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Esoteric Teachings of the Tibetan Tantra, by C.A. Musés, [1961], at

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Obeisance to all Gurus!

In obedience to the order of the guardians of Dharma,

I relate these instructions of the initiation ritual of the Green Hayagriva from the Treasury of Percipience2.

On the top of the Food Vase3 one should make a Horse-head of butter,

And adorn it with a colored scarf and the proper jewel ornaments.

If one wishes to make a separate symbol4,

He should prepare a separate figure of the Horsehead mounted upon the complete jewel-like body (of Hayagriva).

This figure should be placed on the Gtor-ma of Initiation.

Besides this, the various offerings should be made and traditional prayers recited as customary in the usual rituals.

As to the process of the Perfecting Device5, one should practice the Yoga of the Bound and Wisdom Buddhas6, also meditate on the Arising Buddha7.

Then practice the inner and outer prayers such as the Three Refuges.

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The (Buddha) in the Vase, the Buddha on the offering's Gtor-ma, and I, we three become instantaneously Vajra, the Horsehead, green in color, with two arms and all the adornments of the wrathful deity. One hand holds a human skull. Above the crowned head8 of Hayagriva a horsehead appears. From the three places shine the three words, and the green Śri word standing on the Sun Disc with the rosary of invocation arranged from left to right (clockwise) encircling the (main seed-word) Śri. From all these words glorious rays of light shine forth in the ten directions. Immediately an innumerable host of green Hayagrivas descend, like rainfall, from the Pure Land of all the Buddhas to this place (of ritual), entering my body and merging with me fully. They also enter into and merge with the symbolic Hayagriva in the Front Vase. By this the Wisdom Buddha is assimilated with (the symbolic) Buddha; the preparation of the guru for the initiation is completed. From the Perfect Buddha's body flows forth a stream of nectar, filling the whole Vase.

Oṃ Hayagriva Hu Lu Hu Lu Hūṃ Pai!

This invocation would be recited not less than one hundred times.

Ah Rgyam!

The King of the Wrathful Deities, the meritorious Horse Lord,

Yells with dreadful voice, as the horse roaring.

This terrible voice subdues all demons and all evils!

To the King of the Wrathful Ones

I render my obeisance and praise!

After this the disciples should gather together and perform the Cleansing Ritual followed by the Mandala offering ritual.

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(The Guru addresses the disciples:)

Now is the time to grant you the initiation of the Green Hayagriva. In the time long past when the Great Bliss-Beyond-Effort, the Lotus Dancing-Master, the Lord Buddha Amida was staying in the Heaven of Aog-min9, a vicious demon named Dregs Byod Tshogs Sprul (prideful actor multitude-conjurer) roamed the worlds (of the Cosmos), committing various evils and doing grievous harm to all sentient beings. Therefore the Lord conjured the Mandala of the Green Hayagriva, and by this subjugated the demon. Whereupon the great Mandala of Hayagriva was elaborated, the Tantra of Hayagriva preached. This caused the king of all demons great distress. In a furious mood, he raised his five burning poisons10 and deranged the Three Kingdoms11. He brought contagious diseases, famine, and war to the world. He destroyed the crops and showered various weapons of destruction upon the earth. At his instigation all the demons displayed dreadful forms; plagues raged, fields were scorched, and great floods covered the corners of the earth. Evil burned continually like furious fire; both the Path of Virtue12 and the Paths of Liberation13 were cut; the minds of the people were oppressed; and all the sentient beings throughout the Six Lokas were thrown into immeasurable misery. Thereupon, the Bhagavan (Amida), from his heart center, sent forth the Mandala of the Wrathful Hayagriva, whereby the demon king was subjugated and bound to observe the Precepts.

By the end of the Kasyapa Buddha's14 time in this Kalpa, the demon king Matram Rutras afflicted all the sentient beings, killing them and eating their corpses. Whereupon the Bhagavan again sent forth the Mandala of Hayagriva,

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transformed in blue, and plunged it into the chest of the demon, cutting him to pieces. After the extinction of the demon, his demon-body became the abode of Hayagriva. Then he was bound by the Precepts and became known as Mahagala, the Guardian of Dharma. At that time, the Tantra of the Manifestation of the Superb Horse was preached. Later on, the Nirmanakaya Buddha, Gotama, preached the Seven Hundred Stanzas of the Enlightenment of Hayagriva.

Because of the numerous lineages of Gurus beginning with Hayagriva, preached in these sources, the well-known saying arose: "The lineages of Hayagriva are as many as the Horsehead's conjuration."

For all the sects of the Red-Cap School, a green Hayagriva in a form with four faces and eight arms was introduced also, as stated in the Tantra of Sambhuda.

This, now, is the history of Hayagriva quoted from the Treasury of Percipience:

When the Living Buddha15 Mi-rgyur-rdo-rje (Immutable Vajra), was eleven years old, he captured entirely by intuition thirteen volumes of the Treasury of Dharma from Heavenly Sources16 within three years. Afterward he also received this one volume of the Treasury of Percipience. Although there was an indication that he might have captured another one hundred volumes from the Treasury of Earth, he did not receive any due to unfavourable influences. His external life was ill-omened. By the age of seventeen, he had completed his work on the Treasury of Percipience. In one of his books of Initiation, this volume was found. As said in the Sutra of the Emerging of Pure Dharma, Chos-yan-dag-par-sbjun pahi-mdo:

"There will come a few Bodhisattvas of pure mind and heart who, merely through the observation of their own

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consciousness, will obtain the inner teachings and the principles of Dharma (the law or nature of reality); from them these inner teachings of Dharma will thence be imparted to the people."

This is evidence that the tradition of the Dharma from Treasury finds support in the Sutras.

Furthermore, the Dharma from Treasury17 is deeper and more profound than the Dharma from Mouth18 (preaching). The Treasury from Heaven19 is more profound than the Treasury from Earth20. Again, the Treasury of Percipience is more profound than the Treasury From Heaven.

The benefits to the devotee who practices the Yoga of Hayagriva were stated in The Manifestation of the Superb Victorious Wrathful Great Horse Tantra:

"To the superb Initiation of the Fierce Hayagriva
 And the victorious Tantra of great value!
 If one surely beholds the initiation and has a fancy for it, he will be emancipated from fear and all diseases.
 Those who practice the Yoga of Hayagriva, their patron Buddha,
 Will be immune for seven hundred births from falling into the lower path and hell.
 Those who have the faith and the pure realization constantly,
 Will in their future life be born in the Pure Land.
 If one recites each word of incantation 100,000 times,
 Right in this life he shall see the face of Hayagriva.
 Even in offering a part of the offerings to the Lord,
 He will influence his surroundings and his neighbors.
 Those who merely recite the incantation frequently
 Will be free from the afflictions caused by evil spirits."

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So it is said in this Sutra.

The Tantra of Proud Master Hayagriva states:

"Those who practice the Yoga of Hayagriva will attain the Common and the Eight Superb Accomplishments. They will also obtain the Four Accomplishments of the Illumination-Holding21 (Yogi). He who does this will likewise attain the Three Bodies, the Four Bodies, the Five Bodies, and so on. He will also attain the Accomplishment of Mahamudra."

The Secret Wrathful Hayagriva Tantra declares as follows:

"When it comes near to the Ending-Time22
 The Tantric Yogis who desire to perform the inner invocation practice
 Will be able to protect themselves from disease and harm
 If they invoke this profound ritual.
 Whatever intention they have in mind,
 Whatever act they wish to perform,
 If they visualize the body of Hayagriva clearly,
 No one will be able to oppose or afflict them.
 For the armor of Śūnyatā23 is unparalleled,
 This is the King of all Protections."
 The Precious One, Padma Sambhava, also said:
 "Whoever has obtained the complete initiation
 At the time of death, when he enters into the state of Bardo,
 From the Palace-beyond-Measure24 of the great burning bliss
 Will come his patron Buddha and lead him into paradise."

As stated in the Sutra for Forming Hayagriva:

"Whoever, including even the insects, has heard the

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name and incantation of Hayagriva only one time will never again fall into the lower paths25. Therefore, to those who have taken the Bodhisattva's Vow and obtained the Initiation, to them have accrued merits extremely great. Thus you disciples who have come here for the profound initiation should follow my reading and repeat:

To all the Buddhas in the past, present, and future,

And especially to the Buddha, the Green Hayagriva,

I sincerely pray to grant me the Initiation of Hayagriva."

(Repeat this stanza three times.)

(The Guru says:) Now follow me in repeating the prayers of the Three Refuges, the Confession of All Sins, and the great Vow of Bodhisattva:

I take refuge in the Three Precious Ones,

I also take refuge in Hayagriva.

I confess all the sins and evil doings that I have committed;

I shall view all the good deeds and merits of sentient beings with sympathetic joy.

I pray that all the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas ceaselessly remember me in their minds.

From now on till the time of attaining the perfect Buddhahood,

I take refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha.

For the benefit of self and others

I raise the incomparable Heart for Bodhi26.

When this prime vow of the Heart for Bodhi is made,

I shall render my services to all the sentient beings.

I shall treat them as my friends and kinsmen.

I vow to practice the Actions of Bodhi27 with determination and joy

In order to benefit all the sentient beings.

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I hope the day I attain the Buddhahood will come soon!

After this is repeated more than three times, the Guru takes the holy grass of the Vase of Performance and sprinkles water from the Vase over the disciples.

(The Guru then reads the incantation of Śūnyatā:)28

Oṃ soubava shuta sarva dharma soubava shutor haṃ!

(The meaning of which is explained as "All the universe becomes a great emptiness.")

From the Emptiness, you, the one who seeks the initiation, and the Front-Arising-Buddha29 from whom the initiation is given, together with the other Gtor-mas, all immediately become the holy word Śri. This Śri word is seated on a resplendent Sun Disc supported by a lotus with eight leaves. From the Śri word spring beams whose rays touch the Heavens and render homage to all the Buddhas, and again the rays shine forth upon all the worlds to relieve the sufferings of sentient creatures and to benefit all beings. Finally all the beams contract into the Śri word.

This Śri word now transforms itself into an emerald, in color like the green Hayagriva's body; above, his face, red and wrathful, with three widely opened eyes, stares fiercely as if looking on all obstacles and demons. All the hairs of his head stand up in the midst of a cluster of flames burning vehemently as though blazing in a strong wind. All-radiant, the vigorous horse-face glows green. With the terrible voice of the horse, he yells with such fury that all the universe is shaken.

On his head Hayagriva wears a crown made of five human skulls, the top of each skull adorned with five glowing jewels. His mouth opens wide, exposing his tongue and his four canine teeth that symbolize the subjugation of the four demons30. His eyebrows and beard burn with fire.

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[paragraph continues] A new moon stands at his side. In his right hand, he grasps a curved knife with a cross-shaped vajra as its handle. In his left hand, he holds a human skull filled with blood. Large of body, sturdy of limb, he stands posturing on a corpse of the demon enemy which lies above the Sun-Lotus-Disc. Blood-drops, the great ash-bundle, six ornaments of bone, and the snake-tassel adorn his sun-like figure, clothed with elephant skins and wearing the tiger-skin apron. He possesses all the adornments of the wrathful one.

He is posturing in a flame as great in fury as the fire of this Kalpa's ending. On his forehead lies a white Oṃ, on his throat a red Ah, on his heart a blue Hūṃ. In his heart center stands a green Śri. From all these words rays of light in many colors reach out unto the Pure Land. By this light the Buddhas in the Pure Land are invited to descend. From the Palace-beyond-Measure of the Great Bliss Master Wrathful One, the green Hayagrivas descend in numbers countless as snowflakes falling—some large as Mount Sumeru31, others tiny as seeds of mustard. All of them enter into your body and dissolve in you. You should attentively visualize like this.

(The trumpet is blown and musical instruments played.)

(The Guru reads as follows:)

Hūṃ All the Buddhas and the green Hayagrivas,

Pray come here and grant us your blessing!

Please bestow the initiation to these faithful and well-endowed ones;

Pray dispel the obstacles to our longevity.

Oṃ Hayagriva Hulu Hulu Hūṃ Pai! Ba-tsa Ah Wi Sha Ya Ah Ah!

(Recite three or seven times; adjust the Vajra Head.)

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The Wisdom Buddha thus becomes stable.

Dee Chr Ba-Tsa32!

The myriad initiation Wisdom Buddhas all come!

Ba-tsa Samaya!

I pray you to grant the initiation to my disciples.

After this prayer visualize that the Initiation of the Vase is granted by the Buddhas.

Hūṃ! From the Palace-beyond-Measure comes the Initiation of Vase.

Having obtained the complete Initiation of Vase,

The well-endowed disciples will easily attain the Four Bodies of Buddha;

Also they will achieve the Four Accomplishments33.

In the future, may they constantly receive the great initiations.

Oṃ Hayagriva Hulu Hulu Hūṃ Pai! Oṃ Sarva Datagada Ahbiuigade Samaya Bri Ya Pai!

The disciples receive the initiation as rays of light. Thereupon the bodies of the disciples are filled with nectar, and all their sins are purified. The nectar received from Hayagriva is so much that the body cannot hold it all. The superfluous nectar swarms up out of the head to form a horsehead. It utters the yell of the horse three times. According to this description, visualize. (The Guru sprinkles water with the holy grass.)

By tasting the water in this Vase, you will attain unlimited Power of Mouth34. (Each disciple tastes the water of the Vase.)

Now, in order to attain the Initiation of Body, Mouth, Mind, Merits, and Accomplishment, follow me and repeat three times:

To all the Buddhas and Hayagriva in the Three Times

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Especially to the green Hayagriva

I pray you to grant me the Accomplishments and the

Initiation of the Five Bodies.

Then think that from the forehead of the Front-Arising-Buddha emanate innumerable small wrathful Hayagrivas white as a white shell. Visualize these entering into your forehead and penetrating fully all parts of your body.

Hūṃ! The one who illustrates the conduct of the great Precept.

I pray to that great fierce one to come here.

I pray you to grant me the accomplishments of Body, Mouth, and Mind;

Also bestow on me the power to exhibit and protect the Doctrine and other Tantric abilities.

Through the attainment of this Initiation of Body

All the sins, hindrances, and illnesses within my body are purified.

Oṃ Hayagriva Hulu Hulu Hūṃ Pai Gayanbidi Tsi Oṃ!

(If available, set up five Hayagriva images in five different colors. Otherwise use the Gtor-ma and discard it afterwards.)

Hūṃ! All the teachings of Buddhas embodied in Padmasambhava35,

He is the Dharmakaya, the Buddha Amida, the Diamond Doctrine.

From the Śri word of the All-merciful One (Avalokiteśvara)

Was formed the Great Speech Body.

May the horse-yelling-laughing-body bring us propitiousness!

Thus the Body Initiation is attained, the defilements of the body are purified, and illnesses and demonic hindrances

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are dissolved. The seed of the Vajra body is thus planted (or obtained).

Again, disciples, you should visualize that from the throat of the Front-Arising-Buddha emanate numerous Speech-Hayagrivas, red as rubies. These figures are tiny but fully formed. They all enter into your throat and these fierce red Hayagrivas fill your entire body.

Hūṃ! The one who illustrates the conduct of the Great Precept,

I pray the great Fierce One to come here.

I pray you to grant me the Accomplishments of Body, Mouth and Mind;

Also bestow on me the Power of Showing, the capability of protecting the Doctrine, and other Tantric abilities.

I pray you to grant me the Superb Initiation of Speech; Thereby my power of speech will be magnified.

Oṃ Hayagriva Waga Ahbiditsa Ah! (The Guru places the symbol on the disciple's throat).

Hūṃ! Like the King of Initiation who gave the all-essential initiations,

This initiation is a green one like the fire of Kalpa's end.

This initiation is greatly bright like the hundred thousand suns gathering together.

Pray the Initiation Buddha grant us the propitiousness of speech!

Thus, through the attainment of the Initiation of the Mouth,

All the obstacles of speech are cleared;

The seed of the Speech of Buddha is thus planted. Again, you should think that from the Front-Arising-Buddha's heart emanate infinitely small Hayagrivas, blue

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as sapphires, and fully formed of limb. They all enter into your heart, and thus the fierce blue Hayagrivas fill your body.

Hūṃ! The one who illustrates the conduct of the Great Precept.

I pray the great fierce one to come here.

I pray you to grant me the accomplishments of Body, Mouth, and Mind;

Also bestow on me the power of appearance, and the capability of protecting the Doctrine, and other Tantric abilities.

I pray you to grant me the Initiation of Mind;

Thereby the bliss and illumination of mind will he vividly illustrated.

Oṃ Hayagriva… Tsi Da Ahbiditsa Hūṃ! (The symbol is placed on the disciple's heart.)

Although your mind-essence never moves nor wavers

Nor departs from the immutable quietude,

For the sake of subduing the vicious enemy and obstacles

You arose and uttered the fierce voice in the flame of Kalpa's end;

Pray that the reverend mighty mind of yours grant us propitiousness!

Thus the Initiation of Mind is attained, and all the defilements of mind are cleansed. The seed of Mind-Vajra is thus planted.

Again you should think that from the navel of the Front-Arising-Buddha emanate infinite fierce Hayagrivas of the Merits, yellow in color like hemp. These are tiny but completely formed. They all enter into the navel of your body. Thus the fierce yellow Hayagrivas fill your body completely.

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Hūṃ! The one who…

I pray the…

I pray you to grant me…

Also bestow me the power of Showing…

I pray you to grant me the Initiation of Merits

Thereby I pray that my power and might will be greatly augmented.

Oṃ Hayagriva Sarva Ahbi Ditsi Śri!

Having been born from the lineage of non-craving,

And having acted in the manner of a king to subdue the demons,

With your flame blazing furiously like the fire of the Ending-Time,

O wrathful king, Hayagriva! I pray you to grant us prosperity!

Thus the Initiation of Merits is attained. The defilements of decay dissolve. Hindrances to longevity and prosperity are subdued. The seed of Merits-without-Effort is thus planted.

Again think that from the place of generation of the Front-Arising-Buddha emanate numerous emerald golden coloured Hayagrivas and enter into the place of generation in your body; thus the golden Hayagrivas fill your body [thus impregnated by the Buddha] *.

Hūṃ! The one who…

I pray the…

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I pray you to grant me…

Also bestow on me the power…

I pray you to grant me the Initiation of Performance

Pray destroy all sickness, demons and obstacles.

Oṃ Hayagriva Garma Zabiditsa Pai!

Śri! The original nature is beyond appearing and extinction;

The magnificently manifested Horse-Body is never apart from the immutable nature of being.

Through the superb speech of horse-yelling the beings are subjugated.

May the accomplishments without effort and without difference (from Hayagriva) be granted!

May prosperity and propitiousness be bestowed upon us.

Thus the Initiation of Performance is attained, the Obstacle to Omniscience36 cleared away. All hindrances to things desired are subdued. And planted is the seed of benefitting sentient beings in all actions.

Now that you have attained the Initiations of the Body, Mouth, Mind, Merits, and Performance, let us look into the practice of Gtor-ma by which things desired are accomplished.

Think that the Gtor-ma itself becomes the green Hayagriva with all adornments as described previously. Also visualize the Succession of Gurus37 sitting on his head. See one after another come quickly to the top of your head like clouds gathering together. Think: Whatever I pray to them, the wish is granted; the wave of grace and the various Siddhis are bestowed on me. Then see all the Gurus vaporized into a great light and see all enter your body as beams of light and merge with you.

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Hūṃ! I pray the…

I pray you to grant me…

Also grant me the power of Showing…

I pray you to grant me the Initiation of Gtor-ma,

Thus I shall become identical with Hayagriva.

The Body, Mouth, Mind, Merits, and Performance of Hayagriva

Encompass and contain the quintessence of all goodness.

I pray you, Hayagriva, grant me all accomplishments in this very moment!

I pray the Dharmakaya, Buddha of Infinite Light,

I pray the Sambogakaya, the All-Merciful One,

I pray the Nirmanakaya, the Guru Padma Sambhava.

Also I pray the Dakini Yishi Tsojar, the great teacher Beroo Tsana,

The powerful one Barji Sange, the Immutable Vajra who conquers demons.

To those Keepers of the Tantra, the Succession-Gurus, I pray.

I pray the Hayagriva of the Performance-Lineage,

The Heruka- (Vajra) of Superb Horse who conjures numerous retinues and sub-retinues.

I pray that you all grant me the Wave of Grace, I pray you to grant me the Initiations.

Pray protect me from the harm of male and female demons,

Also protect me from the dragon demons and the eight divisions of heavenly demons.

Pray protect me from injuries, ulcers, pains, illnesses, all four-hundred-and-four kinds of sickness, together with all afflictions.

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May all these misfortunes be conquered.

May all the virtuous merits, powers, and fortunes increase for me.

Protect me from the fear of suffering Low Birth and Saṃsara.

Oṃ Hayagriva Hulu Hulu Hūṃ Pai, Hūṃ Hayagriva Hūṃ Hūṃ, Gayavačatseda Ahbiditsa Hūṃ!

Now I am going to grant you the Superb Green Hayagriva's rosary; follow me and repeat:

I pray the perfect Buddha to look after me,

Pray make me your servant.

Throughout these prayers the heart of the green Hayagriva sends forth a green incantation rosary, which enters into your mouth and finally arranges itself in a right-winding circle.

Repeat the incantation three times:

Oṃ Hayagriva Huluhulu Hūṃ Pai:

Thereupon the incantation rosary becomes a flower rosary, which you must see wreathed upon your head. I pray the perfect Buddha to bless me,

Pray make me your servant.

Oṃ Susra Di-Tsra Ba-Tsa Svaha!

Now you have already obtained the comprehensive Initiation of the Green Hayagriva. Under the blessing and protection of your patron Buddha, Hayagriva, you should repeat with me the following words:

Whatever the admonishments our master has given to us,

We will follow and obey and practice.

From this moment on, please always remember us!

I offer you my whole being and all my possessions,

Pray have pity on me and consider me as your disciple!

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Pray be my shelter and refuge at all times!

For beseeching forgiveness, the disciples should offer the Mandala practice and recite the Mandala prayer…

If, in my account of this ritual, there is any mistake or discrepancy, pray all Buddhas to forgive me in my ignorance. I hope that, through the good deeds of this work, all sentient beings will find peace and happiness. Wherever this book is presented, may propitiousness come to that place.

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1. Rta-mgrin: A Tantric Buddha; Sanskrit—Hayagriva. The literal translation of the Tibetan name is Horsehead or Horse-neck.

2. Treasury of Percipience (Dgons-gter): One of the four Treasuries of the Red School. Treasury (Gter) means the hidden teachings of the esoteric doctrine. These esoteric teachings were hidden in the rocks, caves, and underground. Their discovery is preordained for the right time by the right person, who introduces them to the faithful. This is the regular Treasury, or Treasury of Earth. There are other types, such as the Treasury from Heaven; that is, the Treasury Finders see the revealed scriptures in dreams or in trances, or hear the reciting of the scriptures, incantations, and prophecy from the deities. The highest Treasury, according to the Red School, is the Treasury of Percipience; this type of Treasury does not require even the revelations—from the intuitive sense the Treasury is naturally unfolded.

3. Vase: In the Highest Division of Diamond Vehicle (the Anuttara Tantra of the Vajrayana), there are altogether four classes of initiations: the Initiation of Vase, the Secret Initiation, the Wisdom Initiation, and the Initiation of Great Symbol (Mahamudra). This initiation ceremony belongs to the first class; therefore, the symbol of vase plays a very important role. The vase symbolizes the original nature of Buddhahood; it also draws the grace wave and blessing from the real Buddhas (the Wisdom Buddhas), and so the original or Buddha nature can thus be unfolded. The vase is also the center of all symbols used in the initiation performance. The vase or vases are different in number; usually one is enough, but sometimes two, three, four, or even ten are used. The initiation vase has many different names, too.

4. The separate symbol is the effigy of a complete body of Hayagriva; the horsehead effigy is molded from tsamba (cooked barley flour) and decorated with colored butter.

5. The Perfecting Device: The identification of Buddha nature (the Bound Vase), the praying to Buddha, the coming and blessing from Buddha, the unification of Buddha and vase

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[paragraph continues] (Buddha nature)—these four processes make a Perfecting Device.

6. Bound Buddha and Wisdom Buddha (or Bound One and Wisdom One): The original Buddha nature, which is not lost but hidden or "bound" deep within each sentient being. The Bound One (the cause or impulse toward realization) must be merged with the Wisdom or Fruit Buddha to produce the enlightenment.

7. Arising Buddha: The Bound Buddha is also called the Arising Buddha.

8. Crowned head: One of the thirty-two signs of Buddhahood,

9. a Og-min: The highest Buddha paradise (lit. "inferior to none").

10. Five burning poisons: Lust, hate, blindness, jealousy, and pride.

11. The Three Kingdoms: the domains of desire, of form, and of the formless.

12. Path of Virtue: The teaching or the path that leads one to a happier life in one's next birth. The precept of Ten Virtues is taught in Buddhism, and by the practice of these Ten Virtues one may go to heaven and live there for a long period. But this practice can never bring one to liberation, because the Ten Virtues are not practiced in the light of non-kleśa or non-discrimination. The kleśas and discrimination are the two main causes of Saṃsāra.

13. Paths of Liberation: The Paths of Four Noble Truths and the Path of Bodhisattva.

14. Kasyapa Buddha: The Buddha directly antecedent to Gotama Buddha.

15. Living Buddha: Tibetan, Sprul-skur; literally the Transformation Body of Buddha (Nirmanakaya). But nowadays this name is merely a title or a rank of a Lama; it no longer has any significant meaning in religion.

16. and 17. See Note 2.

18. Dharma from Mouth: Traditional Hinayana and ordinary sources of Buddhist doctrine.

19. and 20. See Note 2.

21. Illumination-Holding: A title of the Tantric Yogi. Illumination (Rig) has a number of meanings.

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22. Ending-Time: The end of our time. Buddhist tradition says that there will come a time when all beings on earth will be annihilated. Here, however, the author means to emphasize a Bad Time—when kleśas and all misfortunes prevail in the world. The Tibetan term Mtha-ma means both the Last and the Worst.

23. Śunyāta: The Voidness, emptiness. The teaching of Voidness is the most important in Buddhism.

24. Palace-beyond-Measure: The size of the abode of the Buddhas is beyond measurement—infinite. Ed.

25. Lower Paths: Three lower paths of the six Lokas of Saṃsāra—Hell, Hungry Ghosts, and Animals.

26. Heart for Bodhi: The wish to liberate sentient beings, to practice the Six Paramitas and actions of a Bodhisattva.

27. Actions of Bodhi: the practice of Six Paramitas and Four Dominations Practices, etc.

28. Incantation of Śunyāta: Generally, Tibetan Buddhists never expect to understand incantations or to translate them into ordinary language, since the literal cannot contain the whole truth. Tradition does not try to explain the incantations but treats the secret words as sacred syllables and sounds. Being symbolic, each word and sound has many meanings. This sacred statement is called "The Incantation on the Observation of the Emptiness."

29. Front-Arising Buddha: The Buddha of the Vase.

30. Four Demons: Illness, Obstacles to Dharma, Death, and Kleśas.

31. Mount Sumeru: A symbolic huge mountain. According to Buddhist legend, it is located in the center of the cosmos.

32. This short incantation is to stabilize the coming Buddha.

33. The Four Accomplishments: To alleviate sorrows and misfortunes; to augment merits; to attract sentient beings; and to subdue demons.

34. Power of Mouth: Speech, singing, admonishing.

35. Padmasambhava: Founder of the Red [or Nying-mapa] School. This ritual belongs to the Red School, so Padmasambhava's name is always mentioned. The followers of this School believe that the body of Padmasambhava was transmitted from

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[paragraph continues] Buddha Amida; his mouth from Avalokiteśvara; and his mind from Gotama Buddha. Another way of viewing this is to say that Padmasambhava received his Dharmakaya from Amiba, his Sambhoga-kaya. Avalokiteśvara; his Nirmanakaya from Gotama. Padmasambhava received his Dharmakaya from Avalokiteśvara; his Nirmanakaya from Gotama.

36. Obstacle to Omniscience: Another translation is the Hindrance of Knowing. To attain Nirvana, one must annihilate the Hindrance of kleśa, which is the direct cause of Saṃsāra. But to attain the Non-Abiding Nirvana (Mahayana's view of the perfect Nirvana), one must also annihilate the Hindrance of Knowing, or the Obstacle to Omniscience. Since the Bodhisattvas aspire not merely to liberation but also to Perfection, the extermination of the Hindrance is necessary in attaining the perfect Buddhahood.

37. Succession of Gurus: The Lineage or Rosary of Gurus in direct succession from Hayagriva.


73:* We have added this parenthesis to clarify an important concept, which though stated here in simple form, expresses the fundamental idea of the new birth of the regenerate man within the shell or womb of the old self—the renewed man, born of divine power. The essential gotra concept explained in our Introduction is vitally close to the meaning of the text. Ed.

Next: Chapter Five: The Initiation Ritual of the Red Gshin-Rje