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The prince having dismissed Kandaka, as he entered the Rishis' abode, his graceful body brightly

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shining, lit up on every side the forest 'place of suffering;' . 495

Himself gifted with every excellence (Siddhârtha), according to his gifts, so were they reflected. As the lion, the king of beasts, when he enters among the herd of beasts, . 496

Drives from their minds all thoughts of common things 1, as now they watch the true form of their kind 2, so those Rishi masters assembled there, suddenly perceiving the miraculous portent 3, . 497

Were struck with awe and fearful gladness 4, as they gazed with earnest eyes and hands conjoined. The men and women too, engaged in various occupations, beholding him, with unchanged attitudes, . 498

Gazed as the gods look on king Sakra, with constant look and eyes unmoved; so the Rishis, with their feet fixed fast, looked at him even thus; . 499

Whatever in their hands they held, without releasing it, they stopped and looked; even as the ox when yoked to the wain, his body bound, his mind also restrained; . 500

So also the followers of the holy Rishis, each called the other to behold the miracle. The peacocks and the other birds with cries commingled flapped their wings; . 501

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The Brahmakârins holding the rules of deer 1, following the deer wandering through mountain glades, (as the) deer coarse of nature, with flashing eyes [shen shih], regard (or see) the prince with fixed gaze; . 502

So following the deer, those Brahmakârins intently gaze likewise, looking at the exceeding glory of the Ikshvâku. As the glory of the rising sun . 503

Is able to affect the herds of milch kine, so as to increase the quantity of their sweet-scented milk, so those Brahmakârins, with wondrous joy, thus spoke .one to the other: . 504

'Surely this is one of the eight Vasu Devas 2;' others, 'this is one of the two Asvins 3;' others, 'this is Mâra 4;' others, 'this is one of the 5 Brahmakâyikas;' . 505

Others, 'this is Sûryadeva 6 or Kandradeva, coming down; are they not seeking here a sacrifice which is their due? Come let us haste to offer our religious services!' . 506

The prince, on his part, with respectful mien addressed to them polite salutation. Then Bodhisattva, looking with care in every direction on the Brahmakârins occupying the wood, . 507

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Each engaged in his religious duties, all desirous of the delights of heaven, addressed the senior Brahmakârin, and asked him as to the path of true religion 1. . 508

'Now having but just come here, I do not yet know the rules of your religious life. I ask you therefore for information, and I pray explain to me what I ask.' . 509

On this that twice-born (Brahman) in reply explained in succession all the modes of painful discipline, and the fruits expected as their result. . 510

(How some ate) nothing brought from inhabited places (villages) 2, (but) that produced from pure water, (others) edible roots and tender twigs, (others) fruits and flowers fit for food, . 511

Each according to the rules of his sect, clothing and food in each case different, some living amongst bird-kind, and like them capturing and eating food; . 512

Others eating as the deer the grass (and herbs); others living like serpents, inhaling air; others eating nothing pounded in wood or stone; some eating with two teeth, till a wound be formed; . 513

Others, again, begging their food and giving it in charity, taking only the remnants for themselves; others, again, who let water continually drip on their heads and those who offer up with fire; . 514

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Others who practise water-dwelling like fish 1; thus there are (he said) Brahmakârins of every sort, who practise austerities, that they may at the end of life obtain a birth in heaven, . 515

And by their present sufferings afterwards obtain peaceable fruit. The lord of men 2, the excellent master, hearing all their modes of sorrow-producing penance, . 516

Not perceiving any element of truth in them, experienced no joyful emotion in his heart; lost in thought, he regarded the men with pity, and with his heart in agreement his mouth thus spake: . 517

'Pitiful indeed are such sufferings! and merely n quest of a human or heavenly reward 3, ever revolving in the cycle of birth or death, how great your sufferings, how small the recompence! . 518

'Leaving your friends, giving up honourable position; with a firm purpose to obtain the joys of heaven, although you may escape little sorrows, yet in the end involved in great sorrow; . 519

'Promoting the destruction of your outward form, and undergoing every kind of painful penance, and yet seeking to obtain another birth; increasing and prolonging the causes of the five desires, . 520

'Not considering that herefrom (result repeated) birth and death, undergoing suffering and, by that, seeking further suffering; thus it is that the world of men, though dreading the approach of death, . 521

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'Yet strive after renewed birth; and being thus born, they must die again. Altho’ still dreading (the power of) suffering, yet prolonging their stay in the sea of pain: . 522

'Disliking from their heart their present kind of life, yet still striving incessantly after other life; enduring affliction that they may partake of joy; seeking a birth in heaven, to suffer further trouble; . 523

'Seeking joys, whilst the heart sinks with feebleness. For this is so with those who oppose right reason; they cannot but be cramped and poor at heart. But by earnestness and diligence, then we conquer. . 524

'Walking in the path of true wisdom, letting go both extremes 1, we then reach ultimate perfection; to mortify the body, (if) this is religion, 2 then to enjoy rest, is something not resulting from religion. . 525

'To walk religiously and afterwards to receive happiness, this is to make the fruit of religion something different from religion; but bodily exercise is but the cause of death, strength results alone from the mind's intention; . 526

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'If you remove (from conduct) the purpose of the mind, the bodily act is but as rotten wood; wherefore, regulate the mind, and then the body will spontaneously go right. . 527

'(You say that) to eat pure things is a cause of religious merit, but the wild beasts and the children of poverty ever feed on these fruits and medicinal herbs; these then ought to gain much religious merit. . 528

'But if you say that the heart being good then bodily suffering is the cause of further merit, (then I ask) why may not those who walk (live) in ease, also possess a virtuous heart? . 529

'If joys are opposed to a virtuous heart, a virtuous heart may also be opposed to bodily suffering; if, for instance, all those heretics profess purity because they use water (in various ways), . 530

'Then those who thus use water among men, even with a wicked mind (karma), yet ought ever to be pure. But if righteousness is the groundwork of a Rishi's purity, then the idea of a sacred spot as his dwelling, . 531

'Being the cause of his righteousness (is wrong). What is reverenced, should be known and seen 1. Reverence indeed is due to righteous conduct, but let it not redound to the place (or, mode of life).' . 532

Thus speaking at large on religious questions, they went on till the setting sun. He then beheld their rites in connection with sacrifice to fire, the drilling (for sparks) and the fanning into flame, . 533

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Also the sprinkling of the butter libations, also the chanting of the mystic prayers, till the sun went down. The prince considering these acts, . 534

Could not perceive the right reason of them, and was now desirous to turn and go. Then all those Brahmakârins came together to him to request him to stay; . 535

Regarding with reverence the dignity of Bodhisattva, very desirous, they earnestly besought him: 'You have come from an irreligious place, to this wood where true religion flourishes, . 536

'And yet, now, you wish to go away; we beg you, then, on this account, to stay.' All the old Brahmakârins, with their twisted hair and bark clothes, . 537

Came following after Bodhisattva, asking him as a god 1 to stay a little while. Bodhisattva seeing these aged ones following him, their bodies worn with macerations, 538.

Stood still and rested beneath a tree; and soothing them, urged them to return. Then all the Brahmakârins, young and old, surrounding him, made their request with joined hands: . 539

'You who have so unexpectedly arrived here, amid these garden glades so full 2 of attraction, why now are you leaving them and going away, to seek perfection in the wilderness? . 540

'As a man loving (long) life, is unwilling to let go his body, so we are even thus; would that you would stop awhile. . 541

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'This is a spot where Brahmans and Rishis have ever dwelt, royal Rishis and heavenly Rishis, these all have dwelt within these woods. The places on the borders of the snowy mountains, . 542

'Where men of high birth 1 undergo their penance, those places are not to be compared to this. All the body of learned masters from this place have reached heaven; . 543

'All the learned Rishis who have sought religious merit, have from this place and northwards (found it), those who have attained a knowledge of the true law, and gained divine wisdom come not from southwards; . 544

'If you indeed see us remiss and not earnest enough, practising rules not pure, and on that account are not pleased to stay, . 545

'Then we are the ones that ought to go; you can still remain and dwell here, all these different Brahmakârins ever desire to find companions in their penances. . 546

'And you, because you are conspicuous for your religious earnestness, should not so quickly cast away their society: if you can remain here, they will honour you as god Sakra, . 547

'Yea! as the Devas pay worship to Brihaspati 2 (or, Virudhakapati).' Then Bodhisattva answered the Brahmakârins and told them what his desires were: . 548

'I am seeking for a true method of escape, I desire solely to destroy all mundane influences; but you, with strong hearts, practise your rules as ascetics, . 549

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'And pay respectful attention to such visitors as may come. My heart indeed is moved with affection towards you, for pleasant conversation is agreeable to all, those who listen are affected thereby; . 550

'And so hearing your words, my mind is strengthened in religious feeling; you indeed have all paid me much respect, in agreement with the courtesy of your religious profession; . 551

'But now I am constrained to depart, my heart grieves thereat exceedingly, first of all, having left my own kindred, and now about to be separated from you. . 552

'The pain of separation from associates, this pain is as great as the other, it is impossible for my mind not to grieve, as it is not to see others' faults 1. . 553

'But you, by suffering pain, desire earnestly to obtain the joys of birth in heaven; whilst I desire to escape from the three worlds, and therefore I give up what my reason (mind) tells me must be ejected 2. . 554

'The law which you practise, you inherit from the deeds of former teachers, but I, desiring to destroy all combination (accumulation), seek a law which admits of no such accident. . 555

'And therefore I cannot in this grove delay for a longer while in fruitless discussions.' At this time all the Brahmakârins, hearing the words spoken by Bodhisattva, . 556

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Words full of right reason and truth, very excellent in the distinction of principles, their hearts rejoiced and exulted greatly, and deep feelings of reverence were excited within them. . 557

At this time there was one Brahmakârin, who always slept in the dust, with tangled hair and raiment of the bark of trees, his eyes bleared (yellow), preparing himself in an ascetic practice (called) 'high-nose 1.' . 558

This one addressed Bodhisattva in the following words: 'Strong in will! bright in wisdom! firmly fixed in resolve to escape (pass beyond) the limits of birth, knowing that in escape from birth there alone is rest, . 559

'Not affected by any desire after heavenly blessedness, the mind set upon, the eternal destruction of the body (bodily form), you are indeed miraculous in appearance, (as you are) alone in the possession of such a mind. . 560

'To sacrifice to the gods, and to practise every kind of austerity, all this is designed to secure a birth in heaven, but here there is no mortification of selfish desire, . 561

'There is still a selfish personal aim; but to bend the will to seek final escape, this is indeed the work of a true teacher, this is the aim of an enlightened master; . 562

'This place is no right halting-place for you, you ought to proceed to Mount Pinda (Pândava), there dwells a great Muni, whose name is A-lo-lam (Arâda Râma). . 563

'He only has reached the end (of religious aims), the most excellent eye (of the law). Go therefore

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to the place where he dwells, and listen there to the true exposition of the law. . 564

'This will make your heart rejoice, as you learn to follow the precepts of his system. As for me, beholding the joy of your resolve, and fearing that I shall not obtain rest, . 565

'I must once more let go (dismiss) those following me, and seek other disciples; straighten my head (nose) and gaze with my full eyes; anoint my lips and cleanse my teeth, . 566

'Cover my shoulders and make bright my face, smooth my tongue and make it pliable. Thus, O excellently marked, sir! fully drinking (at the fountain of) the water you give (glorious water) 1, . 567

'I shall escape from the unfathomable depths. In the world nought is comparable to this, that which old men and Rishis have not known, that shall (I) 2 know and obtain: . 568

Bodhisattva having listened to these words, left the company of the Rishis, whilst they all, turning round him to the right, returned to their place. . 569


71:1 That is, expels the recollection of all inferior shapes or forms.

71:2 'The true form of their kind,' I here take to be equal to the 'way of birth.'

71:3 'The miracle,' .

71:4 'Fearful gladness,' .

72:1 Is this a name of a sect of Brahman ascetics? holding-deer-rules.

72:2 the eight Vasus.

72:3 .

72:4 'Literally, 'the sixth Mâra,' i.e. 'Mâra of the sixth heaven,' or Mâra who rules over the six heavens of the Kâmaloka.

72:5 .

72:6 The sun Devaputra, or the moon Devaputra.

73:1 Or, 'an aged Brahmakârin:' here we have the expression 'Khang suh,' , for 'aged' (as before).

73:2 Literally, 'opposed to village coming out,' or, 'that which comes out of ( ) villages.'

74:1 That is, as I understand it, Rishis who live in water like fish. In the former case the 'air-inhaling snake Rishi' would be Rishis who endeavour to live on air like the boa.

74:2 'The lord of two-footed creatures,' i.e. of men.

74:3 Gin-tien po; if it had been tien-gin po, it would have simply meant 'a heavenly reward.'

75:1 This line, which (with the following ones) is obscure, may be literally translated, 'a double letting-go, eternal Nirvâna,' where Nirvâna is in the original . The two extremes are worldly life and ascetic life.

75:2 The word , like dharma, is difficult to translate. It may mean here either 'religion' or 'something formal;' but the idea of the whole verse seems to be this, 'if suffering pain is a part of religion, then to enjoy rest is different from religion, therefore to practise religious austerities with the view of afterwards obtaining rest, is to make the fruit of religion something different from, or opposed to, religion itself.'

76:1 This is, as it seems, the meaning of the line, or it may be rendered, 'What is esteemed of weight ought to be seen in the world.'

77:1 The original is ; probably is for .

77:2 I am not sure whether I understand the original, or whether there is not a mistake in the text, which is .

78:1 Tsang-khang gin, .

78:2 Pi-lai-ho.

79:1 This and the previous line might perhaps be better rendered thus, 'A joyless life (absence of joy) is opposed to my disposition, moreover (it is my disposition) not to observe the faults of others.'

79:2 Literally, the form (body) turning from them even as ( ) the mind rejects ( ); or may it be rendered, 'the body giving up, though the mind is still perverse.'

80:1 I.e. raising his nose to look up at the sun.

81:1 This line and the context, again, is obscure. Perhaps is a mistake for , which latter expression may mean the 'sweet dew' (amrita) of Bodhisattva's doctrine.

81:2 Or, that (you know) and will obtain.

Next: Varga 8. The General Grief of the Palace