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   I was born in Musashi, and when my hair was first fastened in a queue studied the Chinese poetry and history.1 Thenceforth I wrote essays on themes which interested me, presented my writings to the daimyō and was entertained in their mansions. Or, with my box of books upon my back I lived like a traveller in Kyōto. Afterwards I made my home in the north,2 ever studying the ancient writings, and constantly strengthened my purpose to perfect myself to the end of life. But, unexpectedly, I was summoned by my lord and returned to my native place.3 Thus have I grown old and imbecile and wait for death to pillow my head upon the hills. Many years and months have passed away and now at seventy-four, in the old age of horse or dog, though I love learning and purpose to follow the "Way," I have no virtue that fits me to be leader or teacher. Nor have I ability for aught else, and stay useless in the world. This is far other than I had purposed. So I expound that which I have learned to those who believe in the Old Man and come to him with questions. If I can help future scholars it will be the reward for my long life, and in illness and pain I comment constantly upon the books.4

   One day after the exposition, when the talk was of the changes in the learning since the times of the Sō, one of p. 29 those present expressed doubts as to the philosophy of Tei-Shu;5 and the Old Man replied:—

   When young I too studied with worthless teachers. I conned words and wasted time until suddenly I perceived the folly of such study and resolved to seek that wisdom of the men of old which is for one's self.6 Yet alas! Without teacher or friend I was bewildered by the conflicting opinions of scholars, and half doubted, half believed the teaching of Tei-Shu. So the time still passed in vain until I was forty years of age when I fully accepted this philosophy,6a understanding that nothing could take its place. For thirty years I have read and pondered it. Looking at its heights, how transcendent! Seeking to divide it, how compact! Yet is it neither too far away and high, nor too shallow and near at hand! Should Sages again appear they would follow it! For the "Way" of Heaven and Earth is the "Way" of Gyō and Shun:7 the "Way" of Gyō and Shun is the "Way" of Confucius and Mencius; and the "Way" of Confucius and Mencius is the "Way" of Tei-Shu. Forsaking Tei-Shu we cannot find Confucius and Mencius. Forsaking Confucius and Mencius we cannot find Gyō and Shun; and forsaking Gyō and Shun we cannot find the "Way" of Heaven and Earth. Do not trust implicitly an aged scholar, but this I know and therefore speak. If I say that which is false, that which I have not verified, may I instantly be punished by Heaven and Earth.

p. 30

   At this all present straightened themselves and listened intently. The Old Man8 continued;—This has not waited for my oath, it has been determined these five hundred years. From Shushi's own time the great scholars of the Sō, the Gen and Min9 with all who followed the Ethical Philosophy have fully accepted him. Men of great learning debated, indeed, his style and minor points but said nothing against his philosophy.10 So until the middle of the Min, learning was pure and the celebrated truth unimpaired. Then came Ōyōmei with his intuitionalism.11 He attacked Shushi and changed the learning of the Min. After his death his pupils accepted the Zen12 doctrines and thenceforth scholars were intoxicated with intuitionalism and weary of natural philosophy. They were either mere memorizers or they were Buddhists. That men without one ten-thousandth of the learning of Tei-Shu should readily find fault is for a wren to mock a bo,13 for a caterpillar to measure the sea. As Kantaishi14 says,—"To sit in a well and, looking at the p. 31 sky, pronounce it small." But the superficial ignorant men who adopt these views because of their novelty are numberless.

   In our land with peace for an hundred years learning has flourished. I cannot pronounce upon its value, but the ancient models and Tei-Shu have been firmly accepted, a cause for thankfulness. But of late some set forth false doctrine. They have established their school and gathered followers. Evil scholars appear above whom these men seek to advance themselves with senseless arguments, selfishly and wholly without shame. It is the fashion for all the dogs to join when one sets up his lying bark, so evil teachings and doctrines abound. Truly an evil fortune has befallen the ethical philosophy.

   Kantaishi lived when Buddhism and Taoism flourished, and comparing himself to Mencius attacked them single handed with an oath,—"The Gods of Heaven and Earth are above, and to the right and left."15 My oath has not the strength of Mencius but I do not purpose to fall behind the oath of Kantaishi. See to it that you do not hear in vain!"



   The celebrated priest Genku sent his oath to Tsukinowa, Kujō, Kyōto. The document is still in the temple p. 32 of Shin-kuro-tani. I have not seen it but have been told that it is as follows, "If those who say nembutsu16 go not to Heaven may I sink to Hell." Buddhists doubtless think that a strong oath, but from the point of view of our philosophy what could be more vain? If there is no heaven, of course there is no hell! It is easy to utter such oaths!

   In the old days when retainers died with their lords,17 in a certain clan many samurai were determined thus to end their lives. Among them was one young man who was especially lamented by every one. His karō called at his house and sought to dissuade him. But in vain. Finally, however, as the karō continued importunate his multitude of words forced consent, and the samurai with an oath promised to forego his purpose. So the official went home content. But on the morrow when he went to the temple with those who had resolved to die together there with the rest was this samurai saying his farewells to the guests. The karō exclaimed: "Though you deceive me how dare you break your oath? It is impious!" But the samurai laughed as he replied, "Forgive me for deceiving you. Yesterday had I not sworn you would not have left me, so I swore to satisfy you. As to the gods, though they punish me there is nothing more than death, and as I had determined to die I swore purposing to break my oath." The karō had not a word to say.

   Such was priest Genku's oath. He knew there is no Hell, nothing beyond falling into the grave. But my oath is not like these. "With sovereign Heaven above, and treading the sovereign Earth beneath,"18 by Heaven and Earth p. 33 I swear. So like Genku I purpose to swear for my "Way" but if my oath is false I am punished by Heaven and Earth. Consider, in Buddhism "is" becomes "is not"19 and truth is made falsehood. Only as that which "is not" becomes that which "is" can we make that which "is" into that which "is not." Only as we turn lies into truth can we turn truth into lies. Though we know that this talk of Heaven and Hell is false, still is it taught as if falsehood and truth were one. So is it taught to many men without distinction of wise and foolish, that if we say nembutsu punishment will be destroyed. This is Buddha's mystery. And here in Japan are many priests who are like the founders of sects who hold this mystery in their hearts. They transfer it from heart to heart and never say that all the talk of Heaven and Hell is false. Genku's oath was such a propagating oath. There is neither Heaven for Tsukinowa nor Hell for Genku. "Is not" is put for "is" and lies for truth, that men may be separated from birth and death. Such was Buddha's purpose.

   Compare their scheme with our philosophy which guides men by the very truth! The difference is as the difference between the clouds and the earth.



   Once when the Old Man was ill his friends came to see him and he begged them to stay and cheer his loneliness. So they spent the day in conversation about the prevalent opinions. And one remarked: "I have heard the leading scholars of Edo and Kyōto. Some expound what they call our national religion and confound it with the Way of the p. 34 Gods: others follow Ōyōmei and his intuitionalism; and others explain the ancient learning after new principles. Where is the truth in this confusion of strange and familiar opinions? What in your heart do you think?" And the Old Man replied:—

   "I too have heard of these schools which have established themselves and teach heresy. Their wisdom is such as you described. But I cannot agree with them. For the "Way" is from Heaven and its source is one. If we know that source we shall not distinguish the religion of our country from that of foreign lands; nor will intuitionalism be opposed to natural philosophy; nor will the learning of the Sages be put in opposition to Tei-Shu. The classical literature teaches all this, but it is not easy nor to be understood unless studied with humble and single minds. But scholars now-a-days are proud, and few of them thoroughly study the Tei-Shu works. Without knowing even the hedge of Tei-Shu they make their own hearts supreme and readily refute those great scholars. We shall postpone the consideration of their learning. We grieve over their thin, light, restless, shallow learning. They have not thoroughly studied Confucius and Mencius and do not understand them, so how can they fail to doubt Tei-Shu? They superficially attack them but I hear of no attacks on Confucius and Mencius. It is not that these scholars do not doubt the Sages but they know that Confucius and Mencius have been honoured and accepted by the world for two thousand years and that it will not listen to attacks upon them. But Shushi is modern and some in the age of the Min attacked him, so they feel at liberty to revile him. "They act according to the man" and not from established principles. They know that their philosophy can in no wise equal that of the Sages, and so make their excuses while they permit themselves to revile Shushi. Thus they hope to exalt themselves above him. But be that as it may!

   As to Shintō, it professes to help our country and calls p. 35 the Sages rebels.20 Such a "Way of the Gods" is apart from Benevolence and Righteousness. The illustrious virtue of intuitionalism is only the "nature" of the Buddhists. The intuitionalists call Musashibo Benkei21 a samurai of wisdom, humanity and bravery! Such intuitionalism is not of a heart that can distinguish good and evil.

   And there are men professing the ancient learning who declare that the Great Learning is not the work of a Sage,22 and that Confucianism and Buddhism are one! Such ancient learning is apart from virtue.23

   The Old Man doubts all these teachings. Only the philosophy of Tei-Shu unites outer and inner, includes Benevolence and Righteousness, makes past and present one, and is the orthodox school descended in a straight line from Confucius and Mencius. My only deep anxiety is that its followers will merely argue and expound instead of practising what they preach. Such orthodoxy avails nothing. This evil abounded in the time of the Min, and so it was that p. 36 Ōyōmei could reproach Shushi with this side issue. This is the source of heresy and the classics ever forbid such forgetfulness of practice and indulgence in empty talk. It is a subject for the most profound consideration.



   Then one remarked: "We agree that we can best overcome heresy by exhorting each other and striving after right conduct. So did Mencius when he replied to the attack of Yo-Bu24 for he disregarded the charge of being disputatious and concluded his exposition of fundamental principles saying: "The superior man returns to the right line." Still more should we degrade the "Way" now-a-days when heresies and heretics are like weeds on a plain and evil principles and contemptible opinions are like the fallen leaves of a forest, were we to reply to each one. Recently I was astounded at the words of a philosopher: "The way comes not from Heaven," said he, "it was invented by the sages. Nor is it in accord with nature; it is a mere matter of æsthetics and ornament.25 Of the five relations only the conjugal is natural, while loyalty, filial obedience and the rest were invented by the sages and have been maintained on their authority ever since." Surely among all heresies from ancient days until now none has been so monstrous as this."

   The listeners at this spoke together and laughed, and the Old Man said:—

   "You know Sotōba's26 parable about the sun? A man p. 37 born blind once asked: "What is the sun like?" and was told: "It is round like this gong," the speaker tapping the gong as he spoke. Oh! It has a voice! the blind man thought. And another said, "It gives light," and put a candle before his eyes. The blind man touched the candle and thought: "The sun is long and slender!"

   So is it with most men. Though they read books they are in the dark as to principles, and with open eyes they are blind in heart. And their much thinking is like this blind man's study of the sun. How can they fail to err! It is not necessary to discuss such opinions: it would be like discussing good and evil with men who have no hearts. Those who argue with them are like unto them.

   I know the origin of such notions. These men are mere students of the letter. They like to hunt through a multitude of books but do not establish their hearts upon the classics. They study words and commentaries but do not seek the profound truth. They are ignorant of their own darkness and are given over to learned vanity and the love of empty praise. So has it been since the time of the Min. These men desire high things, revile the former superior men and set themselves above the scholars of the past. But the wise man sees that their learning is "remote" and that they are intoxicated with the poison of Jun and So27 and that their style is a mere culling of the ornaments of Ori.28 With their heretical learning they declare that the "Way" is not from Heaven. Testing it with their own base hearts they say that only the conjugal relation is p. 38 "natural." Their arguments are weak but many believe them and the world seems to fancy their base opinions. We shall grieve indeed that thus they may increasingly injure the minds of men, and the accepted truth. To prevent such evil, empty words were punished in the Book of Rites.29

   But in such a world for me, without talent or virtue, to stop the evil is to prop up a great house with a single stick. Who would believe my polemic or my exposition? And how should I escape the reproach of not knowing the limits of my powers? The Tei-Shu philosophy is like the ceremonial robes of former kings; but this is like selling the garments of civilized men to savages. Though his philosophy is the celebrated music of the world yet now is it like Eikaku's Song of Spring30 among a people of barbarous speech. As the Book of Poetry says: "Who knows me says: He has sorrow in his heart; Who knows me not says: Something he seeks; Blue, distant Sky! What man is this?"31 So sang the officer of Shu in his sorrow over the downfall of the house of Shu, and such is my grief over the decay of the "Way."



   But I do not seek collaborators in this present age. Evil customs and false opinions from of old have flourished like rootless things, and bloom, with noisy reputation, for an p. 39 hour. As the ages pass there is a sure return to the "Way" though to look for it in haste shows inexperience.

   You know the works of Resshi.32 He tells of a Mr. Fool who with his children laboured every day with pick and basket removing a mountain that stood inconveniently near his house. Mr. Wiseman jeered at the folly: "How can a few men remove a mountain?" But Mr. Fool replied: "I begin the task, my children continue it, their children after them and grandchildren's children labour on and finally it will be done." Thereat Mr. Wiseman laughed the more.

   Such conduct men call silly and such men fools, and the critics are called "wise." But with such a "fool's" heart anything in heaven or earth can be done. And the men of wisdom with "Mr. Wiseman's" heart laugh at the Fool's mountain and accomplish nothing. For the world's folly is wisdom and its wisdom folly.

   After my death comes a day that will settle this debate of an hundred years. Meanwhile men laugh at my roundabout ways, but I am old and stubborn, determined to go on in this purpose to the end. You may class me with Mr. Fool and his hill.



   But I have another thought. Beyond Shinobu-ga-oka is a village called Yanaka with a temple of the Shin-gon sect; and there I often played when a boy. Once I heard a priest tell this story:—

   In the period Kan-ei (A.D. 1624-1643) the Shōgun came to Yanaka on a hawking expedition, and as he followed the birds, chanced upon the temple with only an attendant or two. p. 40 An old priest eighty years of age was grafting trees, and, with no notion of the Shōgun's rank, continued at his work. The Shōgun said: "What are you doing, Priest?" The priest thought the question foolish and replied shortly: "Grafting trees." The Shōgun laughed: "Such an old priest will not live to see them grow. What is the profit in your hard work?" The priest returned: "Who are you that says such a heartless thing? Consider! The trees will be big enough to darken the temple in the time of future priests. I work for the temple, not for myself alone." The Shōgun was filled with admiration. Meanwhile attendants kept coming up bearing the Shōgun's crest, and the priest recognizing his visitor fled in dismay. But the Shōgun called him back and rewarded him.

   I am like this old priest. To the end of life I study the established principles, teach and write books that there may be the beginning of true learning in a future age. If I can help the "Way" one ten-thousandth, though I die still shall I live.33 As one of old said: "Though dead the bones do not decay." So think I. I do not labour for myself at all. Believe me! Such is the Old Man's heart.



   But deep would be my shame were I to be like Sekkō. From youth have I cherished the Sages and superior men, reading their books, but I know them only from books and p. 41 understand only the beginning of their true character. Were I to meet a living Sage who should prove different from those I have been cherishing, might I not hate him? I have such fears. And if I at all hate the Sages then all I say is false, a shame not comparable to the shame of hills and valleys. And how then should I wait for the coming age?

   In the olden time Sekkō fancied dragons, painted them and spent days and nights in loving them. A real dragon heard of it and thought, if he is so devoted to painted dragons if I visit him how he will love me! So straightway he put his head through the window, but Sekkō fled panic-struck!

   Among the scholars of the east and the west are some true men but most of them are proud and vain, desirous only of reputation and applause while professing to love the Sages. Should they meet a living sage they could not look him in the face. Their daily admiration is like Sekkō's devotion to dragons. Learning without the practice of virtue is like swimming in a field. In illustration of my meaning I will tell you a story of thirty years ago.

   In Kaga I had a friend, a samurai of low rank named Sugimoto. While absent in Adzuma with his lord his son Kujurō, who was fifteen years old, quarrelled with a neighbor's son of the same age over a game of go, lost his self control and before he could be seized drew his sword and cut the boy down. While the wounded boy was under the surgeon's care Kujurō was in custody, but he showed no fear and his words and acts were calm beyond his years. After some days the boy died and Kujurō was condemned to hara-kiri. The officer in charge gave him a farewell feast the night before he died. He calmly wrote to his mother, took ceremonious farewell of his keeper and all in the house and then said to the guests: I regret to leave you all and should like to stay and talk till day-break; but I must not be sleepy when I commit hara-kiri to-morrow so I'll go to p. 42 bed at once. Do you stay at your ease and drink the wine. So he went to his room and fell asleep, all being filled with admiration as they heard him snore. On the morrow he arose early, bathed, dressed himself with care, made all his preparations with perfect calmmess and then, quiet and composed, killed himself. No old, trained, self-possessed samurai could have excelled him. No one who saw it could speak of it for years without tears.

   At the beginning of the affair I wrote to his father: "Though Kujurō commit hara-kiri he is so calm and collected there need be no regret. Be at peace." But as Sugimoto read the letter he remarked: "A child often will be brave enough as others encourage it before the moxa is applied, and yet burst into tears when it feels the heat. My child is so young that I cannot be at peace until I hear that he has done the deed with bravery." As the proverb says, "Only such fathers have such sons." I have told you this that Kujurō may be remembered. It would be shameful were it to be forgotten that so young a boy performed such a deed.

   But there is another reason also. Were I and all who study the words and mimic the actions of the ancient Sages to meet a living one different from our notions we should be like the child who cries as he feels the moxa applied. Surely it were shameful to study for years, attain the name of philosopher, and yet be less brave than this child Kujurō.

   Therefore examine yourselves with this thought.



   At a later meeting the Old Man said: I have not finished what I was saying the other day about learning true and false. To day I'll make an end.

   Three classes of scholars attack Shushi:

   1st, the school of Ōyōmei. Ōyōmei was a strong man, and although his arguments will not stand examination still p. 43 he was not wholly without reason. For in his day most scholars were busy with words and phrases and neglected self-examination. So he supposed that the "science" of Shushi was apart from righteousness and with his "intuitions" sought to examine himself. We approve his purpose. But Shushi's "science" does not neglect our intuitions but shows that they arise from "things." Apart from "things" can we seek our intuitions, after the fashion of Ōyōmei? But are not the classics, the ceremonies and music the teaching of former kings? What are these if not "things"? There are the six classics and the hundred deeds. Loyalty and disloyalty, truth and falsehood, we know their principles by "things." If intuitively we know all about reverence what need for the study of the ceremonies? And if by nature we are peaceful what need for music? Again, if intuitively we can govern our actions, making progress in loyalty and truth, if there is so short and easy a path why did not the sages teach it instead of their long and difficult "Way"? Then further, with what shall we employ these "intuitions" if not with "things"? "Surely" they will say, "in self examination and and casting away lust we will employ our intuitions." Let me illustrate: The knowledge of the five sounds is by the ears, so let us mind our ears and know the five sounds without hearing them! And the knowledge of the five colours is by the eyes; let us attend to them and know the five colours without seeing them! And the knowledge of the five tastes is by the mouth, so if we have a care for it we shall know them without eating! Is it not plain that though the knowledge of the five sounds and of the rest is in ourselves, yet the colours, sounds and tastes are in "things" and that we know them only as we listen, look and eat? Still less can we know the finer distinctions of light and deep in colour, of pure and impure in in sounds, and of delicate and harsh in tastes apart from things, for these differences are in the things."34

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   Without study we know that we must love our parents and reverence our elder brother, yet by our performance of these duties do we investigate the principles. So is it with all the hundred virtues of the Superior Man. If we are not thus "scientific" but use our intuitions merely, we shall not distinguish good and evil. Since filial piety is the beginning of the hundred virtues. I'll speak of that a while.

   All filial sons know such precepts as "In the morning reflect and in the evening consider."35 Yet even that is not known to the rustics who do not lack loving hearts. Still more as to "nourishing" our parents, all nourish them, yet is there the difference between merely caring for the body and nourishing also the heart. And though all reverence parents, yet many do not follow the severe, strict way with such precepts as,—"Do not speak of old age before them,"35 and "Do not speak angrily before them, not even to a dog or horse."35 All this is included in filial piety, and though a Sage might fulfil this law without learning the particulars one by one, surely not so an ordinary scholar. p. 45 Such an one would not simply fail to fulfil the whole law, he would fall into actual transgressions.

   We are not to cease obeying for the sake of study, nor must we establish all the laws before we begin to obey. In our obedience we are to establish its rightness or wrongness, examining ourselves as we read what the Sages say, tasting them carefully and reading them throughout. All the virtues are illustrated by what I have said. This is the scientific philosophy. Follow this course constantly and learn thoroughly these laws and at last you will not err, though you simply follow the dictates of your filial love. This is Tei-Shu's mystery, but only those who strive earnestly can know its flavour.

   The expression of Mencius, "To know without learning is intuitive knowledge"36 means that there is in man, before he studies, a heart which loves parent and reverences elder brother. Make that heart the foundation, study and we shall strengthen that power. Mencius did not teach that we can be perfect without study! This attempt to correct Shushi by casting aside the natural philosophy is not merely to misunderstand him. It is so to straighten the crooked that it bends backward.

   2nd.—The scholars who reject the "ri-ki-tai-yo"37 doctrine of Shushi and declare that it is not taught by Confucius and Mencius. But in reply we remember that Confucius said "The nature is alike;"38 and Mencius said, "The nature is good"39 and he further set forth the "yo-ki-ya-ki" doctrine which is not in the more ancient books. Confucius did not use these words of Shushi, but the scholars of the Sō did not offend against his principles. They knew none of these doubts and especially praised the p. 46 discovery of what the Sages had not taught. The age of the Sō was long after Confucius and Mencius, and the scholars were busy with arguments and in the explanation of the "Way," and were not so careful to repeat the words of the Sages so long as their principles were not violated. When Shushi teaches that which is not in Confucius and Mencius, let us learn his meaning by careful thought and study. If there seem to be disagreement let us restrain our doubts, for if we declare that his doctrine does not please us and that it is opposed to the Sages the superficiality of our scholarship will be manifest. Such notions show shallow carelessnes. I cannot argue all of these points but will speak in brief of ki and ri (spirit and law.)40

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   These scholars say: "In Heaven and Earth there is only spirit (ki), flowing through the four seasons; it produces all things and naturally ceases not. This is the Way of Heaven, Clearly is it as we see it. It is nonsense for Shushi to put above this spirit another formless thing called law."41 Even in China there were formerly many scholars who could not rid themselves of these doubts though they professed to have studied carefully Shushi. They at least did not settle the matter at a glance like our Japanese scholars. Of course I cannot pretend to settle the mysterious question of the priority of ki or ri at a sitting, but I will talk a while, taking an illustration from Laotze.42

   "Reckoning up the wheel there is no wheel; reckoning up the year, there is no year." Let us see, this is the rim, this the hub, this the axle, this the spoke; but the rim is not the wheel, nor the hub, nor the axle, nor the spokes. Yet if we cast these away the wheel goes too. But the law of the wheel preceded it and before the wheel was made the p. 48 principle was determined. And because the law is imperishable the carpenter follows it and makes the wheel. See then! Does the wheel come from the spokes and rim or do these come from the wheel? If we say the wheel comes from the parts we know its form but not its law.

   So with the year. Twelve hours make one day, thirty days make a month, twelve months make a year. This then we say, is an hour, a day, a month or a year, and if we cast them aside, without them there is no year. But on the three hundred and sixty-sixth day sun and earth return and meeting make the year. For the year is not in day or month, but its "law" was determined first and sun and moon revolve according to this plan. So for ages calendars have been made, and for years and days that are not yet, for an hundred years to come as for the hundred years past. For the "law" is not in day or month but is forever. So is it that "Heaven speaks not, yet the four seasons labour and all things are produced."43 For this is the centre, the main pillar of Heaven and Earth, the four seasons work by it and all things are begotten. This is the meaning of the expression: Reckoning up the wheel there is no wheel, and reckoning up the year there is no year."

   Separated from "spirit" is no "law" for thus without form or place we should say simply "reason" (dori). Confucius by the shape separated the upper and the lower and over against the utensil placed the "Way"; and so Shushi by the form separated the before and after and over against the "spirit" placed the "law." The reasoning is the same. To neglect the fundamental reason and argue from the leaves and branches is to cause only confusion: no conclusion can be reached.

   In like manner we reason of "body" and "activity." Where is activity there is always body. Body is quiet, p. 49 motionless, activity moves and acts. Quietly nourished activity dwells with body, reflecting and moving body works with activity. This is what the expression, body and activity are one in origin without the least separation, means. Confucius said: "The Superior Man reforms that which is within with reverence, and establishes that which is without with righteousness."44 Shishi said: "With moderation and harmony establish the universal way."45 And Mencius: "Benevolence and righteousness are the great and holy way."46 Without the words "body" and "activity" yet is the reason the same in all, and "body" and "activity" are in them all. But that crooked school of scholars rests content with the trifies it knows, and of course does not understand that perfect body and great activity are included in the "Way." There is no necessity for a thorough argument with them.

   3rd.—These scholars are dissolute and weary of the illustrious virtue. They study only books and words. When once they hear the saying of Shushi: "With care and reverence establish the truth," they think it the common place of an antiquated scholar. They do not know that philosophers study by self-examination. As they noisily assail the ears of men with their babble, no reply is to to be made to them. We can only draw a deep sigh.

   Henjaku twice prescribed for the Duke of Sei, but the third time as he could do nothing more he cast away his medicine spoon and fled in dismay. Daily the disease of p. 50 philosophy increases. Even Henjaku could not cure it. Still less can I, aged and talentless. I can only cover my mouth and flee in dismay.47



   When, one day, five or six students remained after the lecture to ask questions, one said:—I have a question. Many scholars explain 'Shin-tō' by saying that 'Japan is the Land of the Gods.' But their teaching is fantastic and opposed to reason. Since even the Sage did not speak lightly of the Gods48 such men as we cannot understand it. We wish your help. We shall gain food for future thought. And as all were of one mind Okina replied:—

   In the Book of Changes it is said, "The Sages formed their teaching by the Way of the Gods."49 That is, their teaching is called 'The Way of the Gods' to manifest its Divine mystery, as we speak of the Way of Benevolence. But the 'Way of the Gods' is not a religion by itself. So I cannot accept that which is popularly called Shin-tō and that is exalted above the teaching of the Sages as our native religion. I do not profess to understand the profound reason of the Divinities but in outline this is my idea:—

   The Doctrine of the Mean speaks of the "virtue of the Gods"50 and Shushi explains this word "virtue" to mean "the heart and its revelation." Its meaning is thus stated p. 51 in the Saden, "God is pure intelligence, and justice."51 Now all know that God is just but do not know that he is intelligent. But there is no such intelligence elsewhere as God's. Man hears by the ear and where the ear is not he hears not though as quick of hearing as Shikō; and man sees with his eyes and where they are not he sees not, though as quick of sight as Rirō;52 and with his heart man thinks and the swiftest thought takes time. But God uses neither ear nor eye, nor does he pass over in thought. Directly he feels, and directly does he respond. This then we should know is not two or three but just the virtue received from the one truth. Thus, in Heaven and Earth is a being of quickest eye and ear, separated from no time or place, now in this manner, communicating instantaneously, embodied in all things, filling the universe. Having of course neither form nor voice it is not seen nor heard by men. When there is truth it feels and when it feels it responds. When there is no truth it feels not and when it feels not there is no response. Responding at once it is, not responding it naturally is not. Is not this the Divinity of Heaven and Earth? So the Doctrine of the Mean says: "Looked for it cannot be seen, listened to it cannot be heard. It enters into all things! There is nothing without it."53

p. 52

   It is like Priest Saigyō's verse at the Shrines in Ise,54

   "Though not knowing what it is, Grateful tears he weeps."

   Are not his tears from his perception of truth? Before the shrine he stands, single hearted, direct, with truth; and to his truth God also comes and they commune, and so it is he weeps.

   As the reflection in the clear water answers to the moon, and together moon and pool increase the light, so if continually in the one truth they are dissolved we cannot distinguish God and man, even as sky and water, water and sky unite in one. "Everywhere, everywhere, on the right He seems and on the left."55 This is the revealing of God, the truth not to be concealed. Think not that God is distant but seek Him in the heart, for the heart is the House of God. Where there is no obstacle of lust, of one spirit with the God of Heaven and Earth there is this communion. But except by this communion there is not such a thing. Saigyō did not weep before he went to the shrine and by this we know God came.

   And now for the application. Examine yourselves, make the truth of the heart the foundation, increase in learning and at last you will attain. Then you will know the truth of what I speak.

   As thus he spoke all were silent, impressed by the great thoughts of the aged philosopher. They too shed grateful tears like the priest before the shrine.

p. 53



   The Old Man continued: Consider the saying, "Shun by doing nothing rules."56 The truth of the Sage is Divine. When anything there is we cannot use this phrase "doing nothing." Not knowing what it is or why but only that it is most holy and Divine "grateful tears he weeps." When the Sage enrobed with folded arms is in the place of power57 the empire honours him as the sun and moon, imitates him as one imitates his parents and communes with him more than with the formless God of Heaven and Earth. Wherever he goes there is reformation as the fluid shapes itself to the vessel. When Shun was a farmer all naturally sought the enlargement of their neighbor's fields, and when he was a potter all turned out pieces without flaws. His thought is Divine and accomplishes that on which his heart rests as readily as one turns his hand. When Confucius would work reformation he merely rested in the place and the result was attained, and when he willed to move men, all followed in peace. How far is this from the thoughts of ordinary men!58

   The Sages did not "do" wonders, but their truth cannot be hidden. When the Superior Man utters a word within his room the response comes from a thousand miles and still more is his neighborhood reformed. And if an evil word is spoken a thousand miles are changed, and still more p. 54 is the immediate neighborhood corrupted.59 Not instantly does it go a thousand miles, but as the wind moves from blade of grass to blade so does that done in private go from house to province and on, increasing, to the empire. This is the nature of things, the truth that cannot be hidden. So the superior man is busy with self-reformation and cares nothing for outward effect and ornament, yet are his hidden riches revealed like a silken robe worn beneath a worthless wrap. But the vulgar man cares nothing for self-culture and only for display, like him who vainly seeks to cover up decay which yet increasingly manifests itself.

   Maijō reproved the king of Go: "If you would not that men should know, do not act; and if you would not have them hear, do not speak."60 This is a celebrated saying, simple in expression but profound in meaning. To speak evil or to do it, thinking it will not be known, is to add interest to the principal and to bind a burden on the back which grows heavy day by day. At last its weight is great, how shall it be concealed? All sin, except the Sage, even the superior man. But the superior man does not attempt to conceal his faults, but reforms them in the sight of men. Error and repentance are without attempt at concealment and thus virtue is increased. The error of the superior man is like the eclipse of the sun or moon, all see the error and all are impressed by his repentance.61 Though less than the truth of the Sage when men see such a face and hear such words they believe and follow, nor is any exertion necessary. This is the true "communion." It never can be rivalled by the leadership of wisdom, power or gifts. How partial the saying, "Good stays within the gates but evil goes a thousand miles." Both when real go everywhere.

p. 55



   A listener asked:—Since God is just and quick to perceive there may well be such communion with truth. But tradition from of old speaks of the appearance of evil things. Does reason account for them also? And the Old Man replied:

   The Gods are the activity of Heaven and Earth, the good power of the In and Yō62 and of course of the true "law." Man's nature is originally good but as it is individualized good and evil appear.63 So too as God descends to man's world there is good and evil. For though the working through the four seasons of the spirit of the five elements of the In and Yō is of the right "law" of Heaven p. 56 and Earth and not of evil at all, yet as that "spirit" is scattered throughout the universe and confused there arise unexpectedly winds, heat, cold and storms. Thus naturally there are evil spirits which are known as they are felt by men. When with a righteous "spirit" we feel, the righteous "spirits" respond; and when with an evil "spirit" we feel, the evil "spirits" respond. And as both good and bad come from this "feeling and response" with the In and Yō we cannot refuse to call the bad also, gods. In Heaven and Earth is no place where these "spirits" are not. The "feeling" of the good "spirits" whether great or small is all of the pure heart. So in the empire have the good qualities of humble men been perceived miraculously; and, in a private station frost has been perceived in summer and Kantaishi "felt" the alligator in the evil valley.64 Such events are extraordinary, but they are not to be doubted and are all caused by the pure "feeling."

   I read a while ago, in the writings of Shinseisan, of the daughter of a farmer. Her father was ill and she prayed that she might suffer in his stead. Because of this "feeling and response" for one night many birds sang round the house, three great stars shone in the sky, lighting up the eaves like the moon; and in the morning the farmer was well. Seisan was the head of the village and knew the facts. He named the place,—"The village of great filial piety," and set up a memorial. This is a certain fact and an illustration of the feeling of which I speak.

   But in a degenerate age man's heart is evil; for the most part he "feels" the evil spirits and monsters appear. The Sage did not speak of wonders,65 of feats of strength, confusions or divinities, yet as their "law" is included in "the distinction of things," they must be mentioned.

p. 57

   In the Saden, Shinju of Rō thus writes of monsters:—"When men fear then monsters arise by the flickering flames of the spirit. Monsters arise from men."66 This accords well with our science. When the fire is undetermined the flame flickers, dying down and flashing up, and there is a state of man's spirit which is like this. As the proverb says,—"Men wish to see the thing they fear." They cannot forget it and led by their fancies, as the flame flashes up and dies down, now they see it and then they see it not. At last so giddy is their spirit that they question their own identity and then, into that opening the spirits thrust themselves and show their forms in visions and monsters and things of evil. These come by the flames of the spirit, and cease by the "feeling" of the good spirits.

   In the tales of Tō-Sō67 it is said that at Lake Do-tei is a temple to the water god, where travellers pray before they embark. A merchant of firm faith, and mindful of his prayers as he crossed year by year, was drowned at last in a storm. Thereupon his son in grief and anger came determined to burn, on the morrow, the temple which had failed to aid in spite of prayers and gifts. But in his dreams the god appeared in fright and said:—"Forgive me and to-morrow you shall hear Divine music on the lake. I fear neither the p. 58 burning of the temple nor your wrath, but seek forgiveness since I cannot ward off the fixed determination of your mind."

   This trifling story teaches that the gods fear a determined mind. Had the man been undertermined whether he should burn or not, now resolute and now irresolute, he had been cursed.

   In the castle of Sumpu68 was a fox called Uba. It would put a towel on its head and dance, no form being seen, only the towel waving in the air. As the towel was taken from the hand by the fox a rubbing was felt across the palm. And the young men would seek to hold the towel fast but could not. Ōkubo Hikozaemon,69 however, held out the towel and the fox could not take it; for he had resolved when he felt the touch to cut with his sword both fox and hand. The fox knew his purpose and was powerless. When the heart of the samurai is determined there is no entrance and the fox can work no ill. Still more is this the case with Sages and superior men. For evil melts before the righteous spirits like ice before the sun. Those who practice evil arts against such men find their curses returned upon themselves. But good men are few and evil spirits abound.

   And, further, men worship at profane temples and believe in Buddhism. As a shadow goes with a body so if there is strong belief even where there is naught we shall construct a being. Wonders are seen and folks are more and more deceived and the truth is lost. Trifles are thought to be of the gods and the Buddhas and are foolishly called their answers. The priests invent lies, deceive the people, assembling them together until the offerings of pennies are like mountains. These cheats are the thieves of the nation, a great evil to the empire.

p. 59



   After a pause the Old Man continued:—This "feeling and response" of the gods is the thoroughfare of the spirit. If there is the least "touch" of the spirit, though it show not in voice or face the gods know it at once. But when in perfect quiet there is no mixture of the spirit the gods can find no place to enter in. This is the true nature (honbun), what I call the "self." The verse of Sha-rei-un70 happens to set off my thought although he did not know the profound I meaning of the "self:"—

   "The perfect man exalts himself."

   The Book of Changes says: "Heaven opposes not, still less does man or god."71 This of course is true of man, and also of Heaven and the gods. So the Sage kings with this "self" were above the empire,—"The empire is only I, who can break my resolution?" The later philosophers put "self" apart from ten thousand, and in the midst of the multitude knew only "self."

   Where then is this "self"? It is before all thought, the reality of the unmoved. Superior men cherish it, Heaven and Earth are given rank by it and by it all things are reared. From it "feeling" goes to God and there is nothing apart from it. As Shokosetsu says, "If there is not a thought even the gods cannot know; if not by self then not by anyone."72 Here is a vulgar illustration which I heard in Kaga.

   A sawyer was making boards in the woods of Hidayama when he saw a hermit with a long nose, and took him for a goblin. Thereon the hermit said: "Why do you take me for a goblin and hate me and wish me away?" The sawyer in extremity picked up his things to depart p. 60 when a board slipped by chance and hit the goblin on the nose. "You dreadful man," it cried, "I cannot understand your thoughts," and ran away. It could not endure the unpurposed hit. So it is that, "if there is no thought even the gods cannot know."

   But ordinary minds are ever moved by the undetermined thoughts and fancies with which they are filled. So they are led by spirits, enchained by things and the "self" cannot assert itself. We must nourish the source of "self" if we would not lose it and first of all by getting rid of lust. Without lust, in repose, and without plans or thought, from this empty quietness alone, in accord with right reason does movement come, determined before all and thus after all is no fall. This it is to command the gods and not be commanded by them. Without voice or odour it is the foundation of the empire, a formless body. Without thought or act it is the source of all.73

*   *   *   *   *

   Unknown of men the origin of a thought in darkness and solitude is like the coming of spring while winter still is here. Just as the thought begins to come there is the distinction of right and wrong, as this year and next divides while winter remains. A thousand miles of error come from an inch. In the trifle is the separation of right and wrong, their division and their boundary gate. "Ceaselessly we must guard this gate" asking our hearts whether right or wrong is in our choice. Thus to forsake all evil and follow good is the beginning of the practice of our philosophy. Careless here, knowing good and evil only as shown in face and act, is to be too late. Struggle as we may we shall not attain.

p. 61



   Many who had been absent for a time came again and excused themselves saying: We have been busy and so have been negligent. But the Old Man replied:

   It is the fashion for scholars to say that occupation with the affairs of the world has made them negligent. I too have made that mistake. But the true difficulty is a want of resolution while we, unmindful of that, lay the blame on our occupation. This doubtless may interfere with our study of the books but "learning" is the practice of the "Way" of the Sages. True, we must know the "laws" if we are to act aright and these are learned not merely from books, though the study of the classics is to be put first. Read, learn the "laws" and then search them out in conduct and affairs; this is true knowledge, the knowledge that is the beginning of right conduct. The "Way" of the Sages is not apart from the things of every day. Loyalty, obedience, friendship, all the relations are in this "learning," and not a movement, not even our resting, is without its duty.

   Ōyōmei's followers reproach the "science" of Shushi and say: Doubtless it is admirable, but how shall busy men find time to learn its universal laws? Thus they misunderstand Shushi to teach that first at our leisure we determine "laws" and only afterwards begin to practise them. Not so! We learn loyalty and obedience as we are loyal and obedient. To-day I know yesterday's shortcomings and to-morrow shall I know to-day's. This is the knowledge of the scientific philosophy. In our occupations we learn whether conduct conforms to right, and so advance in the truth by practice.

   Big and little describe things and not principles, so everywhere and always may we learn philosophy, nor should we despise anything. For principles are decided by the p. 62 things of Heaven and Earth. But all in proper order, not neglecting the important things of every day that the laws of trees or blades of grass may be determined. In the "Way" of Heaven and Earth there is nothing which comes not from deeds. And where there is anything there is the rule. Just as with the six accomplishments we learn by practice and yet not without rules, so is it with the "Way." Though I have an intuition, if I know not the rule of its application I am like an unpolished jewel or unsmelted ore.

   An old samurai thus taught his pupils. Be not samurai through the wearing of two swords, but day and night have a care to bring no reproach on the name. When you cross your threshold and pass out through the gate go as men who shall never return again. Thus shall you be ready for every adventure you may meet. All men of deep earnestness think thus. The Buddhist is forever to remember the five commandments and the samurai the laws of chivalry. But these are easy, being of limited application. But philosophy is of all things, and in all the scholar finds his duty. And especially three things must never be forgotten, the blessings of parent, lord and Sage. Parents bestow and cherish the body, not a hair even is apart from them and their love. The daimyō gives us all we have, and maintains us, not a chopstick save from him. And the Sage instructs us and saves us from the state of the brutes. Remembering these blessings the original nature is not lost, Heaven's reason is not destroyed and all the virtues are brought together. This is the mystery of our philosophy. Impress it even on your bodies.

   But now-a-days young men seek only pleasure. Careless of their duty to parent and lord they fall into selfishness. And their elders and scholars know not the blessing of the Sages but are proud and desirous of fame, without a drop of truth. Did they know this mystery they would curb their proud spirits and become helpers in the "way" of virtue. But now, teachers and pupils laugh at the p. 63 truth of Shushi till head and stomach ache. Were they to hear my threefold mystery their stomachs would pain them to the point of throwing up. But all who truly know understand that it is not an empty and senile word.



p. 28

1 The five books are named after the five cardinal virtues, but without especial significance.

2 At fourteen or fifteen years of age his hair was tied in a queue. He lived with the samurai. And his home in the North was Kaga.

3 To Edo, by the Shōgun.

4 The expressions of humility are conventional. Kyusō had the highest influence and honours given by the Tokugawa to a scholar. He was admitted to the immediate presence of the Shōgun and was consulted on affairs of state.

p. 29

5 The Sō, pp. 4-5 above. The philosophy of Tei-Shu, p. 5 above.

6 A teaching that governs one's own life.

6a So Confucius "at forty had no doubts." Analects, II; IV, 3. At "fifteen he had his mind bent on learning."

7 The mythical Sage kings of China. Gyō according to the ordinary untrustworthy chronology began to reign B.C. 2357 and reigned 100 years, being succeeded by Shun, who reigned 50 years. "The Middle Kingdom," Vol. II, p. 148.

p. 30

8 Okina, the old man, is a title of respect.

9 The Gen (Yuen) dynasty was Mongol, A.D. 1280-1368, and was succeeded by the Min (Mings), 1368-1644. "The Middle Kingdom," Vol. II., pp. 175-179.

10 The text here has a list of Chinese scholars whose names are omitted in the translation in accordance with what is said on pp. 26-27 above. Of the Sō, Shinseizan, Gikakuzan, of the Gen, Kiyorozai Kosoro, of the Min, Sek-kei-ken, Ko-kei-sai.

11 Ōyōmei, p. 10 above. His "intuitionalism" is the ###. See Mencius, Book VII., Part 1. Chap. XV., 1. p. 44 note below.

12 The Zen sect of Buddhism, the contemplative sect which professes to use no book.

13 The bo is a fabulous bird of monstrous size. For "natural philosophy," see "Ki Ri and Ten" below.

14 Kantaishi was one of the eight most celebrated literary men of China. He was of the time of the To (Tang). "He was foremost among the statesmen, philosophers, and poets of the T'ang dynasty and one of the most venerated names in Chinese literature. p. 31 . . . . In A.D. 819 be presented a remonstrance to the emperor Hien Tsung against the public honours with which he had caused an alleged relic of Buddha to be conveyed to the imperial palace. The text of Han Yu's (Kantai's) diatribe against the alien superstition is still renowned as one of the most celebrated of state papers. But its only effect was "the banishment of the author. During his banishment Kantaishi laboured to civilize the barbarians with whom he lived, and his efforts are symbolized in a legend that he expelled a monstrous crocodile. Later he was restored to honour." Mayers, p. 50.

15 The Doctrine of the Mean, XVI. The word for "Gods" here is ki-shin.

p. 32

16 The Buddhist prayer, Namu Amida-butsu.

17 The custom was only abolished finally in A.D. 1664; Lay's "Japanese Funeral Rites," Vol. XIX., Pt. III., p. 528 of these "Transactions." A karō was the minister of a daimyō.

18 The commentary on The Spring and Autumn, Book V., Year XV. p. 165 of the Chinese Classics, Legge's edition.

p. 33

19 This refers to the Buddhist hōben, pious devices to lead the ignorant to virtue.

p. 35

20 See Vol. III, Appendix, of the Transactions, The "Revival of Pure Shin-tau" pp. 20-31 for the Shintō attack on the Chinese philosophy. The "holy men" of China are there called "merely successful rebels." And in like spirit were they reviled long ago in China, "The Divine Classic of Nan-Hua" Balfour's translation, pp. 112-113.

21 Musashibo Benkei. The priest and robber samurai who became the most trusted retainer of Minamoto Yoshitsune.

22 If by a Sage the author means Confucius then the Great Learning is not by a Sage, but is accepted as containing his teaching. The Chinese Classics, Vol. I. Prolegomena pp. 26-27. The author in the sections devoted to literature shows some familiarity with the results at least of criticism, but he does not apply it to the classics, uncritically accepting everything as written by Confucius which tradition ascribed to him.

23 For the Ancient Learning School, see Mr. Haga's "Note" and my "Comment" below. The "Illustrations {sic} Virtue" is a phrase of the Ōyōmei School, p. 13, above.

p. 36

24 Mencius, Book III: Pt. II., Chapter IX. The quotation is not verbal.

25 So from the beginning, because of the stress laid on rites.

26 Sotōba ### was one of the most famous of the Chinese literary men. He was of the time of the Sō (Sung) dynasty. He was of the otthodox school, and, was statesman and poet as well as philosopher. Mayers, p. 190.

p. 37

27 Jun and So ### Taoist writers. Jun was distinguished as a scholar and statesman. He committed suicide A.D. 212. So is the famous Chang, author of "The Divine Classic of Nan-Hua" (trans. by F. H. Balfour) Mayers p. 198 and p. 30.

28 Writers notorious for the meretricious ornamentation of their style.

p. 38

29 ### This reference to the punishment of "vain words" was not an empty threat. The Tokugawa government forebade all deviation from the Tei-Shu system in its schools, and the great provincial school went still further.

30 The Historical Records. ###

31 The Shih King, Lessons from the States. Book VI. Ode 1 "On seeing the desolation of the old capital of Kau." Sacred Books of the East, Vol. III, p. 439.

p. 39

32 Res-shi ### A Chinese metaphysician of the age preceeding Confucius. Mayers p. 126. His writings were edited in the fourth century A.D. and take high rank among Taoist writings.

p. 40

33 Said Laotz: "He who dies but perishes not enjoys longevity." "Tau Teh King" p. 26, Chalmers' translation. "This is identical with the Comtist version of immortality; the man lives on in the posthumous results of his former works," Balfour, "Chuang-Tsze" xix, note.

"O may I join the choir invisible
Of those immortal dead who live again
In minds made better by their presence:"

p. 43

34 Kaku-butsu-gaku I translate "science." It is thus explained: p. 44 ### "Distinction of things is simply the same as study because all study is a discriminating contemplation of things whether real or abstract. Certainly one must contemplate them until from them a principle ### has been drawn. . . . It may therefore be said, ### is a sifting of materials. But it is not natural science. . . . it refers to men." "A Systematical Digest of the Doctrines of Confucius," p. 55. See the Great Learning, 4-5. "Wishing to be sincere in their thoughts, they first extended to the utmost their knowledge. Such extension of knowledge lay in the investigation of things" The Chinese Classics, Vol. I: p. 222, Legge's translation.

35 These quotations are from the "Book of Rites."

36 Book VII., Part I., Chap. XV., 1. "The ability possessed by men without being acquired by learning is intuitive learning, and the knowledge possessed by them without the exercise of thought is their intuitive knowledge." Legge's translation. The Chinese Classics, vol. II., p. 332.

p. 45

37 ### (law, spirit, body, activity).

38 Analects, Book XVII; Chap. II.

39 Book VI, Part I Chap. VI.

p. 46

40 Book II, Part I Chap. II, 9-16. Dr. Legge translates "ki" ### "passion nature" and remarks.—"On ### {. . . ki} there is much vain babbling in the Comm. to show how the ### {ki} of heaven and earth is the ### {ki} also of man." And he translates 13 thus, "This is the passion nature: it is exceedingly great and exceedingly strong. Being nourished by rectitude, and sustaining no injury, it fills up all between heaven and earth." The Tei-Shu school would perhaps question who is here guilty of vain babbling. If men like our author and his master Shushi understood the classics, the ### {ki} of heaven and earth may well be identified with the ### {ki} in man. Indeed I do not see how their philosophy can be otherwise explained. Dr. Legge elsewhere writes; "Khi (ki), or 'spirit,' is the breath, still material but purer than the Zing (essence) and belongs to the finer, and more active part of the ether." "The Yi King" p. 355 note, Vol. XVI "Sacred Books of the East." And again he writes,—"The name of the intelligent spirit is literally 'the knowing breath' . . . . . . . . 'the breath' being used like the Hebrew ruach and the Latin spiritus." "I have adduced it to show how he (Confucius) held that, while man's body crumbles and returns to the dust at death, the liberated spirit, 'the breath' as he phrases it, ascends to a brighter state." "The Religions of China" pp. 119-121. In fact the Stoic 'pneuma' is the "ki" of the school of Tei-Shu, and so of the dominant system of Chinese thought to our day:—"The human soul, as p. 47 defined by the Stoics, is an inborn breath. . . . . It is a part severed from the Deity." "The latter pervades the world as an all pervading breath. The human soul is a part of the Deity, or an emanation from the same; the soul and its source act and react upon each other. The soul is the warm breath in us'. Opinions differed as to its life after the death of the body. Ueberweg's History of Philosophy, Vol. I, pp. 194-196, Eng. trans. See "Ki Ri and Ten" below.

41 See the Chinese Repository, Vol. XIII, pp. 552, 609 et seq. for a translation of Shushi's exposition of these words. Medhurst there translates "ri" immaterial principle and "ki" primary matter. McClatchie translates "ri" by "fate" and "ki" by "air" "Confucian Cosmogony." Eitel, above p., translates by "law" and "vital energy." I by "spirit," and "law," the former in the Stoic sense of pneuma. Griffith John translates "ri" "immaterial principle" and "ki" material principle. See my "Comment" below for a summary of Shushi's teaching.

42 This quotation is not found in the Tao Teh King.

p. 48

43 Analects, Book XVII, Chap., XIX, 3.

p. 49

44 Book of Changes, Appendix IV, Section II, 6.

45 The Doctrine of the Mean, Chap. I. 4-5. Shishi was Grandson of Confucius.

46 Book I, Part I, Chapter I, 3 amplified by the author.

p. 50

47 Henjaku (Pien Ts'iao) was the title given to a physician who lived in the State of Chao about the sixth century B.C. He was instructed in the mystic art of healing by a Sage possessed of magic powers. Henjaku dissected the human body. The Chinese theory of the pulses is derived from his discoveries. Mayers's "Manual" p. 172.

48 Analects VII; 20.

49 Appendix I: Sec. I: Hex. XX: 3.

50 XVI: 1

p. 51

51 The oldest commentary on The Spring and Autumn. Book III., Year XXIII, Part II., Dr. Legge translates, (Chinese Classics, Vol. V, Pt. I, p. 120) "The spirits are intelligent, correct, impartial." The word "spirits" is "shin" (kami) and in our passage can be rendered only by God or Gods.

52 Rirō could distinguish a single hair at the distance of an hundred paces. Mayers, p. 119. Shikō had magical powers of hearing.

53 XVI; 1. 3 Legge translates in the plural: "We look for them" the text of course having no distinction of number.

p. 52

54 Saigyō was a celebrated retainer of Yoritomo who became a priest. He died A.D. 1198.

55 The Doctrine of the Mean, XVI:3; Legge translates, "Like overflowing water they seem to be over the heads, and on the right and left of the worshippers."

p. 53

56 Analects XV; 4.

57 Book of Changes, Appendix 1 Sec., I, I, 5. Doctrine of the Mean, Chap. XXXI.

58 Mencius, Book VII., Pt. I Chap. XIII, 3. "Wherever the superior man passes through transformation follows; wherever he abides his influence is of a spiritual nature. It flows abroad above and beneath like that of Heaven and Earth." Legge's translation. This application of the influence of the ideal sage to the historical Confucius is remarkably at variance with the facts of his ill success as a statesman when alive.

p. 54

59 Book of Changes, Appendix III: Sec. I: Chap. VIII, 42.

60 ### Zoku-Bun-Sho-Ki-Han-Ken-no-San. Ho-Tan-Bun-16-Mai.

61 Mencius, Book II, Pt. II, Chap. IX., 4. Analects, Book XIX Chap. XXI.

p. 55

62 The so-called male and female principles of Chinese cosmogony. See Mr. Haga's "Note."

63 There is an ideal nature which is good. It is the same with the "ri," the "law," but when it is individualized, when it unites with the "ki-nature," both good and evil appear. This "ki-nature" varies, is thin or dense, is the air, the breath, the essence of the five elements, forms matter. It is in man as his "spirit" which may therefore be thought of as material, but matter might also be thought of as ethereal. The spirit within us "feels" the spirit without and the latter "responds." So there is a revelation of the invisible, a theophany, but it is of the will of man and not of the will of God, p. 51 above. Evil seems to be confusion, the good powers appearing at the wrong times. The five elements are wood, fire, earth, metal, water. Perhaps the five elements would be better translated, "the five activities" manifested in the five elements. I am indebted for this suggestion, as for many others, to the Rev. H. Waddell, A. B.

The word spirit throughout this piece represents the character "ki" ###. See the Journal of the N. China Asiatic Soc. Vol. II, No. 1. pp. 37-44.

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64 Above note 14.

65 Analects VII; 20.

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66 Dr. Legge translates,—"When men are full of fear their breath as it were blazes up and brings such things. If men give not cause for them they do not arise of themselves." "Chinese Classics" Vol. V, Pt. I, p. 92. I do not understand "ki" here to mean "the breath" but the "spirit." The spirits (ki) around us are confused and undertermined and powerless against a determined mind but when man's spirit (ki) is undetermined and flickers like a flame, then he is deceived by the evil "ki" and monsters appear.

67 A collection of common stories of the dynasties Tō and Sō.

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68 The Tokugawa castle at Suruga.

69 A famous retainer of Ieyasu, Hidetada and Iemitsu.

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70 ### A scholar of the Min dynasty.

71 The Book of Changes, Appendix, IV. Sec. I. Chap. VI: 34.

72 ### A famous poet and philosopher of the Sō danasty.

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73 Thought and act are of the ki, the true self is of the ri, see "Ki, Ri and Ten" below.