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The king now suppressing (regulating) his grief, urged an his great teacher and chief minister, as one urges on with whip a ready horse, to hasten onwards as the rapid stream; . 665

Whilst they fatigued, yet with unflagging effort, come to the place of the sorrow-giving grove; then laying on one side the five outward marks 1 of dignity and regulating well their outward gestures, . 666

They entered the Brahmans' quiet hermitage, and paid reverence to the Rishis. They, on their part, begged them to be seated, and repeated the law for their peace and comfort. . 667

Then forthwith they addressed the Rishis and said: 'We have on our minds a subject on which we would ask (for advice). There is one who is called Suddhodana râga, a descendant of the famous Ikshvâku family, . 668

'We are his teacher and his minister, who instruct him in the sacred books as required. The king indeed is like Indra (for dignity); his son, like Ke-yan-to (Gayanta), . 669

'In order to escape old age, disease, and death, has become a hermit, and depends on this; on his account have we come hither, with a view to let your worships know of this.' . 670

Replying, they said: 'With respect to this youth,.

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has he long arms and the signs of a great man? Surely he is the one who, enquiring into our practice, discoursed so freely on the matter of life and death. . 671

'He has gone to the abode of Arâda, to seek for a complete mode of escape.' Having received this certain information, respectfully considering the urgent commands of the anxious king, . 672

They dared not hesitate in their undertaking, but straightway took the road and hastened on. Then seeing the wood in which the royal prince dwelt, and him, deprived of all outward marks of dignity, . 673

His body still glorious with lustrous shining, as when the sun comes forth from the black cloud 1; then the religious teacher of the country and the great minister holding to the true law, . 674

Put off from them their courtly dress, and descending from the chariot gradually advanced, like the royal Po-ma-ti (? Bharata) and the Rishi Vasishtha, . 675

Went through the woods and forests, and seeing the royal prince Râma, each according to his own prescribed manner, paid him reverence, as he advanced to salute him; . 676

Or as Sukra, in company with Aṅgiras, with earnest heart paid reverence, and sacrificed to Indra râga. . 677

Then the royal prince in return paid reverence to the . royal teacher and the great minister, as the divine Indra placed at their ease Sukra and Aṅgiras; . 678

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Then, at his command, the two men seated themselves before the prince, as Pou-na (Punarvasû) and Pushya, the twin stars attend beside the moon; . 679

Then the Purohita and the great minister respectfully explained to the royal prince, even as Pi-li-po-ti (Brihaspati) spoke to that Gayanta: . 680

'Your royal father, thinking of the prince, is pierced in heart, as with an iron point; his mind distracted, raves in solitude; he sleeps upon the dusty ground; . 681

'By night and day he adds to his sorrowful reflections; his tears flow down like the incessant rain; and now to seek you out, he has sent us hither. Would that you would listen with attentive mind; . 682

'We know that you delight to act religiously; it is certain, then, without a doubt, this is not the time for you to be a hermit (to enter the forest wilds); a feeling of deep pity consumes our heart! . 683

'You, if you be indeed, moved by religion, ought to feel some pity for our case; let your kindly feelings flow abroad, to comfort us who are worn at heart; . 684

'Let not the tide of sorrow and of sadness completely overwhelm the outlets of our heart; as the torrents (which roll down) the grassy mountains; or the calamities of tempest, fiery heat, and lightning; . 685

'For so the grieving heart has these four sorrows, turmoil and drought; passion and overthrow. But come! return to your native place, the time will arrive when you can go forth again as a recluse. . 686

'But now to disregard your family duties, to turn against father and mother, how can this be called

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love and affection? that love which overshadows and embraces all. . 687

'Religion requires not the wild solitudes; you can practise a hermit's duties in your home; studiously thoughtful, diligent in expedients, this is to lead a hermit's life in truth. . 688

A shaven head, and garments soiled with dirt,--to wander by yourself through desert wilds,--this is but to encourage constant fears, and cannot be rightly called "an awakened hermit's (life)." . 689

'Would rather we might take you by the hand, and sprinkle 1water on your head, and crown you with a heavenly diadem, and place you underneath a flowery canopy, . 690

'That all eyes might gaze with eagerness upon you; after this, in truth, we would leave our home with joy. The former kings Teou-lau-ma (Druma?), A-neou-ke-o-sa (Anugasa or Anudâsa), . 691

'Po-ke-lo-po-yau (Vagrabâhu), Pi-po-to-’an-ti (Vaibhrâga), Pi-ti-o-ke-na (Vatâgana?), Na-lo-sha-po-lo (Narasavara?), . 692

'All these several kings refused not the royal crown, the jewels, and the ornaments of person; their hands and feet were adorned with gems, . 693

'Around them were women to delight and please, these things they cast not from them, for the sake of escape; you then may also come back home, and undertake both necessary duties 2; . 694

'Your mind prepare itself in higher law, whilst for the sake of earth you wield the sceptre; let there be no more weeping, but comply with what we say, and let us publish it; . 695

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'And having published it with your authority, then you may return and receive respectful welcome. Your father and your mother, for your sake, in grief shed tears like the great ocean; . 696

'Having no stay and no dependence now--no source from which the Sâkya stem may grow--you ought, like the captain of the ship, to bring it safely across to a place of safety. . 697

'The royal prince Pi-san-ma, as also Lo-me-po-ti, they respectfully attended to the command of their father, you also should do the same! . 698

'Your loving mother who cherished you so kindly, with no regard for self, through years of care, as the cow deprived of her calf, weeps and laments, forgetting to eat or sleep; . 699

'You surely ought to return to her at once, to protect her life from evil; as a solitary bird, away from its fellows, or as the lonely elephant, wandering through the jungle, . 700

'Losing the care of their young, ever think of protecting and defending them, so you the only child, young and defenceless, not knowing what you do, bring trouble and solicitude; . 701

'Cause, then, this sorrow to dissipate itself; as one who rescues the moon 1 from being devoured, so do you reassure the men and women of the land, and remove from them the consuming grief, . 702

'(And suppress) the sighs that rise like breath to heaven, which cause the darkness that obscures their sight; seeking you, as water, to quench the fire, the fire quenched, their eyes shall open.' . 703

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Bodhisattva, hearing of his father the king, experienced the greatest distress of mind, and sitting still, gave himself to reflection; and then, in due course, replied respectfully: . 704

'I know indeed that my royal father is possessed of a loving and deeply 1 considerate mind, but my fear of birth, old age, disease, and death has led me to disobey, and disregard his extreme kindness. . 705

'Whoever neglects right consideration about his present life, and because he hopes to escape in the end, therefore disregards all precautions (in the present), on this man comes the inevitable doom of death. . 706

'It is the knowledge of this, therefore, that weighs . with me, and after long delay has constrained me to a hermit's life; hearing of my father, the king, and his grief, my heart is affected with increased love; . 707

But yet, all is like the fancy of a dream, quickly reverting to nothingness. Know then, without fear of contradiction, that the nature of existing things is not uniform; . 708

'The cause of sorrow is not necessarily  2 the relationship of child with parent, but that which produces the pain of separation, results from the influence of delusion 3; . 709

'As men going along a road suddenly meet mid-way with others, and then a moment more are separated, each one going his own way 4, . 710

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'So by the force of concomitance, relationships are framed, and then, according to each one's destiny 1, there is separation; he who thoroughly investigates this false connection of relationship ought not to cherish in himself grief; . 711

'In this world there is rupture of family love, in another life (world) it is sought for again; brought together for a moment, again rudely divided 2, everywhere the fetters of kindred are formed 3! . 712

'Ever being bound, and ever being loosened! who can sufficiently lament such constant separations; born into the world 4, and then gradually changing, constantly separated by death and then born again. . 713

'All things which exist in time must perish 5, the forests and mountains all things thus exist 6; in time are born all sensuous things (things possessing the five desires), so is it both with worldly substance 7 and with time. . 714

'Because, then, death pervades all time, get rid of death 8, and time will disappear. You desire to

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make me king, and it is difficult to resist the offices of love; . 715

'But as a disease (is difficult to bear) without medicine, so neither can I bear (this weight of dignity); in every condition, high or low, we find folly and ignorance, (and men) carelessly following the dictates of lustful passion; . 716

'At last, we come 1 to live in constant fear; thinking anxiously of the outward form, the spirit droops; following the ways of men  2, the mind resists the right 3; but, the conduct of the wise is not so. . 717

'The sumptuously ornamented 4 and splendid palace (I look upon) as filled with fire; the hundred dainty dishes (tastes) of the divine kitchen, as mingled with destructive poisons; . 718

'The lily growing on the tranquil lake, in its midst harbours countless noisome insects; and so the towering abode of the rich is the house of calamity; the wise will not dwell therein. . 719

'In former times illustrious kings, seeing the many crimes of their home and country, affecting as with poison the dwellers therein, in sorrowful disgust sought comfort in seclusion 5; . 720

'We know, therefore, that the troubles of a royal estate are not to be compared with the repose of a religious life; far better dwell in the wild mountains 6, and eat the herbs like the beasts of the field; . 721

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'Therefore I dare not dwell in the wide 1 palace, for the black snake has its dwelling there. I reject the kingly estate and the five desires [desires of the senses], to escape such sorrows I wander thro’ the mountain wilds. . 722

'This, then, would be the consequence of compliance, that I; who, delighting in religion, am gradually getting wisdom 2, should now quit these quiet woods, and returning home, partake of sensual pleasures, . 723

'And thus by night and day increase 3 my store of misery. Surely this is not what should be done! that the great leader of an illustrious tribe, having left his home from love of religion, . 724

'And for ever turned his back upon tribal honour 4, desiring to confirm his purpose as a leader 5,--that he,--discarding outward form, clad in religious garb, loving religious meditation, wandering thro’ the wilds,-- 725

'Should now reject his hermit vestment, tread down his sense of proper shame (and give up his aim). This, though I gained heaven's kingly state, cannot be done! how much less to gain an earthly, though distinguished 6, home! . 726

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'For having spued forth lust, passion, and ignorance, shall I return to feed upon it? as a man might go back to his vomit! such misery, how could I bear? . 727

'Like a man whose house has caught fire, by some expedient finds a way to escape, will such a man forthwith go back and enter it again? such conduct would disgrace a man 1! . 728

'So I, beholding the evils, birth, old age, and death, to escape the misery, have become a hermit; shall I then go back and enter in, and like a fool dwell in their company? . 729

'He who enjoys a royal estate and yet seeks rescue 2, cannot dwell thus, this is no place for him; escape (rescue) is born from quietness and rest; to be a king is to add distress and poison; . 730

'To seek for rest and yet aspire to royal condition is but a contradiction, royalty and rescue, motion and rest, like fire and water, having two principles 3, cannot be united. . 731

'So one resolved to seek escape cannot abide possessed of kingly dignity! and if you say a man may be a king 4, and at the same time prepare deliverance for himself, 732}

'There is no certainty in this 5! to seek certain

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escape is not to risk it thus 1; it is through this uncertain frame of mind that once a man gone forth is led to go back home again; . 733

'But I, my mind is not uncertain 2; severing the baited hook 3 of relationship, with straightforward purpose 4, I have left my home. Then tell me, why should I return again?' . 734

The great minister, inwardly reflecting, (thought), 'The mind of the royal prince, my master 5, is full of wisdom, and agreeable to virtue 6, what he says is reasonable and fitly framed 7.' . 735

Then he addressed the prince and said: 'According to what your highness states, he who seeks religion must seek it rightly; but this is not the fitting time (for you); . 736

'Your royal father, old and of declining years, thinking of you his son, adds grief to grief; you say indeed, "I find my joy in rescue. To go back would be apostacy 8." . 737

'But yet your joy denotes unwisdom 9, and argues want of deep reflection; you do not see, because you seek the fruit, how vain to give up present duty 10. . 738

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'There are some who say, There is "hereafter 1;" others there are who say, "Nothing hereafter." So whilst this question hangs in suspense, why should a man give up his present pleasure? . 739

'If perchance there is "hereafter," we ought to bear (patiently) what it brings 2; if you say, "Hereafter is not 3," then there is not either rescue (salvation)! . 740

'If you say, "Hereafter is," you would not say, "Salvation causes it 4." As earth is hard, or fire is hot, or water moist, or wind is mobile, . 741

'"Hereafter" is just so. It has its own distinct nature. So when we speak of pure and impure, each comes from its own distinctive nature. . 742

'If you should say, "By some contrivance this can be removed," such an opinion argues folly. Every root within the moral world 5 (world or domain of conduct) has its own nature predetermined; . 743

'Loving remembrance and forgetfulness, these have their nature fixed and positive; so likewise

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age, disease, and death, these sorrows, who can escape by strategy 1? (contrivance, upâya). . 744

'If you say, "Water can put out fire," or "Fire can cause water to boil and pass away," (then this proves only that) distinctive natures may be mutually destructive; but nature in harmony produces living things; . 745

'So man when first conceived within the womb, his hands, his feet, and all his separate members, his spirit and his understanding, of themselves are perfected; but who is he who does it? . 746

'Who is he that points the prickly thorn? This too is nature, self-controlling 2. And take again the different kinds of beasts, these are what they are, without desire (on their part 3); . 747

'And so, again, the heaven-born beings, whom the self-existent (Isvara) rules 4, and all the world of his creation; these have no self-possessed power of expedients; . 748

'For if they had a means of causing birth, there would be also (means) for controlling death, and then what need of self-contrivance, or seeking for deliverance? . 749

'There are those who say, "I 5" (the soul) is the cause of birth, and others who affirm, "I" (the soul) is the cause of death. There are some who say,

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[paragraph continues] "Birth comes from nothingness, and without any plan of ours we perish 1:" . 750

'Thus one is born a fortunate child, removed from poverty, of noble family, or learned in testamentary lore of Rishis, or called to offer mighty sacrifices to the gods, . 751

'Born in either state, untouched by poverty, then their famous name becomes to them "escape," their virtues handed down by name to us 2; yet if these attained their happiness (found deliverance), . 752

'Without contrivance of their own, how vain and fruitless is the toil of those who seek "escape." And you, desirous of deliverance, purpose to practise some high expedient, . 753

'Whilst your royal father frets and sighs; for a short while you have assayed the road, and leaving home have wandered thro’ the wilds, to return then would not now be wrong; . 754

'Of old, king Ambarîsha for a long while dwelt in the grievous forest, leaving his retinue and all his kinsfolk, but afterwards returned and took the royal office; . 755

'And so Râma, son of the king of the country, leaving his country occupied the mountains, but hearing he was acting contrary to usage 3, returned 4 and governed righteously. . 756

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'And so the king of Sha-lo-po, called To-lo-ma (Druma) 1, father and son, both wandered forth as hermits, but in the end came back again together; . 757

'So Po-’sz-tsau Muni (Vasishtha?), with On-tai-tieh (Âtreya?), in the wild mountains practising as Brahmakârins, these too returned to their own country. . 758

'Thus all these worthies of a by-gone age, famous for their advance in true religion, came back home and royally governed, as lamps enlightening the world. . 759

'Wherefore for you to leave the mountain wilds, religiously to rule, is not a crime.' The royal prince, listening to the great minister, loving words without excess of speaking, . 760

Full of sound argument, clear and unconfused, with no desire to wrangle after the way of the schools, with fixed purpose, deliberately speaking, thus answered the great minister: . 761

'The question of being and not-being is an idle one, only adding to the uncertainty of an unstable mind, and to talk of such matters I have no strong (fixed) inclination 2; . 762

'Purity of life, wisdom, the practice of asceticism 3, these are matters to which I earnestly apply myself 4, the world is full of empty studies (discoveries) which our teachers in their office skilfully involve; . 763

'But they are without any true principle, and I

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will none of them! The enlightened man distinguishes truth from falsehood; but how can truth 1 (faith) be born from such as those? . 764

'For they are like the man born blind, leading the blind man as a guide; as in the night, as in thick darkness [both wander on], what recovery is there for them? . 765

Regarding the question of the pure and impure, the world involved in self-engendered doubt cannot perceive the truth; better to walk along the way of purity, . 766

Or rather follow the pure law of self-denial, hate the practice of impurity, reflect on what was said of old 2, not obstinate in one belief or one tradition, . 767

'With sincere (empty) mind, accepting all true words, and ever banishing sinful sorrow (i.e. sin, the cause of grief). Words which exceed sincerity (simplicity of purpose) are vainly (falsely) spoken; the wise man uses not such words. . 768

As to what you say of Râma and the rest, leaving their home, practising a pure life, and then returning to their country, and once more mixing themselves in sensual pleasures, . 769

'Such men as these walk vainly; those who are wise place no dependence on them. Now, for your sakes, permit me, briefly, to recount this one true principle (i.e. purpose) (of action): . 770

"The sun, the moon may fall to earth, Sumeru and all the snowy mountains overturn, but I will never change my purpose; rather than enter a forbidden place, . 771

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'"Let me be cast into the fierce fire; not to accomplish rightly (what I have entered on), and to return once more to my own land, there to enter the fire of the five desires, . 772

'"Let it befall me as my own oath records:"--so spake the prince, his arguments as pointed as the brightness of the perfect sun; then rising up he passed some distance off.' . 773

The Purohita and the minister, their words and discourse prevailing nothing, conversed together, after which, resolving to depart on their return, . 774

With great respect they quietly inform 1 the prince, not daring to intrude their presence on him further; and yet regarding the king's commands, not willing to return with unbecoming haste, . 775

They loitered quietly along the way, and whomsoever they encountered, selecting those who seemed like wise men, they interchanged such thoughts as move the learned, . 776

Hiding their true position, as men of title; then passing on, they speeded on their way.


94:1 The five marks of dignity were the distinguishing robes of their office.

95:1 The character which I have translated 'black' is which also means 'a crow.'

97:1 I have here substituted for .

97:2 That is, the duties of religion and also of the state.

98:1 Referring to an eclipse of the moon.

99:1 Or, as we should say, 'of deep consideration.'

99:2 Or, does not necessarily exist either in child or parent.

99:3 Delusion is here equivalent to 'moha.'

99:4 This line may be more literally translated 'each one acting for himself according to his own purpose.' The words run thus, 'opposite purpose, private, of himself.'

100:1 The word for 'destiny' is li; it means the 'reason' or 'rule of action.'

100:2 Or, separated in opposite directions.

100:3 In every place (place-place) there is no (place) without relationships.

100:4 From the moment of conception (placed in the womb) gradually changing.

100:5 All things (in) time have death.

100:6 The text is very curt, 'mountains, forests, what (is there) without time.'

100:7 Seeking wealth (in?) time, even thus;' or, 'Seeking wealth and time, are even thus.'

100:8 'Exclude the laws of death (sse fă), there will be no time.'

101:1 In the end the body (that is, the person) ever fearful.'

101:2 Following the multitude.

101:3 The heart opposes religion (fă).

101:4 The seven-jewelled, beautiful palace hall.

101:5 Became hermits.

101:6 In the mountains. I take 'lin' in the expression 'shan lin' in this and other passages to be the sign of the plural. It corresponds p. 103 with 'vana' so used in other languages (the Sinhalese, according to Childers).

102:1 The wide or deep palace seems to refer to the well-guarded and secure condition of a royal abode.

102:2 Am gradually increasing enlightenment.

102:3 Here the increase of sorrow is contrasted with the increase of wisdom, in the previous verse.

102:4 Or, on his honourable, or renowned, tribe.

102:5 Here the word leader (kang fu) refers to a religious leader, in contrast with a leader of a tribe, or family.

102:6 There seems to be a fine and delicate sarcasm in these words.

103:1 'How would such a man be not accounted insignificant (tim, a dot or spot).

103:2 I have translated 'kiai tuh,' rescue; it means rescue from sorrow, or deliverance in the sense of salvation.

103:3 Two, or different, principles (li).

103:4 A man may occupy a kingly estate.

103:5 This is still opposed to certainty; or, this cannot be established.

104:1 Certain escape, or certainty in escape, is not thus.

104:2 But now I have attained to certainty.

104:3 That is, taking the bait off the hook of relationship; the love of kindred is the bait.

104:4 Using a right (or straight) expedient (upâya).

104:5 The purpose of the prince, the master (kang fu).

104:6 Deep in knowledge, virtuously accordant.

104:7 Or, has reasonable sequence (cause and effect).

104:8 Fi-fă, opposed to religion; or, a revulsion from religion.

104:9 Although you rejoice, it comes forth from no-wisdom.

104:10 This is a free rendering; the original is, 'in fă kwan,' which means 'present religious consideration.'

105:1 A discussion now begins as to the certainty or otherwise of 'a hereafter;' the words in the text which I have translated 'hereafter,' are 'heou shai,' i.e. after world. The phrase seems to correspond with the Pâli 'paro loko,' as in the sentence, 'N’ ev’ atthi na n’ atthi paro loko' (see Childers' Pâli Dict., sub voce na).

105:2 We ought to trust it, whatever it is.

105:3 These two lines may also be translated thus, 'If you say the after world is nothingness, then nothingness is also rescue (from the present world).'

105:4 This seems to mean that if we say there is another world, we cannot mean that escape from the present world is the cause of the future. Literally and word for word, 'Not-say-escape-the cause.'

105:5 'The word 'root' here means 'sense.' The sentence seems to mean 'every sense united with its object,'

106:1 The word translated 'strategy' is of very frequent occurrence. It means contrivance, use of means to an end.

106:2 Tsz’ in, 'of itself.'

106:3 This line seems to mean that these beasts are made, or come into being, without desire on their part.

106:4 I have supposed that the symbol in the text is for , but the first symbol may be retained, and then the passage would mean 'whom the self-existent made.'

106:5 The word 'I' here seems to mean 'the self,' or, the soul.

107:1 I have taken the symbol 'iu' here in the sense of 'without,' like the Latin 'careo.'

107:2 The sense seems to be that the great name and renown of such persons handed down through successive generations is 'salvation' or 'deliverance;' no t the reward of another world, but the immortal character of their good deeds in this.

107:3 So I translate the expression 'fung-tsuh-li,' usage-separation.

107:4 There is a symbol here which may denote the name of the p. 108 place to which he returned; 'wei' is often used in the composition of proper names, especially those ending in 'vastu.'

108:1 Drumâksha, king of the Sâlvas.

108:2 = upâdâna.

108:3 Or, purely and wisely to practise self-denial (mortification).

108:4 Or, these are the certainties I for myself know.

109:1 The word 'sin' may mean faith or truth.

109:2 Consider what has been handed down.

110:1 They breathe it to the prince.

Next: Varga 10. Bimbasâra Râga Invites The Prince