun are vanity, but we should aim at using our position and influence, if these have been honorably attained, for the welfare of those who are under us, in the way we have already explained. 1293   It is to this the apostle refers when he says, “He that desireth the episcopate desireth a good work.” 1294   He wished to show that the episcopate is the title of a work, not of an honor.  It is a Greek word, and signifies that he who governs superintends or takes care of those whom he governs:  for ἐπί means over, and σκοπεῖν, to see; therefore ἐπισκοπεῖν means “to oversee.” 1295   So that he who loves to govern rather than to do good is no bishop.  Accordingly no one is prohibited from the search p. 414 after truth, for in this leisure may most laudably be spent; but it is unseemly to covet the high position requisite for governing the people, even though that position be held and that government be administered in a seemly manner.  And therefore holy leisure is longed for by the love of truth; but it is the necessity of love to undertake requisite business.  If no one imposes this burden upon us, we are free to sift and contemplate truth; but if it be laid upon us, we are necessitated for love’s sake to undertake it.  And yet not even in this case are we obliged wholly to relinquish the sweets of contemplation; for were these to be withdrawn, the burden might prove more than we could bear.



Ch. 6.


1 Tim. 3.1.


Augustin’s words are:  ἐτί, quippe, super; σκοπός, vero, intentio est:  ergo ἐπισκοπεῖν, si velimus, latine superintendere possumus dicere.

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