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DAILY SERVICE. Offerings. Musical instruments. Prayer-cylinders.--PERFORMANCE OF RELIGIOUS DRAMAS.--SACRED DAYS AND FESTIVALS.--Monthly and annual festivals. The ceremony Tuisol. The ceremony Nyungne.--RITES FOR TEE ATTAINMENT OF SUPERNATURAL FACULTIES.--PECULIAR CEREMONIES FOR ENSURING THE ASSISTANCE OF THE GODS. 1. The rite Dubjed. 2. The burnt-offering. 3. Invocation of Lungta. 4. The Talisman Changpo. 5: The magical figure Phurbu. 6. The ceremony Thugdam Kantsai. 7. Invocation of Nagpo Chenpo by moving the arrow. 8. The ceremony Yangug. 9. Ceremonies performed in cases of illness. 10. Funeral rites.

Daily service.

THE ordinary daily service, instituted for the praise of the Buddha, consists in the recital of hymns and prayers in a manner intermediate between singing and reading. The service is accompanied by instrumental music; offerings are presented, and perfumes are burnt. This kind of service is celebrated by the Lamas three times a day, at sunrise, noon, and sunset; and lasts each

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time about half an hour. Laymen may be present, but they take no active part in the performance; those who are present are required to make three prostrations, touching the ground with their forehead, when they receive from the Lamas the benediction. On certain days more time is spent in the religious services; the prayers and ceremonies have then reference to the festival of the day, public processions not unfrequently precede the solemnities which take place in the temples, and on some few occasions, even religious dramas conclude them.

Offerings. Blood forms no part of these: they consist chiefly of flour, clarified butter, and tamarind-wood, Ombu in Tibetan. To some particular gods flowers are offered, or, if they cannot be obtained, grain, which is thrown into the air so as to fall down upon the image. To the Buddhas and Bôdhisattvas cones of dough, Zhalsai, literally "meat, food," are offered, similar in shape to the Tsatsas (see p. 194), but differing from them in this respect, that they contain no relies or other sacred objects; also the feathers of a peacock are set up in narrow-necked vessels before some of these gods.

Musical instruments. Of all the instruments used by the Tibetans for their Service, such as drums, trumpets, flageolets, and cymbals, the trumpets are certainly the most remarkable, being generally made of human bones. Thigh bones give the finest trumpets; they sound very deep. To the top of the bone is fastened a mouthpiece of brass, while the other end is ornamented by brass wire, or leather rings; and the instrument (the construction of which requires but a very trifling outlay)

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is ready for use. Besides this kind of trumpets, there are still larger ones of copper, from 6 to 7 feet long, which are only made in Lhássa, and which are very expensive.

The flageolets are of wood, and are generally double ones, each tube having seven holes along the upper side and a larger one underneath for the thumb.

The drums are hemispherical, joined on their convex side; upon the skin sacred sentences are frequently written. The drums are beaten in a very curious manner. There are two small leather balls attached to a rope of some length fastened to the drums at the point of their junction; the drums are taken in the hand and shaken in such a manner as to cause a swinging motion of the two balls, which are thus brought into contact with the drums, and cause no little noise. The large tambourines, which are fixed upon a stick about three feet long, are beaten with a bamboo cane, which, on account of its elasticity, strikes the skin often, but not very heavily. The cymbals are very similar to those used in Europe; they are kept in boxes of twisted bast.

All Tibetan music is slow, sounds deep, and is far superior to that of the Hindus of India. Although it cannot be asserted that there is much melody in Tibetan music, yet the instruments employed produce a certain harmonious combination and rythmical succession of sounds.

Prayer-cylinders. An instrument peculiar to the Buddhists, and very characteristic of their religious notions, is the prayer-cylinder, in Tibetan called Khorten, also Mani,

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or Mani chos khor.[1] The use of these instruments may probably have originated in an exhortation to a frequent reading of the holy books and to the recital of sacred sentences, in order to the attainment of a knowledge of the tenets of the Buddhist doctrine. In the course of time the mere reading or copying of the holy books and writings had come to be regarded as a work of merit, and as one of the most efficacious means for becoming purified from sin and delivered from metempsychosis.[2] Few men, however, knew how to read at all, and those who did were prevented by their occupations from doing so frequently; and therefore, as I believe, the Lamas cast about for an expedient to enable the ignorant and the much-occupied man also to obtain the spiritual advantages attached to an observance of the practice mentioned; they taught that the mere turning of a rolled manuscript might be considered an efficacious substitute for reading it.

The cylindrical cases, in which the prayers to be turned are enclosed, are generally of metal; but envelops of wood, and leather, or even of coarse cotton, are not rare. They are from three to five inches high and two to three inches in diameter. A wooden handle passes through each cylinder and forms its axis. Round this axis long strips of paper or pieces of cloth are rolled, with printed sacred sentences; all these rolls are again covered by an un-printed piece of cotton stuff. To facilitate the turning of the cylinders, a small pebble or a piece of metal is fastened to

[1. Mani "a precious thing;" chhos "the doctrine;" khor, from 'khor-ba "to turn;" brten "to hold, support."

2. See the Address to the Buddhas of confession, or Confessor Buddhas, Chapter XI.]

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it by a string, so that a very gentle movement of the hand maintains a steady and regular revolving motion.

Besides the prayer-cylinders of these ordinary dimensions there are some of very large size permanently fixed near monasteries. A man is employed to keep them constantly in motion, or occasionally they are turned by water, like mills, and revolve day and night. Numbers of smaller ones are also ranged at the entrance of monasteries, along the walls, and are turned by passers-by or by those who enter the temple. They are generally so close to each other that anyone going by may easily cause all to revolve one after the other without interruption, by gliding over them with the hand. The number of these prayer-cylinders set up in one single monastery is quite astonishing; thus, the inscription relating to the foundation of the monastery of Hímis, in Ladák (see p. 183), states that 300,000 prayer-cylinders were put up along the walls of the monastery. Though this is an exaggeration in oriental style, the actual quantity is nevertheless very considerable.

Each revolution of the cylinder is considered to be equal to the reading of as many sacred sentences or treatises as are enclosed in it, provided that the turning of the cylinder is done slowly and from right to left; and the effect is made dependent upon a strict observance of these two rules. A slow motion is enjoined because those who turn the cylinders must do so with a faithful, quiet, and meditative mind. The motion from right to left was adopted in order to follow the writing, which runs from left to right. Some of the larger prayer-cylinders,

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are so constructed that a stroke of a bell indicates each single revolution.

The prayer inscribed is most generally simply Om mani padme hum, repeated as often as the space allows of it. The papers rolled up in the larger cylinders are, however, more generally covered with the contents of many of their sacred books.[1] The Lamas have particular books which detail the advantages to be derived from turning these cylinders; I mention especially the Khorloi phanyon, "the advantage of the wheel," which also treats of the prayers and books to be put inside, and of the mode of turning these cylinders.

Prayer cylinders were amongst the very first objects which became known in Europe, through missionaries; but in reference to the religious dramas and the ritual to be observed in particular ceremonies, which shall be now detailed, I was limited for the greatest part to the materials and the native information before me. I may be allowed to allude to this circumstance, in order to request that it may be taken into consideration, in case the interpretations should not be found so complete as the importance which the Tibetans connect with it might seem to require.

Performance of religious dramas.

On certain days of the year religious dramas are performed by the Lamas, who call them Tambin shi,[2]

[1. Compare p. 120.

2. It is spelled bstan-pa "to show, instruction, the doctrine;" 'i, the genitive case; shis, "a blessing, bliss; blessed."]

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"the bliss of instruction." My brother Hermann, when at the monastery of Minis, was fortunate enough to witness the representation of such a drama performed expressly for him; it was as follows:--

The dramatis personæ are Dragsheds (the deities who defend man against the evil spirits; see p. 111), malignant spirits, and men. The actors of every group are plainly distinguished by the peculiar kind of masks (Tib. Phag) they wear, and much less by their dresses, which are surprisingly uniform and non-distinctive gowns. The Dragsheds and malignant spirits wear over their clerical dress beautiful large silken gowns of rich showy colours; some few Dragsheds have besides a gilt cuirass and arms. Even the party representing the men are furnished with a uniform particular dress where the means of the monastery allow it.

The masks of the first group, those of the Dragsheds, are of enormous size and ferocious aspect; the hinder part of the head is covered by a triangular piece of cotton or silk, and also on the front a similar piece is fastened to the chin and falls down to the breast. The second group, the evil spirits, wear masks of brown or some, other dark colour, of dimensions somewhat larger than seems exactly suitable, and their garments are well wadded, so that they feel but little the blows showered upon them. The actors of this group and the following are either neophites, or are taken from among the lay population. The third group, finally, represent s the men, who wear their usual dress, but also have their faces covered by a mask of natural size and colours; under

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their clothes they carry heavy wooden sticks, with which at times, during the performance of the drama, they threaten the evil spirits.

The drama is preceded by the recital of hymns and prayers and by a very noisy music. The actors are seen on the stage as follows: The Dragsheds occupy the centre, the men are placed to their right, the evil spirits to their left. At short intervals, the men and the evil spirits, execute slow dances, each group for itself. At last, an evil spirit and a man step forth. The evil spirit then tries, in a well-made speech, to induce the man to do wrong by violating some precepts of morality or religion; other evil spirits approach and assist their comrade in this speech. The man, though at first firm in his resistance to all these entreaties, gradually becomes weaker, and is just about to yield to the temptations of his would-be seducers, when he is joined by other men, who endeavour to dissuade him from listening to evil suggestions. He is now closely pressed by the two different parties, and it takes considerable time before he yields to the exhortations of his human companions. The men render thanks to the Dragsheds, to whose assistance they ascribe the victory (although the Dragsheds have as yet taken no part in the action), and implore them to punish the evil spirits. The Dragsheds are but too ready to do so. Their head god, who is distinguished from the others by an unusually large yellow mask, called by the Lamas Gonyan serpo, "the yellow borrowed head," advances surrounded by about a dozen of followers, representatives of the most powerful Dragsheds. Amongst

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these was, at the performance at Hímis, Lhamo (see p. 112), with a mask of dark complexion and large tails of Yak's-hair; Tsangpa (i. e. Brahma, see p. 114), had put on a cuirass. Several men wore three-eyed red masks, and were styled Lhachen, "the mighty gods;" another group, with masks of green complexion and high conical caps of white cutton {sic} stuff upon which three eyes are traced, represented the "sons of the gods;" they were styled Lhatug.[1] The other Dragsheds now rush out too from the back-ground, shoot arrows upon the evil spirits, fire upon them with muskets, throw stones and spears; whilst at the same time the men belabour them heartily. with their sticks, hitherto concealed. The evil spirits run away, but the Dragsheds follow them, and drive them into houses, holes, &c., where they are safe from further molestation. The drama is then concluded; all the actors, Dragsheds, men, and evil spirits, return and sing hymns in honour of the victorious Dragsheds.

During the performance, which lasts from one to two hours, most ridiculous mistakes occasionally occur, on account of the large masks which, in certain positions, deprive the wearers of the use of their eyes; thus it sometimes happens, that a Dragshed strikes another Dragshed, or that he--such a powerful god!--falls down at full length upon the ground, where he is then ill-treated by the evil spirits till he is again on his feet.

[1. Drawings of these masks, taken from the originals obtained by Hermann, will be given in the Atlas accompanying the "Results of a Scientific Mission."]

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These dramas remind us of the "Mystères" and l'Moralités" of the Middle Ages;[1] but the noisy music, the firing of musketry, and the final fray, produce an effect still less in accordance with a religious act than the comical and burlesque intermezzos of the Mystères and Moralités, which were intended to amuse the audience and somewhat unbend their minds in the intervals between the serious and heavier parts of the play, calculated to excite their feelings of devotion and appeal to their moral sense.

The subjects of the religious dramas represented in Arrakán have a remarkable analogy to those of Tibet; I quote the following description from Hardy's "Eastern Monachism."[2] "Lines are drawn upon the ground, in an open space, and dancers are introduced. These lines are regarded as the limits of the territory belonging to different Yakâs and Dêvas; and the last is appropriated to Buddha. One of the dancers advances towards the first limit, and when he is told to what Yakâ it belongs, he calls out the demon's name in defiance, uttering against him the most insulting language; and declaring that in spite of all the opposition that can be brought against him, he will cross the limit, and invade the territory of its infernal possessor. Then, passing the limit in triumph, he acts in the same manner towards all the other demons and divinities who have had divisions assigned to them, until

[1. Compare Alt, "Theater und Kirche." Berlin 1846. Chapter 26, 27. The "Passionsspiele;" which are still kept up in Oberammergau, in Bavaria, have, at present, assumed a thoroughly serious character.

2. Page 236.]

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at last be approaches the limit of Buddha. Still he professes to be equally fearless, and bids defiance to the woolly-headed priest who carries the alms-bowl from door to door like a common mendicant; but the moment he attempts to pass the limit, he falls down as if dead; and as he is regarded as suffering the punishment of the blasphemy he had dared to utter, all who are present applaud the greatness of him whose prowess is thus proved to be superior to that of all other beings."

Sacred days and festivals.

Monthly and annual festivals.

The monthly festivals are in some countries four in number, connected with the phases of the moon; in others, only three of these days are celebrated, those of the first quarter of the moon, or full moon and of new moon. On these days no animal food should be taken nor any animal killed; and those who do so are threatened with severe punishments in a future existence. To abstain from worldly occupations is, however, not enacted, and as the Buddhist laymen in the Himálaya and Western Tíbet are not very fond of passing the whole day in prayers and in the temples,[1] these holy days are not particularly marked in the habits of the population. But the Lamas spend more time in the temples; they perform the ceremony Tuisol, for the taking away of

[1. The northern Mongolians show in this regard much more devotion. See Pallas, "Reisen," French translation, p. 562.]

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sins, and they make confession in a more solemn way The confession of sins is preceded and followed by the reading and reciting of passages from sacred books, which occupation is sometimes continued for days, during which time the taking of food and drinking are reduced to a minimum. These austerities, for the deliverance from sins, bear the name of Nyungne, or Nyungpar nepai choga. Every layman is allowed to undergo the hardships connected with this kind of confession, but as less painful modes have, in their opinion, the same effect,[1] the Tibetans--priests as well as laymen--submit to them only so and so many times a year, and not, as they ought properly to do, three times a month. In general, the Lamas do no more than read certain books and celebrate the ceremony Tuisol; the laymen make prostrations before the images of particular gods, and repeat more sentences than on other days.

Annual festivals. In almost every month a particular religious festivity is celebrated, and public amusements are got up on such days; the festivities--religious as well as public--are the most varied at the following periods, which are regarded as the most sacred: About the first of February the festival of the New Year is celebrated; on the fifteenth of the fourth moon (about the beginning of May) honour is done to "Sâkyamuni's having entered the womb of his mother;" on the fifteenth of the seventh moon (in August), before the cutting of the grain, solemn processions are made into the fields, where prayers are offered up and thanksgivings repeated

[1. Compare p. 95.]

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for the blessings of harvest; the twenty-fifth of the same month is the anniversary of the death of Tsonkhapa. For the particular festivals of these days, which are very grand and diversified in character in places where incarnated priests reside, I refer the reader to the "Description du Tubet," translated from the Chinese, and Hue, Pallas, and Klaproth.[1] My brothers, however, were not present at any of them, and I therefore restrict myself to quoting the works where descriptions of them may be found; but I now give the details which my brothers obtained concerning the ceremonies Tuisol and Nyungne.

The Ceremony Tuisol.

The Tuisol, "to pray for ablution," ranks amongst the most sacred of the Buddhist rites, and is performed at every solemn-assembly for the washing away of sins. Water is poured out from a vessel similar to a teapot, called Mangu, and also Bumpa, over the vessel's well-cleaned cover, called Yanga, or a particular metallic mirror, Melong, which is held so, that it reflects the image of Sâkyamuni which stands on the altar. The water falls down into a flat vessel, called Dorma,[2] placed

[1. Nouv. Journ. As., Vol. IV., p. 140. Pallas, "Mongol. Völker," Vol. II., pp. 190-215. Klaproth, "Reise in den Kaukasus," Vol. I., p. 193. Hue, "Souvenirs," Vol. I., pp. 96, 291, Vol. II., p. 95. Compare Köppen, "Die Rel. des Buddha," Vol. II., pp. 309-15.

2. bKrus, part. pret. from 'khrud-pa, "thoroughly washed, ablution;" gsol, "to pray, beg for entreaty."

3. The terms Mangu, Yanga, Dorma, appear to be local designations, as I could not find them in the dictionaries. In Síkkim the Mangu vessel was called by the Lepcha Lamas Guri, and the vessel for the reception of the water Thepshi.]

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upon a tripod. The Lamas of Gnári Khórsum informed my brothers that they put into the vessel a bag filled with rice, which they called Brakhug, "rice bag."[1]

The Ceremony Nyungne, or Nyungpar nepai choga.

This ceremony is performed in its full rigour only once or twice a year; its name means "to continue to abstain," or "ceremony of continued abstinence."[2] It occupies four days; the prayers and passages of books read during them are chiefly in honour of Padmapâni in his quality as Jigten Gonpo, "the protector of the world," for his efforts to release mankind from the miseries of life.[3] Any layman is allowed to take part in these ceremonies; he has to present himself in the afternoon at the monastery, well washed and in clean garments, with a rosary, a cup called Thor, and a bottle filled with pure water for washing.

The first day, "the introductory exercises," in Tibetan called Tagom,[4] are performed, preparatory to those of the following day; prayers are recited and passages from sacred books are read under the direction of a learned Gelong, who has been deputed by the head Lama. The second day is taken up with Chorva, "the

[1. The Mongolians, according to Pallas, "Mongolische Völker," Vol. II., pp. 161, 177; perfume the water with saffron, and sweeten it with sugar.

2. sNyung-par "to reduce (in food);" gnas-pa "to continue;" chho-ga ceremony."

3. Comp. pp. 88, 120.

4. lTa "to view, theory;" gom "step;" a literal translation gives: "step to the theory."]

preparations."[1] The devotees are called at sunrise, and wash and prostrate themselves several times before the image of Padmapâni. The head Lama then admonishes them no more to violate their vows, and to renew promises previously made; he commands them to confess their sins, and seriously to meditate upon the evils which result from them. He reads with his attendants for about an hour extracts from several books, an act which is called Sobyong, "confession, amendment of the vicious life." The book Nyungpar nepai choga is then read till ten o'clock, when tea is taken (Cha-chosh, not Cha[2]). After this the reading of books and the recital of prayers is continued till two o'clock, when a dinner is served, consisting of vegetables and pastry; animal food is not allowed. After this scanty dinner, prayers and readings are continued till late at night; but at intervals, tea is handed round. Before retiring to rest, the head Lama specifies the various duties of the assembly for the following day, and orders them, as a penance, to sleep according to "the mode of the lion," Sengei nyal tab,[3] viz. to lie on the right side, to stretch out the feet and to support the head with the right hand.

The following day is the principal one; it is styled Ngoishi, "the substance, the reality." The day is passed in rigorous abstinence from meat and drink--nay, it is not even allowed to swallow one's saliva; every one has

[1. 'Byor-ba, literally "to come, to arrive," referring to the purification of sins resulting from these exercises.

2. See p. 168.

3. Seng-ge "the lion;" nyal "to sleep;" stabs "mode." In this attitude Sâkyamuni is believed to have entered Nirvâna.]

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a vessel before him which he uses as a spittoon. Weak persons, who are unable to endure for any length of time this painful operation, are occasionally refreshed with some drops of water, and are brought for some moments into the open air. Not a word is allowed to be spoken, and should any body utter one, he is punished by having to sing some hymns at the height of his voice. All prayers are to be recited in silence, and sinful actions have to be again repented of. The abstinence from food and drink is continued till the sun-rise of the next day; the head Lama then asks the assembly, whether there are any devotees willing to continue in like manner till the next morning--an operation which is considered a very efficacious means for obtaining deliverance from all sins; it is, however, extremely rare that any one feels strong enough to continue. The head Lama therefore gives permission, to eat and drink, whereupon the assembly rise, leave the temple, and partake of a substantial meal, which the pious crowd have prepared for them outside.

Rites for the attainment of supernatural faculties.

The confidence in the powerful influence of prayers and ceremonies is so common among all Buddhist tribes of High Asia, that every undertaking is begun by them with the recital of incantations and the performance of certain ceremonies by which to appease the wrath of the demons; they, moreover, believe that by virtue of the strict observance of the duties connected with such rites,

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they will in time acquire a miraculous magical energy, called Siddhi, and finally become liberated from metempsychosis. This view is not opposed to the principles of Buddhism, which declare that faculties superior to those with which nature has endowed man can be obtained by meditation, abstinence, the observation of moral duties, and true repentance for sins. This exhortation to a moral life, the consequences of which we see illustrated in the sacred books by numerous parables, is well adapted for exercising a favourable influence in mitigating the barbarous customs of the nations professing Buddhism; but, by errors involved in the misunderstanding of the real aim of virtue, by the non-admittance of a supreme, all-dominating deity, and by the viewing of existence as the cause of all misery, Buddhism was rendered incapable of producing a civilization so general as that developed by Christianity.[1]

The books in which the magical arts are the most systematically treated are the Tantra Sabâhupariprichchâ, and the Lamrim of Tsonkhapa, in which every thing having reference to the theory as well as to the practical application is explained in full. In the Sabâhupariprichchâ[2] Vajrapâni describes to the Bôdhisattva Sabâhu, in the usual form of a dialogue, the mode of performing various ceremonies, and indicates the prayers and incantations to be used during their performance, in order to acquire

[1. A very interesting dissertation on Buddhism is contained in Barthélemy St. Hilaire's "Le Bouddha et sa religion," Chapter V. Comp. also M. Müller, "Buddhism and Buddhist Pilgrims," pp. 14-20.

2. The abstract of its contents quoted here has been published in Wassiljew's "Buddhismus," pp. 208-17. See also Burnouf's remarks on the acquirement of magical powers in his "Lotus de la Bonne Loi," p. 310.]

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the Siddhi. The book points out the obstacles met with, and specifies the signs from which is perceived that Siddhi will be soon obtained; it also defines its essence and qualities.

Eight classes of Siddhi are distinguished:-

1. The power to conjure.

2. Longevity.

3. The water of life, or the remedy (amrita).

4. The discovery of hidden treasures.

5. The entering into Indra's cave.

6. The art of making gold.

7. The transformation of earth into gold.

8. The acquiring of the inappreciable jewel.

Of the highest character are the Siddhis Nos. 1, 3, and 5; the degree of perfection to be attained is fixed by the dignity of the man.

Those desirous of acquiring Siddhi must renounce the vanities of life, they must strictly observe the moral law, and confess their sins; they also must apply for an able teacher, in order that nothing be forgotten; when they proceed to perform the rites, they must be shaved, washed, and cleaned. Of particular importance for the success is the scene of their performance. It must be a place not calculated to distract the mind by a variety of objects more or less attractive, or by the possible appearance of wild beasts. The most favourable spots are those where Buddhas and Bôdhisattvas or Srâvakas dwell. The place must be well swept and otherwise cleaned, and fresh earth must be thrown upon it, in order to make its surface even and smooth. A magical

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circle of the five sacred colours must be drawn, in order to overcome the impediments, the "Vinâyakas," opposed by the demons; for these latter do all in their power to prevent the devotee's efforts and the incantations from exercising their full effect. Within the circle an altar is erected, upon which various vessels are ranged filled with bread, grain, and perfumed water. The ceremonies consist in the reciting of incantations and in the presentation of offerings to the kings of magical power, to the genii, and to demons. A Vajra (Dorje) is held during the recital of the incantations; the material of which this is made varies according to the kind of Siddhi sought. The incantations must be repeated a fixed number of times, as e. g. 100,000 times a day; the number is counted by means of a rosary of 108 beads. They must be recited slowly and distinctly, without raising or lowering the voice; nor is it allowed to make any addition or omission; the most earnest attention must be devoted to the recital, otherwise the end aimed at cannot be attained.[1] The thoughts must be predominantly directed to the tutelary deity (Tib. Yidam) selected for bestowing success upon the incantations, offerings, &c.; even the way of placing and holding the fingers, the Mudrâs,[2] is important; such positions have to be chosen as typify the attributes of the patronal god. Amongst the offering ceremonies the burnt offering, in Tibetan Chinsreg or Sregpa, in Sanskrit Hôma, is the most important;

[1. The description of a rite considered most excellent for concentrating the thoughts, is given further on, in No. 1.

2. Concerning the Mudrâs see p. 56.]

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it must be performed with a minute observance of the rules laid down for it.[1]

The approach of the moment when the devotee attains the possession of supernatural qualities is indicated by various signs, such as agreeable dreams, the diffusion of sweet odours, &c. Particular offerings must then be made to the Buddhas., only a minimum quantity of food is allowed to be taken for two, and even for four days; and certain Sûtras must be read. If, however, notwithstanding the strict observance of all these rules, no marks reveal the approach of the Siddhi, it is a positive token, that unknown reasons have hindered it, which the patronal deity is supposed to reveal to the devotee in his dreams.

The rites and Dhâranîs vary according to the deity, whose patrocination is implored; each deity has its particular Dhâranîs, Mudrâs, magical circles, offerings, and attributes. Avalôkitêsvara, Manjusrî, Vajrapâni, and numerous other persons, are reported to have made known to the Buddha their wish to defend his religion, and to grant their assistance to those who implore it; but the Dhâranîs and ceremonies which are suitable for each of these persons, and the instructions as to their application are not always clear, satisfactory, and complete; explanatory commentaries, have, therefore, been written by famous magicians, which do not, however, always exactly agree; hence, numerous methods, "Lugs," of celebrating the rites, are in practice.

[1. For a description of these offerings see p. 248.]

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Peculiar ceremonies for ensuring the assistance of the gods.

For most of the ceremonies the performance by a Lama is considered indispensable to its due effect; but even if this is not the case, a Lama is charged with it in cases of importance, as the efficacy of any rite is supposed to become increased by the services of a priest; this assistance, however, causes the laymen considerable expense, as the officiating priests tax them according to their means.[1] The execution by a Lama is not required for the usual libations to the personal genii, nor to those of the house, the country, &c., in whose honour it is the custom to pour out upon the ground some drink or food, and to fill one of the offering vessels ranged before their images before eating or drinking one'sself.[2] Also the putting up of prayer-flags (the Derchoks and Lapchas), and the offerings on the sacred spots met with on travels, can be done without the Lamas, who are likewise not required for the efficacy of the mystical sentences of magical power, the Dhâranîs.

1. The rite Dubjed.

This rite, the name of which means "to make ready" (viz. the vessels), is intended to concentrate the thoughts. Those who are about to devote themselves to profound meditation, place before them a vase-like vessel called Namgyal bumpa, the entirely victorious vessel," and a flat vessel

[1. Compare p. 160.

2. This is done very generally in all countries of Asia and South Eastern Europe. See Pallas, "Reisen," Vol. I, p. 561.]

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called Lai bumpa, "the vessel of the works."[1] The Namgyal bumpa typifies abstraction of the mind from surrounding objects, the Lai bumpa perfection in abstract meditation. These vessels are not put upon the earth, but upon a cloth or a paper on which an octagon frame is drawn, called Dabchad, "octagon;" the vessels are filled with water perfumed with saffron, and strips of the five sacred colours are twisted round them; flowers also, or kusagrass are put into them.[2] The devotee, fixing his eyes upon these two vessels, reflects upon the benefit to be derived from meditation, and is exhorted to intense concentration of the mind.

The frame Dabchad has nine compartments, of which each is separated from the next by ornaments representing clouds. In each compartment is inscribed the name of a Dâkinî or Yôginî, in Tibetan Khado, or also Naljorva; in the central division are words denoting that it is meant for "the chief of the Dâkinîs," who is called in the religious books Sangye Khado in Tibetan, Buddha Dâkinî in Sanskrit. In a Dabchad obtained by Hermann in Síkkim, the central words are dbus-byas-mkhro',[3] and mean, "Dâkinî occupying (done in) the centre," the word mkhro' being decidedly an abbreviation from Khado, which is spelled mkha'-'gro, and is literally "walking in the air." The Dâkinîs are female spirits countless in number, who evince the greatest kindness towards man. They

[1. These vessels are not unfrequently traced upon the cushions upon which the Lamas sit during the public religious services.

2. Of this kind was also the grass of which Sâkyamuni had piled up his seat when sitting down under the Bôdhi tree.

3. dBus "centre," byas "done."]

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are addressed in a religious treatise translated by Schmidt with surnames of sanctity, as e. g. Sarva Buddha Dâkinî, and their head is styled Bogda Dâkinî, Bogda meaning "divine nature." This highest Dâkinî is also the female companion, the Sakti of Vajradhara, and is endowed with faculties equally great with those of her husband.[1]

2. The burnt-offering.

By the burnt-offering (in Tibetan Chinsreg, or Sregpa,[2] in Sanskrit Hôma) the offerer seeks to be endowed with the faculty of obtaining happiness, wealth, and power, of becoming purified from sins, and of being protected against "untimely death" and the pains connected therewith. It consists in the burning of tamarind-wood, Ombu, and cotton, with coals and perfumed oils in a kind of stove, Thabkhung,[3] made of clay or bricks. The shape and colour of the stove depends upon the purpose for which it is used; in one case it is square, in the others semi-circular, or circular, or triangular. These stoves are about one foot high and two feet broad; they have straight sides, and the bottom is formed by a plate of burnt clay, which projects about two inches beyond the sides; upon the projecting border half-dorjes[4] are stamped, and a mystical sign is cut in the centre of the bottom of the stove,

[1. Schmidt, "Geschichte Ssanang Ssetsens," pp. 468, 75, 76, 81. About Vajradhara see p. 50.

2. sByin (chin), "alms;" sreg-pa, "to destroy by fire."

3. Thab, "fire place;" khung, "a hole." In the Tantra Subâhupariprichchâ (Wassiljew, "Der Buddhismus," p. 212) 10,000 grains of wheat, sesame, mustard, lotus, &c., are among the offerings required to be burnt.

4. See p. 215.]

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symbolizing either the earth, or fire, water, or the air, according to the shape of the stove.

The offerings must be burnt by a Lama, who wears a large gown of the respective colour of the stove, interwoven with numerous characters of the element engraved upon the bottom. He ranges on a side-table, with prayers beginning with the respective appellation of the particular element, the offerings to be burnt, which he puts into the stove, but only in small quantities at a time, as their combustion must be a slow one. He keeps the offerings burning by dropping upon them perfumed oil with two brass spoons; with the larger one, called Gangzar,[1] he takes the oil out of a small brass vessel, and pours it into the smaller spoon, called "Lugzar,"[2] from which he lets it fall, drop by drop, upon the offerings.

This ceremony has four particular names, according to the aim of its celebration:--

1. Zhibai Chinsreg, "sacrifice for peace," to ward off calamity in the shape of famine, war, &c., to weaken or totally neutralize the effects of malignant influences, and to abolish sins. The stove is Square, the lower part of a red colour and the upper part white. On its bottom "lam" is designed, the symbol of earth.

This offering ceremony is very generally performed after a person's death, because the sins of the deceased are supposed to be gathered into the stove by virtue of the Dhâranîs repeated by the officiating Lama, and

[1. 'Gang, "to make full, to fill," gzar, "a ladle," a large spoon.

2. bLug, "to pour out."]

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by the power of Melha, or Melhai gyalpo, "the lord of the genii of fire," who is always implored on such occasions; it is believed that with the combustion of the offerings the sins disappear for ever. The address to Melha runs thus:--"I adore thee and present to thee the offerings for the deceased, who has left this world and has entered the circle, for him who dwells in the assembly of the three merciful deities, who are now in calmness now in wrath.[1] Pray purify him from his sins and any violations of the law, and teach him the right way. Sarva-agne-dzala-ram-ram."

This prayer is given in Plate X., which is an impression from an original woodcut from Eastern Tíbet;[2] it is placed beneath the image of Melha in a state of calmness. Here he is sitting crosslegged upon a Lotus-flower, holding the blue lotus Utpala (Nelumbium speciosum), with joined hands. His head is shaded by the

[1. It is difficult to understand what deities are meant. The phrase would lead us to the three Isvaras, viz. Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva (Schmidt, Mém. de l'Acad. de St. Pétersb., Vol. II., p. 23), about whom we might suppose, from the legend concerning Brahma (see p. 114), that they all three place a check upon the doings of evil spirits. If this be the right interpretation, they would become wrathful in the case of activity, according to the views of the Tibetans (see p. 111). But I cannot perceive for what reason the deceased, in general, should, as it is here stated, ascend to the region where reside these gods so highly esteemed and so extremely superior to simple man and ordinary gods; for Shinje (see p. 93), before whom the deceased is brought, dwells in an inferior region.

2. As the intersyllabic points are not in the original woodcut, I give the address here in Roman characters, rendering the intersyllabic points which are omitted by horizontal lines:--


3. sDig-sgrib-sbyangs-du-gsol; gnas-so-rab-tu-gsol; lam-bstan-du-gsol.


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Dug (umbrella), to which are added the horizontal ribands Labri and the flags Badang.

2. Gyaspai[1] Chinsreg, "the rich sacrifice," to obtain a good harvest, riches, &c. The stove is hemispherical, and of a yellow colour; on its bottom is figured the word "yam," the symbol of air.

3. Vangi[2] Chinsreg, "the sacrifice for power," to obtain influence, power, and success in war. The stove is of a red colour and circular, a form symbolical of the Lotus-flower; it bears on its under side "bam," the symbol of water.

4. Dragpo[3] Chinsreg, "the fierce sacrifice," to obtain protection from "untimely death," as well as to bring down punishment upon the evil spirits who have caused such a dreaded misfortune. The stove is triangular and of a black colour; the character on its bottom, "ram," is the symbol of fire.[4]

Plate No. XIV., Lit. a, gives--immediately transferred upon paper, as if it were a woodcut intended for printing--the surface of a rectangular oblong piece of wood, in which four holes are made, into which bread, paste, butter mixed with grains or similar objects, are pressed and sacrificed as a substitute for the burnt-offering. The characters in the centre are the symbols of the four elements, and the holes show the form of the stoves in which the offerings are burnt. In addition to these figures and symbols there is represented on the woodcut

[1. rGyas-pa, "ample, copious."

2. dVang, "power."

3. Drag-po, "fierce, cruel."

4. Concerning untimely death see p. 109.]

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Plate X. From a woodcut from Easter Tíbet


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the officiating Lama, holding in his left hand the two spoons, emblematical of those used in this ceremony.

3. Invocation of Lungta.

Lungta, "the airy horse, the horse of wind,"[1] occurs in the list of the seven precious things under the name of Tachog, "the best horse of its kind." This horse is praised in the legends for its extraordinary swiftness. "When the king of the golden wheel, the governor of the four continents (in Sanskrit Mahâ Chakravartin Râja), mounts it to traverse the world, he sets out in the morning and returns at night without having experienced any fatigue." The Norvu phrengva reports, that it passes over immense tracts in one moment.[2]

The Lungta is the symbol of "harmony;" for it unites in harmony the three conditions of human existence, upon the union of which happiness depends; it strengthens these conditions, so as to cause a union salutary to man. These three conditions of existence and welfare are: Srog, Lus, and Vang.

Srog, the vital principle, "breath," is the basis of existence.

Lus, "body," means the due development of the organic formation of the body.

Vang, "power," means the moral energy enabling man to abstain from such actions as injure the vital

[1. rLung, "wind;" "horse."

2. Rémusat, in Foe koue ki, p. 128. Schmidt, Ssanang Ssetsen, p. 471. About the seven precious things, see p. 53.]

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principle and the organs of the body, and produce illness and death. It indicates, at the same time, the faculty of averting the dangers which arise from the natural hostility of the elements.[1]

Another faculty of Lungta is the power of depriving the constellations of the planets hostile to man of their obnoxious influence. Moreover, the efficacy of any Dhâranî, or mystical sentence, for happiness in this existence is supposed to become more certain by the presence of Lungta, and from this belief it has become customary to add to such Dhârânîs a horse supporting the precious stone Norbu, or a figure allegorical of the horse, or at, least an address directed to Lungta.

The plates brought home by my brothers, exhibit specimens of this practice. The Dhârânîs are Sanskrit, and are written with Tibetan, and occasionally also with Lantsa characters. The purposes aimed at, and the deities implored by them vary; in most of them, however, we meet with "Om mani padme hum," and "Om Vajrapâni hum," Dhârânîs meant for Padmapâni and Vajrapâni.

The horse stands in the centre of plate No. XI., and bears the precious stone Norbu. In other copies it is running towards the left border, whilst the letters run as usual from left to right; in the present plate

[1. As often as the element which at a person's birth occurred in the denomination of the year comes in contact in "the cycles of years" with a hostile element, the years in which this takes place are unlucky ones; health is endangered and failure in one's undertakings may be expected. This idea refers to the belief of the Tibetans in an influence of the elements upon the welfare of man. See Chapter XVII.]

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The letters are here inverted, the same having been cut in the block itself in their positive form.

Plate XI.


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1. Print from a Tibetan woodcut, from Síkkim.


2. Copies of Formulæ, obtained at the monastery of Hímis, in Ladák.


Plate XII.

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every thing has the opposite direction, the maker decidedly not taking the trouble to invert his own work. Such irregularities are not very unfrequent, particularly if the plates are not intended to be printed on paper, but only to make impressions on articles of food. As allegorical signs occasionally substituted for the figure of the horse we sometimes find the anagrammatic form of the prayer Om mani padme hum in Lantsa characters, or the Lantsa letter Om, encircled in either case by a glory, with the characters Ba and Bam at its sides. Other invocations of Lungta have no central ornament.

The addresses directed to Lungta personally are generally limited to the lower part of the table; a most potent imploration of it is the one printed on Plate XII., No. 2; it runs thus: "Wealth, the friend of sharpness, Lungta of breath, of body, of power, may you increase and grow like the new moon." In tables on which are inscribed this prayer, the four corners of the image are almost always filled out with the figures or with the names of a tiger (Tib. Tag), a lion (Senge), a bird (Khyung), and a dragon (Brug); and a Dhâranî is frequently inserted before the imploration of the Lungta, running thus: "Tiger, lion, bird and dragon, may they too co-operate to a complete union; sarva-du-du-hom."

In order that the Lungta produce its proper effect, the colour of the cloth or paper upon which it is printed, is also of importance; the rules concerning the modalities are, however, very simple; and if the right colour is not at hand, it may be supplied by rags of

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the required colour, which are cut into triangles (indicating that they are Phurbus), and fastened along the lower border of the table. The implorations of Lungta do not require the performance by a Lama, neither do the ceremonies more complicated still which have been established. for increasing the probability of success,[1] and this belief may also be one of the reasons of the frequent application to Lungta.

4. The Talisman Changpo.

This talisman, which means "the keeper, the holder," is believed to protect man from the machinations of the evil spirits and to enable those who hang it up in their houses, or who wear it as an amulet, to resist the temptations to sin prompted by these demons. The form of this talisman is circular, as seen in Plate XIII. In the centre is a smaller inner circle; in a second, larger circle is traced a star, and along the inner side of this circle and in the eight intersectional compartments formed by the corners of the star are inscribed the names of hostile spirits. Outside the circles are seen a male and a female, the arms of the one figure tied with chains to the feet of the other.

This Plate is a print from a woodcut; the block had been so much used that the original sharpness was quite gone, and the wood had become cracked.

[1. There are several books in which is detailed what may be done besides.]

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Plate XIII.


From Dába; in Gnári Khórsum.


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5. The magical figure Phurbu.

The Phurbu, literally "a peg," "pin," or "nail," is drawn as a triangle upon paper covered with charms; the handle has the form of a half-dorje. The Buddhists attribute to the Phurbu the faculty of preventing the evil spirits from inflicting mischief, or of expelling them, in case they have already begun to exercise their baneful influence. It is believed, that even the mere presence of the word Phurbu prevents the evil spirits from entering the houses and from injuring those who carry it as an amulet; the sentence Phur-bui-dab-vo, "I cast thee with the nail," is therefore repeated in many books[1] which treat of the evil spirits; the point of a Phurbu, if directed towards the side where evil spirits dwell, drives them away, and brings them to ruin.

Generally, three Phurbus, enclosed by flames, are traced upon the same paper; this is fixed on paste-board or thin boards. In case of an illness, or when any mischief has been done which is supposed to have originated with evil spirits, the head of the family--or if he is wealthy enough to engage a Lama, the Lama--accompanied by the family and relatives, goes round the house, turning the point of the Phurbu in all directions, and uttering incantations at the height of his voice.

[1. In the book Dug karchan, "provided with a white umbrella," this sentence is added to the name of the twenty evil spirits who are mentioned there.]

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The accompanying woodcut shows the arrangement of the Phurbu. The two Tibetan characters in the central part of the figure stand for dGra (pronounced Da), which means "enemy," and for bGegs, pronounced Geg, "evil spirit." The human face between the smaller Phurbus is that of Tamdin, in Sanskrit Hayagrîva. Tamdin is a Dragshed who is considered to take a very prominent part in protecting man against the evil spirits. A dorje projects from his head; and under the chin is inscribed the mystical syllable Ah.


The oblong rectangle next his face and the hexagon contain a Dhâranî several times repeated, which threatens all the "evil spirits who dwell above the earth." The Dhâranîs in the following rectangle are directed against the Geg who inhabit the east, Shar, the south-east, Sharlho, and the south, Lho. The Dhâranîs in the joint of the triangle and at the beginning of the first large line in the triangular part keep off the evil spirits occupying the south-east, Lhonab. Each Dhâranî finishes with the words "destroy, bring to ruin." The Dhârânîs are Sanskrit, written with Tibetan characters.

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On the handles of the two smaller Phurbus is inscribed the mystical syllable hum.

The other charms in the triangle begin with "Ah Tamdin," a mystical form of imploring this god. They keep off the evil spirits who dwell in the north-east, Nub-jang, in the north, Jang, and in the other quarters of the world;[1] and it is declared that the wearing of such a Phurkha,[2] "sharp Phurbu," serves as a protection against all mischief originating in any of these quarters. Each of these Dhârânîs is Sanskrit, which, like numerous other charms, cannot well be translated in detail, and terminates with the syllables hum phat, a charm, of which the chief of the Dâkinîs says, in the Norvu phrengva, "Crying with the voice of concealment hum and phat, I shall keep in order the innumerable legion of Dâkinîs." At the end of the inscription it is said that this Dhâranî is particularly directed against the spirits inhabiting the air, and against that class especially called rGyal-po-rgyas-'gong-shin-dre-sron-dre.

The Dhârânîs inscribed on the handle, and the joint of the triangle, are always addressed to Tamdin; those with which the triangle itself is filled may vary, as any one who orders a Phurbu may have Dhârânîs directed against such evil spirits as he considers particularly hostile towards himself.

Those Phurbus are considered the most efficacious to which Dalai Lama and Panchen Rinpoche have composed

[1. Concerning the quarters of the world, which are ten in number, see p. 126.

2. Kha, "bitter," here in the sense of sharp.

3. Schmidt, "Geschichte der Ostmongolen," p. 468.--Compare also p. 247.]

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the Dhârânîs; such Phurbus as can prove this claim fetch a high price.

The Phurbus also form an important article of trade for the Mongolian pilgrims returning from Tibet, who never fail to assert that the Dhârânîs on their Phurbus are the composition of the Dalai Lama.

6. The Ceremonies Thugdam kantsai.[1]

Whenever the assistance of any one of the many Dragsheds is sought by ceremonies, the prayers recited and the offerings made to him, must follow in a certain order:

1. The ceremonies with hymns praising the power of the god implored, and enumerating his attributes. This is called Ngontog,[2] "to cause the eminent understanding."

2. The region where the god dwells is described, the technical term being Chandren, "to cite."

3. The offerings are laid on the altar; Chodpa "the sacrifice."

4. Prayers are spoken imploring the remission of sins; an act called Shagpa, "repentance, confession."

5. Kantsai, the presentation of objects "to make content." The mode of offering consists in the consecration of the objects to the gods, which, hereafter, can no more be used for worldly purposes.

The offerings are, in some cases, weapons and living animals, one of the chief objects being an arrow, to which

[1. Thugs-dam "prayer;", bskang "satiate, to make content;" rdzas, "substance, wealth."

2. mNgon "clear, eminent;" rtogs "understanding."]

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five silken strips of the five sacred colours are fastened, called Darnai janpa, "ornament of five strips of silk,"[1] as well as a disk of brass, called Melong, "a mirror," upon which the mystical syllables om, tram, ah,[2] hri, hum are inscribed as here follows:--











Feathers, also, are attached to the arrow; they must be selected from such birds as are known favourites of the Dragshed implored; thus, to Lhamo the arrow presented is ornamented with the feathers of the raven, to Gonpo (Mahâdeva) with those of a kite. Between the feathers small strips of paper are inserted on which are written certain charms, which are also inscribed upon the point and the shaft of the arrow.

When the act of imploration is over, the arrow is stuck perpendicularly into the ground, a position from which it can only be removed by the astrologers.

7. Invocation of Nagpo Chenpo, by moving the arrow.

Nagpo Chenpo, in Sanskrit Mahâkala, is supposed to grant success in undertakings and to protect from the hostility of mischievous spirits in general; but the ceremony

[1. Dar "silk," sna "end, strip," lnga "5;" rgyan-pa "ornament;" the nga "5," was suppressed in the pronunciation.

2. Csoma, "Grammar," p. 105, explains om to be a mystical interjection, denoting the essential body or person of a Buddha, or any other divinity. Hri is a mystical very powerful imploration of Chenresi.]

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of "moving the arrow," is also performed for the purpose of discovering the perpetrators of a theft.

The head Lama of the monastery in which the ceremony has to take place begins it, amidst the loud sound of cymbals, drums, and pipes, with the reading of certain passages from a book which treats of Nagpo Chenpo's faculties, of the Dhâranîs communicated by him to man, of his hatred towards the evil spirits, and of the offerings which are most agreeable to him. The Lama concludes this lecture by threatening the malignant spirits with Nagpo Chenpo's wrath, if they do harm to those who have ordered the performance of this ceremony. He then hands to a novice a large and heavy arrow trimmed with feathers, strips of silk, and slips of paper inscribed with invocations to Nagpo Chenpo. The novice, who has taken a seat upon a carpet of white felt, holds this arrow with one hand, the point resting perpendicularly upon the palm of the other; by a slight shaking and turning he brings this point into motion, and gradually lets the arrow fall on the ground; his shakings become more violent as soon as the point has left the palm of his hand and moves on to the ground; he then seizes it with both hands, and by convulsive shaking he keeps it constantly moving. But the spectators believe the arrow to go on by its own power, and the shakings and tremblings of the priest to be the natural consequences of its spontaneous motion.

The novice continues to turn the arrow for several hours, during which he has perhaps walked over as many miles, and he only ceases to move it, when his hands

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show blisters or when his strength is exhausted. The halt of the arrow is taken as an unmistakeable manifestation that the evil spirits have been driven away; or if the arrow has been moved for the discovery of a theft, that its perpetrator is to be looked for in the direction pointed out. The novice then returns with his arrow to join the Lamas, who in the meantime have been engaged in singing hymns, and reciting the prescribed prayers; some concluding hymns are sung, and the arrow is solemnly handed over, to him who had ordered the ceremony.

8. The Ceremony Yangug.

The aim of this ceremony, Yangug or Yangchob, "to call for luck, to insure luck,"[1] is to implore Dzambhala or Dodne vangpo,[2] the god of wealth, to grant riches. An arrow is offered similar to that used in the purchase of the assistance of the Dragsheds (No. 6), but the disk attached to it has a central perforation and four groups of lateral ones, as substitutes for the mystical syllables; the feathers on the shaft of the arrow are those of a black eagle, and round the five strips of silk is wrapped a band of white cloth covered with some Dhâranîs, and terminating in two loops.[3] These notices also present additional illustrations of the address to the Buddhas of confession (Chapter X1). Every contribution to its explanation was the more welcome to me as the novelty

[1. gYang "luck," 'gugs "to call;" skyobs "to protect."

2. gDod-nas "from the beginning;" dvang-po "ruler, the entirely powerful."

3. The arrow I have also seen traced on an astrological table.]

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of the object so considerably increased the difficulty of entering into the full particulars. We found it mentioned there (see p. 137), that in the period of the destruction of the universe the performance of the ceremony Yangug will be more frequent than the pious acts which afford purification from sins.

The representations of Dzambhala show him generally surrounded by the eight other gods granting riches, who are styled Namthosras, in Sanskrit Vaïsravanas; these personages are always represented holding in the left hand a rat with a jewel in its mouth, a supposed symbol of fertility. Dzambhala himself is in all pictures represented riding upon a white lion with a green mane, his right hand supporting the Gyaltsan, in Sanskrit Dhvaja, a kind of banner with a floating cloth which typifies victory. His eight companions bear in the right hand the following objects: 1. A precious thing, in Tibetan Rinchen; 2. The flat vessel Lai Bumpa (see p. 247); 3. A small house several stories high, Khangtsig; 4. A pick-axe, Dungtsi; 5. A sword, Ralgri; 6. The precious Stone Norbu; 7. A sword, Ralgri; 8. A clasp-knife, Digug.--A detailed account of the doings of these gods and of the meaning of the articles they hold, is given in the book Gyalpo chenpo namthosras chi kang shag, of which the St. Petersburg Academy has a copy.

My brothers once saw an image in which the mythological Buddha Dîpankara, (see p. 131), in Tibetan Marmedzad, and a "Buddha of medicine," in Tibetan Manla, were associated with Dzambhala instead of his eight companions.

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9. Ceremonies performed in cases of illness.

The remarks offered here are partly taken from the Tibetan book on medicine published by Csoma, and partly based upon made by my brothers.

The Tibetan book[1] enumerates three principal and four secondary causes of diseases. The three principal causes are: 1. Lust, or desire; 2. Passion, or anger; 3. Dullness, or ignorance. By the first wind is caused; by the second bile; by the last phlegm. The four causes of a secondary nature are: 1. Season, with respect to cold and heat; 2. Any evil spirit; 3. Wrong use of food; 4. A bad course of life. The book contains useful hints, as to the course to be pursued in order to remain free from illness, and also gives a number of rules with respect to food, occupation, conduct of life in conformity with the different seasons, &c. The symptoms of diseases are indicated, and the questions are given which are to be addressed by the physician to the patient respecting his food, occupation and the circumstances how the disease first arose, its progress, and the. pain felt. The several remedies prescribed against diseases are enumerated, 1,200 in number, which may be reduced to four classes: medicine, manual labour, diet, and manner of life.

[1. It in entitled Gyut zhi, "the tract in four parts," and is declared by Csoma, to be the principal work on medicine in Tibet. For an analysis of it see Journ. As. Soc. Beng., Vol. IV., p. 1-20. It is not introduced into the large collections of the Kanjur and Tanjur, which contain several other works on medicine; see Wilson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng., Vol.. I., p. 4. Gleanings in Science, Vol. III., p. 247. For further notices on medicine, compare also the "Description du Tubet," in Nouv. Journ. As., Vol. IV., p. 257. Trail, "Kamaon," As. Res., Vol. XVI., p. 222. Pallas, "Mongol. Völker," Vol. II., p. 338.]

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My brothers had never seen or heard of any medicine having been taken, or any surgical operation undertaken, which was not preceded and again followed by addresses to the Buddhas of medicine, in Tibetan Manlas, "the supreme physicians," and by the performance of certain ceremonies supposed to increase the sanative power of the medicine. The Manlas are eight in number; they are the imaginary Buddhas who are believed to have created the medicinal plants. When men set out to collect such plants they implore the assistance of the Manlas, and their names are uttered when the medicine is prepared and taken; their names or images are also generally printed at the commencement of books treating on medicine. The greatest number of prayers are addressed to them when the pills "Mani" are prepared, which are employed only in cases of very serious illness. The ceremonies accompanying the preparation of these pills are styled Manii rilbu grub thab, "preparation of the pill Mani."[1] The Manis are made of a particular kind of bread-paste, with which particles of the relies of a saint have been mixed in the form of powder or ashes. This paste is moistened with consecrated water, and kneaded up with ordinary bread-paste, from which are then made the smaller pills to be taken by sick persons.[2] The vessel with the water and paste is put upon a circle divided into six sections and a smaller central circle; in this centre stands the Syllable "hri," a mystical and very powerful imploration of Chenresi; in each

[1. Mani "a precious stone" ril-bu "a globular figure, a pill;" grub "to have done; made ready;" thabs "means, method."

2. These pills are identical with those mentioned by Huc, "Souvenirs," Vol. II., p. 278, as highly esteemed.]

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of the six sections is inscribed a syllable of the prayer Om mani padme hum. As long as the paste remains in the water (the prescribed time ranges from one to three weeks) some Lamas (who are not allowed to eat meat during this period) recite all day long particular prayers in honour of the Manlas.

With reference to diseases caused by ghosts and evil, spirits, the 73rd. Chapter of Part IV. of the book mentioned enumerates twelve kinds, the 77th. eighteen. The causes, symptoms, and remedies are also enumerated. About these kinds of diseases and the methods of curing them my brothers learned the following particulars.

Each malignant spirit causes some particular disease. Thus Râhu[1] inflicts palsy, in Tibetan Zanad; fifteen other devils, called Donchen Chonga,[2] "the fifteen great evil spirits," cause children to fall sick, &c. When the Lama physician who has been called to a sick man, has determined the illness to have been occasioned by a malignant spirit, he proceeds to examine into the circumstances, in order to detect the causes which have allowed the spirit to gain influence over the patient, and the means he employed to make him sick. When the illness is insignificant, as in cases of cold, hoarseness, light wounds, &c., it does not take, according to the belief of the Tibetans, much trouble to drive away the evil spirit; the remedies consist either in charms, which the patient has to wear, to affix to the door, or to read; or a noisy music is performed, before which the evil spirits are supposed to

[1. See p. 115.

2. gDon "an evil spirit;" chhen "great;" bcho-lnga "fifteen."]

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yield; or the very Dragshed who is the particular enemy of the offending evil spirit is implored, and his image is hung up after having been carried in procession round the house; or the Phurbu is applied. These are the most common methods employed for the recovery of health; but it lies in the nature of this matter that these rites should vary considerably.

In cases of serious illness, particularly when the sick man is no more able to rise, the evil spirit is supposed to have crept into the house in the shape of an animal, and to dwell in this form near the sick man. The first business of the Lama then is to find out the form which the evil spirit has assumed, in which endeavours he finally succeeds by various ceremonies very much of a character akin to juggling. An animal is formed of clay or bread-paste by means of a wooden mould, of which he carries with him a variety for selection,[1] and the soul of the spirit is compelled to leave the assumed brute form, and to enter into the representation of it; for this purpose magical circles are traced and incantations recited for some time. When the evil spirit has been confined, by these means, the Lama reads passages out of certain books, and hands the moulded animal over to the patient to burn or to bury it; prints of it are also pasted on various parts of the house and are only removed when the disease has disappeared. If this means is not attended with success, and the sick man dies, it is averred that the illness was a punishment for immoral actions committed in some former existence.

[1. Specimens of such blocks are given in Plates Nos. XIV. to XVI.]

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Plate XIV.


No. 1: From Síkkim.


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10. Funeral rites.

The funeral (Tib. Shid) of a layman generally terminates, where circumstances, allow of it, in the burning of the body, although the practice of exposing the corpse on the hills as a prey to wild animals, formerly a very common one, is even now sometimes resorted to on account of the scarcity of wood.[1] The ceremony of burning the body is performed upon an altar of a cubical form; in larger towns several of these are kept ready for immediate use; thus there are twelve such altars at Leh, surrounding the burial ground. In countries where wood is plentiful, as in Bhután and Síkkim, enough is employed to render the combustion complete, nothing remaining but ashes; but in Tíbet it often happens that quantities of the bones remain unconsumed, which are, then carefully collected, together with the ashes, and buried.[2]

The bodies of the Lamas are not burnt: they are

[1. For descriptions of various kinds of funerals see Nouv. Journ. Asiat., Vol. IV., p. 254. Huc, "Souvenirs," Vol. II., p. 347. Cunningham, "Ladák," p. 308.

2. Concerning the mode of collecting the ashes in Eastern Bengál and Assám my brother Hermann gave me the following details--A cloth about three feet square is fastened at its four ends to canes about three to four feet high, which are driven into the earth; into this cloth, thus forming a sort of trough, the ashes, bones and remaining pieces of charcoal are gathered, and left to be dispersed by the wind, or gradually decomposed by the rain and heat. The tribes of the Khássia hills, where the amount of rain exceeds that of any known country, although it is limited to a duration of three to four months, have a most curious practise of keeping their dead till the rainy season is over; as long as the heavy rains last no combustion in the open air would be possible. They put the corpse into trunk of a hollow tree, and fill this up with honey, a process which prevents decomposition for several months, even in these hot and moist regions.]

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buried in a reclining attitude (not exactly in a sitting posture), with the knees brought up to the chin, and the whole corpse laced together into as small a space as possible; occasionally they are put into a cloth bag. In general, the: graves are not dug; the grave-yard being selected in places abounding with stones, the corps is simply laid down on the ground and concealed beneath a heap of stones. The erection of Chortens over the dead is limited to exceptional cases. With the remarkable toleration so characteristic of Buddhism, my brothers were allowed to open and examine some of the graves near Leh, and they even induced a Lama to undertake the boiling of some corpses for the purpose of cleaning and preparing the skeletons, though the latter process had to be concealed from the population in general. The corpses taken out of their graves were not decomposed; the great dryness of the atmosphere had caused the flesh to shrink to a hard leathery substance covering the bones, and this yielded but very slowly to the action of the boiling water. The length of several corpses compressed in the way just described was found to be from 2½ to 3 feet.

During the process of combustion and interment prayers are recited and various ceremonies performed; offerings are presented to the god of the fire, Melha; the Zhiba Chrinsreg, to obtain the remission of the sins of the deceased,[1] is also performed. A ceremony which precedes the interment consists in the purchase of the burial-ground from the lord of the ground, in Tibetan

[1. For its description see p. 249.]

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Sadag gyalpo. The lord of the ground, and the mischievous spirits obeying him, are supposed to do mischief, from innate malice, to the dead in his future existence, as well as to his surviving relatives in their present one. The lord of the ground can be pacified by the purchase of the burial ground, while the other malignant spirits are banished by charms and rites, in which reverence is paid to the three gems, viz. to Buddha, Dharma, and Sanga.[1] These rites are said to have been taught to man by Manjusrî, the god of wisdom. The relatives of the deceased inform the astrologers, who are considered to have intercourse with Sadag, of the amount they propose to pay to Sadag, either in the form of cattle or money, and request them to persuade him to be satisfied therewith. Invariably the answer is returned, that Sadag, who is represented as insatiable, wants more for his pacification than the amount offered. When, finally, the necessary sum has been settled, the grave is marked out, and the astrologers proceed to expel Sadag and all the other malignant spirits in the following terms:

"Lord of the ground, and you Mahôragas,[2] hear my command and order, which I issue with the ceremonies prescribed by the sacred law of the god Manjusrî and of the three gems. I drive the arrow not into the eyes, not into the feet, not into the bowels of the evil spirits, Lord of the ground, but into the earth, in order to

[1. See p. 184, Note 2.

2. Mahôragas, in Tibetan Tophye chenpo, are terrestrial dragons superior to man. See Foe koue ki, Engl. transl., p. 133.]

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render propitious the inferior mischievous spirits. Genii, if you do not obey my order, I will break your heads with my dorje. Hear my order: hurt neither the deceased (his name is here repeated) nor his surviving relatives. Do them no damage, neither injure them, nor teaze them, nor bring misfortune upon them."[1]

The Lama then drives the arrow into the ground, where it remains until the dead person is buried.

[1. From an oral communication from a Lama.]

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Next: Chapter XVI. The Systems of Reckoning Time