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DEITIES REPRESENTED.--METHODS OF EXECUTING SACRED OBJECTS. Drawings and paintings.--Statues and bas-reliefs.--CHARACTERISTIC TYPES.--General attitude of the body and position of the fingers.--Buddhas.--Bôdhisattvas.--Priests, ancient and modern.-- Dragsheds. ILLUSTRATIONS DERIVED FROM MEASUREMENTS.

Deities represented.

WE learn from the ancient legends, that already in the earliest periods of Buddhism relies and images of the Buddha had been highly honoured; the religious works recommend them to be worshipped, as also the monuments in which the relies are deposited; and we find it mentioned that the images which were sent to royal persons at their desire, were previously inscribed with the sacred dogma "Ye Dharma," &c., and similar formulæ, in order to make them acquainted with Buddhist doctrines.[1] Such were the earliest objects of worship; the. mode of worship was also very simple; prosternations were made before the images of the Buddha, flowers and

[1. Burnouf, "Introduction," p. 337-51. Schmidt, "Grundlehren." Mém. de l'Acad. de St. Petersb., Vol. I., p. 238. For the Sanskrit and Tibetan text see Plate I.]

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perfumes were offered, and prayers and hymns recited for their glorification. The same simplicity of rite prevailed still in the seventh century A.D., as we learn from Hiuen Thsang, though the objects of adoration and worship had increased in number; for Hiuen Thsang mentions, that the principal disciples of Sâkyamuni were then worshipped, as also the Bôdhisattvas who had excelled in virtue and in the sciences, as Manjusrî; the Mahâyâna Schools, he says, have adored even all Bôdhisattvas without any further distinction.[1]

At the present day, besides the things and persons just mentioned, the mythological Buddhas preceding Sâkyamuni as well as those who will follow him, their corresponding Dhyâni Buddhas and Dhyâni Bôdhisattvas, are worshipped, and a host of gods, spirits, and deified priests enjoying a local reputation for sanctity. In order to furnish an idea of their immense number, I mention, that the Tibetan collection of Buddhist images, known under the name "Gallery of Portraits," contains the drawings of more than three hundred Buddhas, Saints, &c., each having his name added beneath.[2]

Methods of executing sacred objects.

Modern Buddhism, in order to facilitate the worship of its many deities, has made representations of

[1. Barthélemy St Hilaire, "Le Buddha et sa Religion," p. 288-297.

2. This "Gallery of Portraits" is similar to the Japanese collection of Buddha figures, entitled "the Buddha Pantheon of Nippon," which was compiled 1690 and consists of 631 drawings. Prof. J. Hofmann at Leyden has published it and illustrated it by annotations in Siebold's "Nippon, Archiv zur Beschreibung von Japan," Vol. V.]

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them in prodigious quantities. Copies are met with everywhere, not a temple but contains lots of them; they are set up in the private houses and in the open air; and title-pages of printed books, nay even the headings of each chapter are frequently embellished either by a black figure, or by a coloured one. This astonishingly frequent application of representations has probably sprung from the belief, that the image, by being consecrated, becomes "animated," amilakho in Mongolian, viz. endowed with the powers of the God whom it represents; addresses, therefore, may be directed not only to the God himself, but also to his respective image.[1]

The images are manufactured exclusively by the Lamas, who excel herein like their masters the Chinese (who first introduced the images of the Buddha into Tibet), and from whom they afterwards learned how to overcome many of the technical difficulties connected with the manufacture.[2] The monopoly now exercised by the Lamas has chiefly resulted from the belief that prayers directed to representations are efficacious only when they have been executed under prescribed forms and ceremonies, which the clergy alone know how to perform. The ceremonies to be observed are most numerous and various; there are certain days proper for the commencement of a particular picture, and others again on

[1. See Schmidt, "Ssanang Ssetsen," p. 330. I refer the reader to the legends about the alleged influence of the pictures brought to Tibet by the wives of Srongtsan Gampo on the spreading of Buddhism and the welfare of the Tibetans. Ibidem p. 345.

2. With reference to Chinese art compare Nott and Gliddon, "Indigenous Races" p. 302.]

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which alone the eyes are to be painted, these being considered the most important part of the whole picture; besides which during the various stages of progress of each picture other ceremonies and prayers are requisite. Thus, benedictory ceremonies[1] have to be performed immediately after the entire completion of the image, in order that in the meantime no malignant spirit (which beings are considered to be always on the watch to do mischief to man) may take possession of it, whereby the prayers would be rendered utterly valueless.

Plastic objects, such as statues and bas-reliefs, are not less numerous than drawings and paintings.

Drawings and paintings. The patterns for drawings are called Sagpar, and are made by desribing {sic} the outlines of an original drawing with numerous pin-holes, and by rubbing coal-dust into these holes the outlines are transmitted to paper or canvass, prepared with lime and flour-paste; the stratum when dry and hard, is carefully polished with stones, before being used.[2] The lines are then traced with China ink, and the different parts of the picture covered with colours of a uniform tint; only few ornaments are shaded. The picture, when completed, is bordered by several strips of silk, called Thonka, generally three in number, blue, yellow, and red; occasionally also irregular rags of other colours are sewed to its borders. As they have no glass, they

[1. A work embodied in the Gyut division of the Kanjur also treats of the ceremonies to be performed on such occasions. See Csoma, "Analysis," As. Res., Vol. XX., p. 503.

2. The Kalmuks and also the Mongolians print the outlines with woodcuts. Pallas, "Mongol. Völker," Vol. II., p. 105.]

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use for protection against dust silk vail-like coverings; and the only part corresponding to the frame of our pictures, is represented by two round wooden sticks, one of which is passed through the upper border, the other through the lower one; they facilitate the hanging up of the picture and at the same time keep it stretched when hung up. The lower stick is also used to roll the picture upon when sent about.

Statues and bas-reliefs. In the construction of these things moulds are used which are filled out with various plastic materials, such as clay, or a kind of papier-maché, or bread-dough; the positive objects are then generally dried in the sun. Metal figures are but rarely made. The statues are often painted or slightly gilt. As a peculiarity I must mention that even butter is used; it is tinted with different vegetable colours before being put into the mould; the head, the feet, and the hands are filled out in the mould with yellow butter, the garments with red, and so on. They remain put up before the sacred images till the butter, by decomposition, becomes intolerable; they are then thrown away.[1] The sharpness of the statuettes and medaillons, {sic} even of the smallest, is quite surprising.

The most esteemed plastic figures are those in which are enclosed relies (as ashes, bones, hair, rags of the garments of saints), or grains first offered to the Buddhas in divine worship. The grains, before being put into the figures, are consecrated again by a particular ceremony,

[1. Compare also Huc, "Souvenirs," Vol. II., p. 95. In Ceylon temporary images are made of rice. Hardy, "Eastern Monachism," p. 202.]

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called Rabne zhugpa. Relies and grains are either mixed with the material of which the figure is composed, or they are enshrined in a small hole at the bottom or back, the hole being called Zung zhug, "Dhâranî place," from the Zungs or Dhâranîs read during the ceremonies of the consecration. The hole is closed again by a seal, in order to prevent the objects from falling out or from being taken out without the fact being discovered, for then the figure is supposed to have lost all its beneficial influence. Figures containing such sacred objects, are styled Satsa, or Tsatsa, a name which is also given to the chorten-like cones moulded from clay by travellers.[1]

In the drawings, as well as upon the sculptures a variety of symbolical signs occur. Hodgson has drawn attention in several of his papers to these signs as a means of determining that ruins showing such symbols are certainly Buddhist remains; he has recently published a collection of 110 symbols, which were extracted from Nepalese Buddhist images, books, and engravings on stone--a collection highly important for tracing the extent of Buddhism in earlier periods. In these papers Hodgson points out in several instances the identity of Buddhist symbols with those upon images of Sivaitic deities; but by closely examining their meaning with the Buddhists, he came to the conclusion "that the things typified are always more or less, and generally radically, different;" and his opinion is highly supported by Hofmann, who

[1. Comp. p. 194.]

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made analogous researches about Japanese writings and images.[1]

Characteristic types.

A comparison of the images of various sacred persons shows at once a strongly marked difference in attitude, features, dress, and emblems between the various groups, particularly between the Buddhas, the Bôdhisattvas, the priests (ancient and modern), and the Dragsheds.

General attitude of the body and position of the fingers. The artist who makes a representation of any god, is not allowed to follow his own idea or to make any alteration in the original design. But many of the gods may be represented in Several attitudes recalling some of the glorious and important moments of their life. Thus, Sâkyamuni, with one hand uplifted, denotes his character as a teacher; a sitting attitude, with one hand holding the alms-bowl, the other hanging down over the knee, is chosen to represent him plunged in meditation; a recumbent position means his having left the world for ever. Padmapâni's eleven faces and thousand hands and feet refer to the legend about the cleaving of his head. Melha, the God of fire, when driving away the evil spirits, rides a red ram, and has a most horrible countenance; whilst in representations not having for object

[1. Hodgson, "Illustrations," p. 209. Journ. of the R. A. Soc., Vol. XVIII., p. 393; thirty-three symbols derived from coins have been omitted from considerations of cost. See instead of them the series of 168 compiled by Wilson, Plate XXII., in his "Ariana antiqua."--Hofmann, "Nippon Pantheon;" remarks annexed to Fig. 163, 432.]

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to show his wrath, his attitude and type are those of a Buddha.

The positions of the fingers, also (in Tibetan Chakja, literally an emblem, a seal, in Sanskrit Mudrâ), have an allegorical meaning. Thus, the right hand hanging down over the knee, with the palm of the hand turned outwards, symbolizes charity, and is called Chagye chin, "the right hand of charity."

The attitude Rangi nying gar thalmo charva, i. e. "uniting the palms of the hands on one's heart," is the following:--The two hands uplifted, a finger of the right hand touching one or two fingers of the left hand, like a man accustomed to use his fingers in explaining his meaning. This attitude typifies "the unity of wisdom with matter," in Tibetan Thabshes, or Thabdang shesrab, or the assuming of the material forms by the Buddhas and Bôdhisattvas for the purpose of spreading the right understanding amongst animated beings. It is certainly not accidental that none of the Buddhist gestures are identical with those made by the Brahmans when performing the ceremonies of their creed.[1]

The Buddhas are men, but men of the most perfect form, endowed with thirty-two superior beauties, and eighty or eighty-four secondary ones.[2] It is in strict conformity with these characteristics, that the Buddhas are represented with soft and smiling features, which are

[1. These have been collected in Mrs. S. C. Belnos' folio work, "The Sundya, or daily prayers of the Brahmans." London 1851. For Buddhist gestures see the plates of Hofmann's "Buddha Pantheon."

2. See concerning these, Burnouf, "Le Lotus de la Bonne Loi," Appendix VIII. Hardy, "Manual of Buddhism," P. 367. Compare also p. 140.]

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also given to Maitreya, the future Buddha, who in the other attributes is likewise equal to the Buddhas who have already appeared. These, the Mânushi Buddhas, are of gold or yellow complexion; both colours are identical, the latter being but the cheaper substitute for gold. The ears are large, the laps rest upon the shoulders; the arms are long; there is a single hair on the forehead, called in Sanskrit Urnâ; on the crown of the head is a cylindrical elevation, in Sanskrit Ushnîsha, in Tibetan Tsugtor, and from this rises a conical ornament called in Tibetan Progzhu, or Chodpan, "a head-ornament, a crown, diadem," which is almost always gilt. The Buddhists view the Ushnîsha as an excrescence of the skull, an interpretation, however, which is not supported by the etymology of the name, which would restrict its meaning to "a turban," or "dressed hair." I believe this curious protuberance to have resulted from the way of dressing the hair practised by the Brahmans, which is decidedly very ancient, and is found to be the same as that on the oldest figures we know. The Brahmans cut away the hair, except that on a circular space on the crown, which they twist into a knot. It is most probable that the Buddhist have conferred upon their sublime masters this prerogative of the highest Indian caste.[1]

[1. Burnouf, "Lotus," p. 558, believes this hair-dress to have been adopted as a protection against the dangerous influence of the sun.--A trace of the original view has also been retained in the Tibetan term Tsugtor for Ushnîsha, which is explained in the Dictionaries to mean "a tuft of hair," as well as "a sort of excrescence on the crown of the head." A Nepalese Buddha priest, also, speaking of Vajrasattva's image at Buddha Gayah, says: "The lock on the crown of the head is twisted into a turban." Hodgson, Illustrations," p. 206.]

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The Dhyâni Buddhas and the mythological Buddhas have a white, red, green or blue complexion. The Dhyâni Buddhas are, besides, distinguished by a third eye on the forehead--the eye of wisdom, in Tibetan Shesrab chan; in those images of Padmapâni in which he is represented with a great many hands, this eye is also traced in the palm of his hands.

All Buddhas are dressed in the religious shawl, the Lagoi, which is generally, folded round the body and over the left shoulder, with a small end coming up over the right shoulder also.[1] The heads are encircled by a glory, typifying a leaf of the Sacred fig-tree (ficus religiosa), under whose shadow Sâkyamuni had obtained the supreme intelligence; in ancient figures this glory is sometimes pointed and oval, like such a leaf, but in modern representations it has universally a circular form?

The right hand of the Buddhas is always represented empty, while in the left is often seen the alms-bowl, in Tibetan Lhungzed, in Sanskrit Pâtra. The predominant posture is the sitting one, the legs being crossed and the soles of the feet turned upwards; it is called Dorje kyilkrung. This is said to have been Sâkyamuni's attitude in his mother's womb. Images with one foot hanging down over the throne, are not frequent; the European fashion of sitting should be given to Maitreya,

[1. For a description of the Lagoi see p. 172.

2. See Ritter, "Die Stûpas," p. 232, 267. Concerning the origin of the worship of the fig-tree, compare Hardy, "Eastern Monachism," p. 212. Each Buddha has his peculiar tree, Ibid. p. 215, and "Manual of Buddhism," p. 94.]

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for this mode is called after him Chamzhug, sitting-like Champa (Maitreya); but in the images in our possession he is figured cross-legged like the others.

The Buddhas, whenever they occupy the central part of a picture,[1] are seated upon "the throne of lions, in Sanskrit Simhâsana, in Tibetan Sengti, or Senge chad ti, "the seat of eight lions." The throne is so called from the eight lions which support it; in the drawings, however, two lions only are seen in front. Over the throne a cloth is spread called "the upper cover," Tib. Tenkab, one end of which hangs down, and is decorated with symbols or the figure of a god; on both sides of this Tenkab are not unfrequently seen the heads of two animals, which Hodgson has called "supporters."' As each Buddha and Bôdhisattva has his peculiar animals, they most materially facilitate the determination of the subject of the picture. In images of Sâkyamuni, e. g., two peacocks are frequently drawn at the sides of the Tenkab, the form of their long neck being an allusion to the grass Kusa, of which he had made the cushion he sat down upon under the Bôdhi-tree

[1. The Tibetans like to group together into the same picture several gods, some of whom are represented in formidable attitudes, whilst the others display a smiling countenance. The principal figure is the central one; of the surrounding persons some may have a connexion with him, others have decidedly none. The central figure is very frequently sitting in the middle of a landscape representing the ocean bordered by steep shores beneath him; two snowy mountains rise to the left and right of him; and a dark blue, clouded sky, with the sun and the moon typified by two bright circles, extend above him. Compare Pallas, "Mongol. Völkerschaften," Vol. II., P. 105.

2. "Illustrations," p. 43. The mystical signs upon the Tenkab he calls "cognizances, or mudrâs." W. v. Humboldt, "Kawi Sprache," Vol. I., p. 137, compares them with a heraldic crest and its supporters.]

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in order to obtain supreme wisdom. The throne has a richly ornamented frame, composed of fantastic animals, of which the lower ones are represented lying down, the upper ones standing on the heads of the animals below and raising the fore-feet. On the top of the frame figures very generally the mythological bird Garuda.[1] The interior of the frame is called Jabyol, "back curtain, and is most frequently of a dark colour. The cushion which is upon the throne is a lotus-flower.

The Bôdhisattvas, the Dhyâni Bôdhisattvas as well as those of human origin, are represented like the Buddhas, with a smiling countenance and with a glory; their hair is not unfrequently pushed backwards from the forehead and done up into a cone rising above the head, and occasionally showing the curling of the hair; it is embellished with several gold galloons. They sit upon a lotus-flower, but the throne of lions is not accorded to them; in images where the figures are represented in a standing position the lotus pedicle grows out of the water. Several segments of a circle beginning at the feet and joining the glory, serve as frames for these pictures. The Bôdhisattvas are never represented with the large religious shawl Lagoi; their dress is a kind of philibeg, which is wound round the legs in the fashion adopted by the modern Hindus. A large piece of cloth is rolled round the waist, one end of which is passed under the leg and then drawn up and fastened to the

[1. Already in ancient statues these are met with; see Crawfurd, Lit. Soc.. of Bombay, Vol. II, p. 154, reprinted in his "Archipelago." Pillars with sculptures of mythological animals are also a frequent ornament in Hindu architecture; I quote as an instance the principal temple at Tanjór.]

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girdle. This mode of covering the privy parts is very ancient, for we find it represented in numerous ancient figures;[1] it is altogether remarkable how little alteration Asiatic dress and fashion have undergone in thousands of years, whilst in a space of ten centuries Europe has experienced so many variations. A large shawl falls down from the shoulders, the ends floating in the air. The neck, ears, and feet are ornamented with necklace-like ornaments and rings.

The objects which the Bôdhisattvas hold in their hands have reference to their functions, so frequently mentioned in the legends. Thus, Manjusrî, the god of wisdom, holds a book and a sword, in allusion to his dissipating the darkness of the mind. The lotus-flower (Padma) in Padmapâni's hands has reference to his birth out of this flower. An object frequently found in the hands is a snare, in Tibetan Zhagpa, wherewith, in a typical sense, to catch men in order to impart to them supreme wisdom. There is an interesting explanation of this symbol given in the Nippon Pantheon,[2] in connexion with an image of Padmapâni:--

"He disseminates upon the ocean of birth and decay the Lotus-flower of the excellent law as bait; with the loop of devotion, never cast out in vain, he brings living beings up like fishes, and carries them to the other side of the river, where there is true understanding."

Priests, ancient and modern. The disciples of Sâkyamuni and the later Indian priests are always represented

[1. See Cunningham, "The Bhilsa Topes," Plate XII. 2 Nippon Pantheon, Fig. 96.]

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with the head uncovered and their hair cut short: a characteristic attribute of the former class is the alarm-stick Kharsil, in Sanskrit Hikilo, with which the Indian Buddhist mendicants made a noise when collecting alms, by shaking it and rattling with the metal rings which were passed round the Stick and were prevented from being lost by a frame of metallic wire imitating the outlines of a leaf.[1] The figures of the Tibetan Lamas are distinguished by pointed caps.

The Dragsheds, or the gods who protect man against the evil spirits, axe always represented with a formidable countenance and a complexion very often quite dark;[2] the third eye, the eye of wisdom, upon the forehead has its longer axis in a vertical position. Lha Doljang,[3] the deified consort of King Srongtsan Gampo, has it also traced in her hands and on the soles of her feet; these marks have even a surprising accidental resemblance to the nail marks of our saviour. Some are even figured as fantastic beings, with the head or tail of animals. The glory gives place to flames typifying destruction.[4]

[1. See Schiefner, "Tib. Lebensbeschreibung," Mém. dew savants étrangèrs, Vol. VI., p. 823; and Foe koue ki pp. 92, 355, for a description of the staff of Sâkyamuni. In the Kanjur, Do division, Vol. XXVI., we meet with a treatise in which the use of this staff is explained. Csoma, As. Res., Vol. XX., p. 479. The Kharsils engraved upon the official seals of the head Lamas of monasteries end in a trident instead of having a leaf-shaped metallic frame.

2. Compare p. 111, and Pallas, "Mongol. Völkerschaften," Vol. II., p. 105.

3. See p. 66.

4. Also in the curious manuscript volume, on Bermese mythology, presented by Dr. G. v. Liebig to the Munich library (Cim. 102), an analogous ornamental use of flames for the ornaments of the head. and of the bracelets is repeatedly met with, even parts of their dress floating away in the wind terminate in flames.]

{p. 215} They are almost naked; the tiger's skin, with its feet tied under the chin, hangs down behind from the shoulders, and its lower end is the cushion of their seat; they also wear a necklace of human skulls, and foot and arm rings.

Dragsheds represented standing have the legs in a straddling position, the feet not unfrequently resting upon men; some are seated on animals, generally horses or lions; but camels, yaks, deer, and even crocodiles, also occur, though never elephants. The colour of these animals often deviates from the natural one; for green and yellow horses are met with, as well as lions with a green mane, and blue crocodiles.

The instruments in the hands of the Dragsheds are for the greater part symbolic of their power over the evil spirits. These instruments are:--

1. The Dorje, in Sanskrit Vajra. It may best be compared with four or eight metallic hoops joined together so as to form two balls; their central axis is a cylindrical staff, the points of which project. In drawings, however, only two hoops are seen, the two others, for want of perspective, absolutely coincide with the axis. Dorjes of one ball only are also met with in drawings, which, for the sake of distinction, I call, in those places where they occur, "half Dorjes."

2. The Phurbu, "the nail," three of which are generally united into a triangle, which is attached to a handle terminating in a half Dorje.

3. The Bechon, "the club or heavy stick," a staff about as high as a man, with the trident, Tsesum,

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in Sanskrit Trisula, at one end, and a half Dorje at the other.

4. Zhagpa, "a snare," to catch the evil spirits.

5. The drinking vessel Kapâla, a human skull filled with blood, out of which Lhamo drinks the blood of her son. Such skulls are also used as offering vessels in some religious ceremonies.

Illustrations derived from Measurements.

In connexion with the enumeration of the beauties of the Buddha we are naturally led to think of the plastic forms actually given to the representations of the Buddhas and the sacred personages of inferior order. In Tibet such considerations axe the more worthy our attention as the country is inhabited by a race of men so widely differing in form from the Indian races.

My brothers had made it a particular object of their ethnographical researches to take facial casts,[1] moulded by a mechanical process from the living individuals; and to define by minute measurements of the different parts of the body the general physical character of the various tribes; and they were also allowed to take measurements of the statues of the Buddhas and of other pieces of sculpture representing divinities, &c., set up in the temples. These measurements proved a

[1. The entire series comprizes 275 facial casts, published in a metallic edition by J. A. Barth, Leipzig. In this reproduction four principal shadings of colour are distinguished, corresponding to the principal variations of complexion.]

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very welcome fund of material to me, as the same, together with the analysis of images and the examination of the Buddhist speculations respecting the exterior appearance of their royal founder, gave me the opportunity of entering into an examination of the ethnological characteristics of the various classes of deities represented.[1]

The artistic representations in human form of divinities and figures of heroes we find to be, in every nation, the reproduction of its peculiar type of features,[2] unless history has somewhat modified this otherwise natural course. Instances of this latter case are, however, much less frequent than we might anticipate. The principal causes why history has not a greater influence on the adoption and employment by art of foreign types are, it may be supposed, the following:--Firstly, that the employment of images of a foreign type is but temporary; the peculiar bodily proportions of a people being constantly before the eye of the artist, they are soon taken again as the leading models; and secondly, that the bodily proportions have shown so little variety for periods of unexpected length. Did not the type of a nation remain

[1. The ethnographical materials collected by my brothers during their travels will be the object of Vol. VIII. of the "Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia." Those of the numeric values which were wanted here for the comparison of the measurement of the sculptures with the mean proportions of the Brahmans (the purest caste of the Hindus) and of individuals of the Tibetan race, have been already calculated.

2. The mental and artistic faculties of a nation undergo modifications in the course of time, and act in a corresponding manner upon its productions, the same either being improvements upon the old models or showing a falling off in the execution of such works.]

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comparatively unchanged during a long period of time, then indeed the retaining or not of foreign elements in art could not be judged of at all. As a peculiarly striking instance of the constancy of national type I mention the results obtained from the inspection and comparison of works of Egyptian sculpture;[1] they show, although somewhat disguised under the monumental form, the features of the present inhabitants of those regions, as well as of the various neighbouring nations with whom their ancestors had come into contact.

A tendency to adopt in religious images the figure peculiar to the artists own nation is observed wherever foreign images have been introduced together with foreign worship; the images display the characteristics of the nation now executing them, the proportions of the body and the features may become somewhat idealized;[2]

[1. As the principal works which treat of these interesting and delicate questions I quote "Types of mankind," and "Indigenous races," by Nott and Gliddon.--As another phenomenon in corroboration of the comparative invariability of the original type, may be quoted the Jewish colonies in India, whose members have preserved the Semitic type, and even the fair complexion, wherever they have abstained from intermarriages with natives; but have become assimilated in shape to the native settlers after sexual intermingling has taken place.

2. As a curious and till now isolated instance of an apparent deviation in sculpture from the natural proportions, I may here mention that Hermann observed in the Niniveh sculptures that the foot was considerably longer than the ulua; whilst arbitrary deviations in this respect from nature in. plastics most generally show the opposite error. It must be added, however, that as yet it appears impossible to decide whether this deviation is based upon a real anatomical feature or not, as no human remains from those countries nor portraits of the Ninivites by other nations which would corroborate it are to be seen even in the rich oriental museums of London. Perhaps the continued researches and important discoveries in these regions made by Sir Henry Rawlinson, to whom my brother had occasion to communicate his remark, will soon assist in deciding the question.]

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but garments, ornaments, arms, and the like, remain recognizable as of foreign origin.

But it is a peculiarity of the religious representations of Tibetan Buddhism that they display two well-defined co-existing types, the one showing the Tibetan features, the other having retained the marks of Indian origin. To an eye practised in the examination of minor features in ethnography, the respective geographical origins of the two prototypes present themselves distinctly enough; and even intelligent natives, on their attention being directed to the leading characteristics soon learn how to distinguish the types. Nevertheless great precaution is necessary in touching on so delicate a consideration. Questions of ideal modifications have to be discussed and settled, here as in nearly every analysis of artistic works, before one enters upon a comparison of positive data;, and this probably has been the obstacle to the explanation of forms at first sight appearing altogether unusual as well as arbitrary.[1]

The Bhot race, belonging to the Turanian family, has been so often described, in detail. that I shall confine myself, in my remarks on this people, to what is absolutely necessary. The Bhots are characterised by broad features, strong malar bones, and oblique, eylids,{sic} the orbits and eyballs,{sic} however, being unaffected thereby; I may add as other features less striking perhaps, but not less typical,

[1. I limit myself here almost exclusively to Tibetan Buddhism. China, Japan, and Ceylon, as also the Indian Archipelago, have gods of their own, and these latter show, as was to be expected, types different from those of Tibetan representations.]

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that in the Bhot race the ear is comparatively longer, the mouth broader, and the lower jaw with the chin decidedly weaker. Now in all the representations of the Buddhas and Bôdhisattvas we meet, on the contrary, with features reminding us of the type of the Indian races of Arian origin--the high and open forehead, and a broad, symmetric and prominent chin. The analytical remarks in reference to the measurements will also prove that the body; too, of the Buddhas presents many other not accidental analogies with the bodily proportions of the Arian family of mankind. Dragsheds, Genii, and Lamas show the Tibetan character.

Before entering into details, however, I desire to say a few words on the form in which the numeric material is presented. In order to facilitate an immediate comparison, the values given here are the proportional values: the absolute dimensions are referred, by division by the total height, to this as unit; and they can be re-obtained at once by multiplying the respective number with the total height which before was used as divisor: its mean value for the Brahmans measured is 5 Engl. ft. 6 inches, for the Bhots 5 ft. 4 inches. For the statues the absolute values are of much less importance; here it was particularly necessary to keep in view that objects of coarse workmanship and of very small dimensions were avoided, as such things could not be considered to present a fair average. As an approximate mean value of absolute height I may name 3 to 4 feet for Group C, and 2 to 3 feet for Group D. Group C includes, besides,, two statues from Bérma exceeding

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10 ft.,[1] which were made a present to Hermann by Dr. Mouatt, who obtained them when accompaning the army in the expedition against Rangún. The measurements of these two statues were only taken into calculation because a careful comparison with Buddha-figures measured in Tibet had proved them to have almost identical proportions, and bad, besides, the advantage of furnishing by their size, well-defined values.

The first and second columns, of the following table, contain the means of the different measurements of the human body. The Brahman dimensions are based upon five high-caste individuals of perfectly pure race; the Bhot upon twenty-seven men, limited also to persons of pure (Tibetan) type, though they include natives of the tract of country extending from the Eastern Himálaya to Western Tibet. The third column of the tables shows the mean measurements of plastic representations, partly also of pictorial ones, the latter being of Buddhas and Bôdhisattvas. The

[1. Buddha sculptures of enormous dimensions are not rare either in Bérma. or in Tibet. An album of 96 photographs by Col. Tripe, of which the Madras Government ordered several copies to be taken for official distribution, contains numerous instances of Buddha monuments varying from 20 to 40 ft. in height; the figures are partly in a sitting, partly in a standing attitude. The Buddhas are represented either in human shape, or as animals, in allusion to the remarkable pious acts which the legends report them to have performed in the form of such beings. In Tibet my brothers saw an unusual large figure set up in the temple at Leh; the statue represents the Buddha in meditation (in a sitting attitude), and is a little higher than the temple itself, a part of the head going through a hole in the roof into the open air. The execution of this statue is not lea curious than its dimensions: the body is a frame of wood dressed with draperies of cloth and paper, the head, the arms, and the feet are the only parts of the body moulded of clay. An allusion to a similar figure of extraordinary size is the sitting Buddha at the head of the figures carved in the wood-cut printed on Plate XVI.; the cone above the roof appears to be a part of his head-ornament.]

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fourth column gives the same for Dragsheds, genii, and Lamas.

The quantity of objects measured in living individuals was limited to such parts of the body as by a most varied and detailed examination had been found to be the characteristic.[1] Besides, in the comparison with statues, such parts of the body had still to be excluded the limits of which cannot be well defined in clothed or draperied sculptures.

In reference to the terminology used in the bodily dimensions a few words will be sufficient in explanation.

By vertex is to be understood the junction of the principal cranial bones coinciding with the whirl of the hair.

The diameter antero-posterior is the line connecting the central part of the forehead with the junction of the head and neck.

The distances from the crown of the head to the trochanter, and from the trochanter to the ground, give together the total height of the man. The trochanter is the prominent exterior part of the thigh bone near its upper end.

The total span is the distance from the tip of one middle finger to that of the other, the arms being stretched out to their full length in a horizontal position. In statues the total span had to be obtained by adding the length of hands and arms to the breadth of the torso at the shoulders.

[1. For the anatomical definition of the parts measured and of the instruments employed, see also Hermann de Schlagintweit's Memoir in Bar and Wagner, "Bericht über die anthropologische Versammlung in Göttingen," 1861.]

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The ulna is the elbow-bone; its ends are marked by the elbow and the prominence of the wrist joint on the side of the little finger.

It is evident that in comparing the relative values the amount of difference has not the same importance for all the parts measured; for if the object in itself is already very small, a small difference is in such a case of the same value as a much larger one in others.

1. Dimensions of the head.

(Total height of the body = 1).

Objects measured.



Buddhas, Bôdhisattvas.


Periphery round the forehead





From the vertex to the orbital margin





From the vertex to the base of the nose





From the vertex to the base of the mouth





From the vertex to the chin





Diameter at the temples





Diameter antero-posterior





Eyes--exterior distance





Eyes--interior distance





Eyes-- length of the eye





Malar bones, breadth





Nose, breadth





Mouth, length





Ear, length






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The numbers of the table show that all the dimensions of the head are greater in both groups of the figures than in the groups of the living beings: the figures have the head in general much too large in proportion to their height, but the deviations are not the same in each group. The most arbitrary form is that of the ear, also by the ear-lap being perforated for the reception of ornaments, and being extended to an unusual length, sometimes reaching down to the shoulders. Also the eyes are extremely large, and have in both groups a decided though unequally strong Bhutian type; they show the outer angles raised, the horizontal axis inclined, and a great length; the effect of these dimensions becomes still more striking by the eyes being very. often only partly opened. The periphery round the forehead, the diameter at the temples, and particularly the diameter antero-posterior, are much less increased in the Buddha figures, group C, than in those of the Dragsheds and Lamas, group D. The parts least differing in the different types are the mouth, the malar bones, and the breadth of the nose between the eyes as well as at its base; Group D has these parts, however, a little larger.

When defining the general character of the head in the respective groups, we find in Group C the the {sic} vertical length of the head comparatively more considerable and the head of a more oval form. Group D has the head horizontally elongated, a form characteristic also of the Bhot race, Group B; in both these the forehead is low and the jaw-bone weak. The distance from the vertex to the orbital margin and

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to the base of the nose is greater in Group D than in Group C; the distance from the vertex to the chin, on the contrary, is considerably less in Group D: it exceeds the distance to the mouth by 0.0 16 in Group 0, and only by 0.008 in Group D. The pure Brahman type, A, has the respective difference 0.012.


2. Dimensions of the body.

Objects measured.



Buddhas, Bôdhisattvas.


Total height





Crown of the head to trochanter





Trochanter to ground





Total span





Length of arm





Length of ulna





Length of hand





Foot, length





Foot breadth






In reference to the dimensions of the body we see, as a peculiarity of the figures, that the upper part of the body is too short: I found this to be more frequently the case with comparatively small figures than with the larger ones. The total span is too large, less on account of a disproportionate dimension of the arms--which in Group D have even a tendency to be below the average--than on account of a great and somewhat exaggerated breadth of the chest. The ulna is decidedly too short; the hand, when well executed, differs but very

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little, but in badly executed figures it is occasionally somewhat too long. The foot is tolerably well-proportioned both in length and breadth, though in small figures it is very frequent that its dimensions exceed the mean proportion, particularly as regards the length; but these must be considered arbitrary, as dimensions below the average are scarcely less frequent in large-sized figures.

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Next: Chapter XV. Worship of the Deities, and Religious Ceremonies