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Buddha in the Magadha country (employing himself in) converting all kinds of unbelievers 2 (heretics), entirely changed them by the one and self-same 3 law he preached, even as the sun drowns with its brightness all the stars. . 1534

Then leaving the city of the five mountains 4 with the company of his thousand disciples, and with a

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great multitude who went before and came after him, he advanced towards the Ni-kin 1 mountain, . 1535

Near Kapilavastu; and there he conceived in himself a generous purpose to prepare an offering according to his religious doctrine 2 to present to his father, the king. . 1536

And now in anticipation of his coming the royal teacher (purohita) and the chief minister had sent forth certain officers and their attendants to observe on the right hand and the left (what was taking place); and they soon espied him (Buddha) as he advanced or halted on the way. . 1537

Knowing that Buddha was now returning to his country they hastened back 3 and quickly announced the tidings, 'The prince who wandered forth afar to obtain enlightenment, having fulfilled his aim, is now coming back.' . 1538

The king hearing the news was greatly rejoiced, and forthwith went out with his gaudy equipage to meet (his son); and the whole body of gentry (sse) belonging to the country, went forth with him in his company. . 1539

Gradually advancing he beheld Buddha from afar, his marks of beauty sparkling with splendour two-fold

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greater than of yore; placed in the middle of the great congregation he seemed to be even as Brahma râga. . 1540

Descending from his chariot and advancing with dignity, (the king) was anxious lest there should be any religious 1 difficulty (in the way of instant recognition); and now beholding his. beauty he inwardly rejoiced, but his mouth found no words to utter. . 1541

He reflected, too, how that he was still dwelling among the unconverted throng, whilst his son had advanced and become a saint (Rishi); and although he was his son, yet as he now occupied the position of a religious lord 2, he knew not by what name to address him. . 1542

Furthermore he thought with himself how he had long ago desired earnestly (this interview), which now had happened unawares 3 (without arrangement). Meantime his son in silence took a seat, perfectly composed and with unchanged countenance. . 1543

Thus for some time sitting opposite each other, with no expression of feeling (the king reflected thus) 4, 'How desolate and sad does he now make my heart, as that of a man, who, fainting, longs for water, upon the road espies a fountain pure and cold; . 1544

'With haste he speeds towards it and longs to

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drink, when suddenly the spring dries up and disappears. Thus, now I see my son, his well-known features as of old; . 1545

'But how estranged his heart! and how his manner high and lifted up! There are no grateful outflowings of soul, his feelings seem unwilling to express themselves; cold and vacant (there he sits); and like a thirsty man before a dried-up fountain (so am I).' . 1546

Still distant thus (they sat), with crowding thoughts rushing through the mind, their eyes full met, but no responding joy; each looking at the other, seemed as one who thinking of a distant friend, gazes by accident upon his pictured form 1. . 1547

'That you' (the king reflected) 'who of right might rule the world, even as that Mândhâtriga, should now go begging here and there your food! what joy or charm has such a life as this? . 1548

'Composed and firm as Sumeru 2, with marks of beauty bright as the sunlight, with dignity of step like the ox king, fearless as any lion, . 1549

'And yet receiving not the tribute of the world, but begging food sufficient for your body's nourishment!' Buddha, knowing his father's mind, still kept to his own filial purpose. . 1550

And then to open out his 3 mind, and moved with

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pity for the multitude of people, by his miraculous power he rose in mid-air, and with his hands (appeared) to grasp the sun and moon 1 . 1551

Then he walked to and fro in space, and underwent all kinds of transformation, dividing his body into many parts, then joining all in one again. . 1552

Treading firm on water as on dry land, entering the earth as in the water, passing through walls of stone without impediment, from the right side and the left water and fire produced 2! . 1553

The king, his father, filled with joy, now dismissed all thought of son and father 3; then upon a lotus throne, seated in space, he (Buddha) for his father's sake declared the law. . 1554

'I know that the king's heart (is full of) love and recollection, and that for his son's sake he adds grief to grief; but now let the bands of love that bind him, thinking of his son, be instantly unloosed and utterly destroyed. . 1555

'Ceasing from thoughts of love, let your calmed mind receive from me, your son, religious nourishment; such as no son has offered yet to father, such do I present to you the king, my father. . 1556

'And what no father yet has from a son received, now from your son you may accept, a gift miraculous for any mortal king to enjoy, and seldom had by any heavenly king! . 1557

'The way superlative of life immortal 4 (sweet

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dew) I offer now the Mahârâga; from accumulated deeds comes birth, and as the result of deeds comes recompense; . 1558

'Knowing then that deeds bring fruit, how diligent should you be to rid yourself of worldly deeds! how careful that in the world your, deeds should be only good and gentle! . 1559

'Fondly affected by relationship or firmly bound by mutual ties of love, at end of life the soul (spirit) goes forth alone,--then, only our good deeds befriend us.-- 1560

Whirled in the five ways of the wheel of life, three kinds of deeds produce three kinds of birth 1, and these are caused by lustful hankering, each kind different in its character. . 1561

'Deprive these of their power by the practice now of (proper) deeds of body and of word; by such right preparation day and night strive to get rid of all confusion of the mind and practise silent (contemplation); . 1562

'Only this brings profit in the end, besides this there is no reality; for be sure! the three worlds are but as the froth and bubble of the sea. . 1563

'Would you have pleasure, or would you practise that which brings it near? then prepare yourself by

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deeds that bring the fourth birth 1: but (still) the five ways in the wheel of birth and death are like the uncertain wanderings of the stars; . 1564

'For heavenly beings too must suffer change: how shall we find with men (a hope of) constancy; Nirvâna! that is the chief rest; composure! that the best of all enjoyments! . 1565

'The five indulgences (pleasures) enjoyed by mortal kings are fraught with danger and distress, like dwelling with a poisonous snake; what pleasure, for a moment, can there be in such a case? . 1566

'The wise man sees the world as compassed round with burning flames; he fears always, nor can he rest till he has banished, once for all, birth, age, and death. . 1567

'Infinitely quiet is the place where the wise man finds his abode; no need of arms (instruments) or weapons there! no elephants or horses, chariots or soldiers there! . 1568

'Subdued the power of covetous desire and angry thoughts and ignorance, there's nothing left in the wide world to conquer! Knowing what sorrow is, he cuts away the cause of sorrow; . 1569

'This destroyed, by practising right means, rightly enlightened in the four true principles  2, he casts off fear and escapes the evil ways of birth.' The king when first he saw his wondrous spiritual power (of miracle) rejoiced in heart; . 1570

'But now his feelings deeply affected by the joy of (hearing) truth, he became a perfect vessel for receiving true religion, and with clasped hands he

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breathed forth his praise: 'Wonderful indeed! the fruit of your resolve (oath) 1 completed thus! . 1571

'Wonderful indeed! the overwhelming sorrow passed away! Wonderful indeed, this gain to me! At first my sorrowing heart was heavy, but now my sorrow has brought forth only profit! . 1572

'Wonderful indeed! for now, to-day, I reap the full fruit of a begotten son. It was right he should reject the choice pleasures of a monarch (conqueror); it was right he should so earnestly and with diligence practise penance; . 1573

'It was right he should cast off his family and kin; it was right he should cut off every feeling of love and affection. The old Rishi kings boasting of their penance gained no merit; . 1574

'But you, living in a peaceful, quiet place, have done all and completed all; yourself at rest now you give rest to others, moved by your mighty sympathy (compassion) for all that lives! . 1575

If you had kept your first estate with men, and as a Kakravartin monarch ruled the world, possessing then no self-depending power of miracle, how could my soul have then received deliverance? . 1576

Then there would have been no excellent law declared, causing me such joy to-day; no! had you been a universal sovereign, the bonds of birth and death would still have been unsevered; . 1577

'But now you have escaped from birth and death; the great pain of transmigration overcome, you are able, for the sake of every creature, widely to preach the law of life immortal (sweet dew), . 1578

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'And to exhibit thus your power miraculous, and (show) the deep and wide power of wisdom; the grief of birth and death eternally destroyed, you now have risen far above both gods and men. . 1579

'You might have kept the holy state of a Kakravartin monarch; but no such good as this would have resulted.' Thus his words of praise concluded, filled with increased reverence and religious love, . 1580

He who occupied the honoured place of a royal father, bowed down respectfully and did obeisance. Then all the people of the kingdom, beholding Buddha's miraculous power, . 1581

And having heard the deep and excellent law, seeing, moreover, the king's grave reverence, with clasped hands bowed down and worshipped. Possessed with deep portentous thoughts, . 1582

Satiated with sorrows attached to lay-life, they all conceived a wish to leave their homes 1. The princes, too, of the Sâkya tribe, their minds enlightened to perceive the perfect fruit of righteousness, . 1583

Entirely satiated with the glittering joys of the world, forsaking home, rejoiced to join his company (become hermits). Ânanda, Nanda, Kin-pi (Kimbila) 2, Anuruddha, . 1584

Nandupananda, with Kundadana 3, all these principal nobles and others of the Sâkya family, . 1585

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From the teaching of Buddha became disciples and accepted the law. The sons of the great minister of state, Udâyin being the chief, . 1586

With all the royal princes following in order became recluses. Moreover, the son of Atalî, whose name was Upâli, . 1587

Seeing all these princes and the sons of the chief minister becoming hermits, his mind opening for conversion, he, too, received the law of renunciation. . 1588

The royal father seeing his son possessing the great qualities of Riddhi, himself entered on the calm flowings (of thought), the gate of the true law of eternal life. . 1589

Leaving his kingly estate and country, lost in meditation, he drank sweet dew. Practising (his religious duties) in solitude, silent and contemplative he dwelt in his palace, a royal Rishi. . 1590

Tathâgata following a peaceable 1 life, recognised fully by his tribe, repeating the joyful news of religion, gladdened the hearts of all his kinsmen hearing him. . 1591

And now, it being the right time for begging food, he entered the Kapila, country (Kapilavastu); in the city all the lords and ladies, in admiration, raised this chant of praise: . 1592

'Siddhârtha! fully enlightened! has come back again!' The news flying quickly in and out of doors, the great and small came forth to see him; . 1593

Every door and every window crowded, climbing on shoulders 2, bending down the eyes, they gazed

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upon the marks of beauty on his person, shining and glorious! . 1594

Wearing his Kashâya garment outside, the glory of his person from within shone forth, like the sun's perfect wheel; within, without, he seemed one mass of splendour 11. . 1595

Those who beheld were filled with sympathising 2 joy; their hands conjoined, they wept (for gladness) 3; and so they watched him as he paced with dignity the road, his form collected, all his organs well-controlled! . 1596

His lovely body exhibiting the perfection 4 of religious beauty, his dignified compassion adding to their regretful joy! his shaven head, his personal beauty sacrificed! his body clad in dark and sombre vestment, . 1597

His manner natural and plain, his unadorned appearance; his circumspection as he looked upon the earth in walking! 'He who ought to have had held over him the feather-shade' (they said), 'whose hands should grasp "the reins of the flying 5 dragon," . 1598

'See how he walks in daylight on the dusty road! holding his alms-dish, going to beg! Gifted enough to tread down every enemy, lovely enough to gladden woman's heart, . 1599

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'With glittering vesture and with godlike crown reverenced he might have been by servile crowds! But now, his manly beauty hidden, with heart re-strained, and outward form subdued, . 1600

'Rejecting the much-coveted and glorious apparel, his shining body clad with garments grey, what aim, what object, now! Hating the five delights that move the world, . 1601

Forsaking virtuous wife and tender child, loving the solitude, he wanders friendless; hard, indeed, for virtuous wife through the long night 1, cherishing her grief; . 1602

'And now to hear he is a hermit! She enquires not now (so lost to life) of the royal Suddhodana if he has seen his son or not! . 1603

'But as she views his beauteous person, (to think) his altered form is now a hermit's! hating his home, still full of love; his father, too, what rest for him (they say)! . 1604

'And then his loving child Râhula, weeping with constant sorrowful desire! And now to see no change, or heart-relenting; and this the end of such enlightenment! . 1605

'All these attractive marks, the proofs of a religious calling, whereas, when born, all said, these are marks of a "great man," who ought to receive tribute from the four seas! . 1606

'And now to see what he has come to! all these predictive words vain and illusive.' Thus they talked together, the gossiping multitude, with confused accents. . 1607

Tathâgata, his heart unaffected,. felt no joy and

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no regret. But he was moved by equal love to all the world, his one desire that men should escape the grief of lust; . 1608

To cause the root of virtue to increase, and for the sake of coming ages, to leave the marks of self-denial 1 behind him, to dissipate the clouds and mists of sensual desire, . 1609

He entered, thus intentioned, on the town to beg. He accepted food both good or had, whatever came, from rich or poor, without distinction; having filled his alms-dish, he then returned back to the solitude. . 1610


218:2 'I tau,' different persuasions. It was during Buddha's stay near Râgagriha that different rules for the direction of the 'Order' were framed. See Romantic Legend, p. 340 seq. There is no reference in our text to the stately march of Buddha to Kapilavastu, or of the different messages sent to him, as related by Bigandet, p. 160, and in Hardy's Manual of Buddhism, pp. 198, 199, also Romantic Legend, p. 349.

218:3 Yih-mi-fă, 'one-taste law.'

218:4 That is, Râgagriha; the city surrounded by five mountains.

219:1 This may be the Nyagrodha garden alluded to by Spence Hardy, Manual of Buddhism, p. 200, and also in the Romantic Legend, p. 350. The symbols ni-kin, however, seem to have some other equivalent, such as Nigantha.

219:2 This of course means 'a religious offering,' or 'service of religion,' i.e. agreeable to religion.

219:3 There is no reference here to their conversion as in the Southern accounts. The account in the Manual of Buddhism, p. 200, of the king's preparation to meet his son, bears the appearance of a late date, and in exaggeration surpasses all we find in the Northern books.

220:1 That is, whether religion required a greeting first from him, the father.

220:2 An Arhat or distinguished saint.

220:3 Without any summons.

220:4 I supply this (as in many other cases); in the text we are without direction when and where to bring in these explanatory phrases,

221:1 This translation is doubtful; there is some question as to the correct reading.

221:2 Buddha is often called 'the golden mountain,' and in this particular, as in many others, there is in Buddhism a marked resemblance with traditions known among primitive races; Bel, for example, is called 'the great mountain.'

221:3 That is, as I understand it, to move his father's mind. It may be understood, however, in the sense of carrying out his own purpose.

222:1 Here we have an account of the grotesque miracles that distinguish this part of the narrative in all Northern Buddhist books; see Romantic Legend, p. 352.

222:2 This is probably the twin-miracle (yamaka-pâtihâriyan) referred to by Mr. Rhys Davids, Birth Stories, p. 105 n.

222:3 That is, of the relative duties of father and son.

222:4 This phrase, 'the way of sweet dew,' I can only restore to 'the p. 223 way of immortality;' of course it means 'immortality' (amritam) according to Buddhist ideas, that is, Nirvâna. Childers tells us that 'Buddhaghosa says that Nirvâna is called amata, because not being born it does not decay or die' (Pâli Dict., sub amatam). This definition of Nirvâna is the usual one found in Chinese books, that state which admits 'neither of birth nor death.'

223:1 Referring to the three inferior kinds of birth, as a beast, a preta, or in hell.

224:1 The 'fourth birth' would be as 'a man;' but it may refer here to birth as 'a Deva.'

224:2 That is, in the 'four truths.'

225:1 That is, the oath to become enlightened and a deliverer.

226:1 That is, to become mendicants, or religious followers of Buddha.

226:2 The conversion of Nanda &c. is referred to in Spence Hardy's Manual of Buddhism, p. 227. I have restored Kin-pi to Kimbila from this authority, p. 228. Perhaps also in the. Romantic Legend, p. 386, it ought to have been so restored.

226:3 Kun-ka-to-na. I do not remember having met with this name before. It may be meant for Khandaka, see Schiefner, 'Lebensbeschreibung Sâkyamuni's,' p. 266.

227:1 Or, living in peaceful prosecution of his work.

227:2 Or it may be 'shoulder to shoulder.'

228:1 The glory of his person within and without, together, like a mass of light.

228:2 Compassion and joy.

228:3 That is, they wept for pity and for joy.

228:4 Manifesting religious uprightness or rectitude.

228:5 This appears to be a Chinese phrase, adapted perhaps from some expression in the Sanskrit original signifying 'supreme power.'

229:1 I. e. her life of widowhood.

230:1 Little desire.

Next: Varga 20. Receiving the Getavana Vihâra