Sacred Texts  Index  Previous  Next 

sacred-texts |  Web | Powered by Google

Internet Book of Shadows, (Various Authors), [1999], at

                                         MICHAEL POE
                                ANCIENT EGYPTIAN METAPHYSICS
                Many requests for me to do some teaching (largely from a book
           that I am now writing on ancient Egyptian Metaphysics and Personal
           Worship) about metaphysics, worship and the ancient Egyptian trad-
           itions. To start off, I want to briefly quote some ancient Egyptian
           philosophers to give you the gist of ancient Egyptian philosophy and
           Metaphysics. The next note I enter will be on general comments on
           ancient Egyptian metaphysics. The material I will use is NOT from
           Masonic or Rosecrucian but from authentic Egyptian sources. In many
           cases I can quote the exact sources, most are translations of papyrus,
           temples, tombs, etc. Having studied the subject for 33 years, gotten a
           degree on the subject, and working on the book for 10 years, I will
           pass on some of what I have learned. All of the translations are from
           Egyptologists and Archaeologists. To quote an old Egyptian philosopher
           (found written on his tomb), Ptah hotep :
                "To give a few words of Truth,
                And what you make of Them will be your Test."
           From the College of Priests House of the Temple of Horus at Edfu:
                "The Lamp of Wisdom burns steadily,
                If the soil that feeds it be reality.
                If the oil that feeds the lamp be Love,
                The beloved will meet the Lord or Lady
                and be blessed.
                     (Lord or Lady means personal God or Goddess, ed.)
                If the air that feeds the Flame be Truth,
                The Breath of He who breathes will inhale Wisdom.
                If the Spirit enters the Flame,
                The Fire will be as bright as a Star."
                Next little lesson; what is a hymn when I mention one or quote
           one (which I will from time to time)?
                The hymns of Egypt tell of the nature and workings of the God/-
           dess they glorify. They mention his /her name and his/her ties to a
           locality, allude to the myths and describe his/her appearance and
           powers and attributes.
                A occult tradition is like a journey. Before one ventures onto
           any unknown journey it is best to have an idea of the dangers and
           preventive protection. Ancient Egypt had 14 traditions. I will, in
           these notes, outline them all.
                To share another "wisdom texts" as the ancient Egyptian philos-
           ophy is called: This one is from Kagemni, whose tomb can be visited at
           Sakkara, as is known as one of the wisest men around.
           This text is for a student in order for him to select the right
           metaphysical teacher.
                "He who is a Priest of the Living,
                whom a Neter* favors
                Like the Bennu on the Obelisk,"
                Performs Right Actions without seeking a reward for them.
                Such a Teacher lives a life of true piety.
                He seeks no gain from any good deed he does,
                But sets his Heart only on the Neter's service.
                He has compassion upon all Living creatures.
                He holds fast to the Neter's name and inspires
                others to meditate on it.*
                He accepts joy and sorrow with an equal mind.
                He is always happy and never set apart from his Neter.
                To him gold and dross are as one;
                Nectar and poison are as one
                The King and the beggar are as one."
                * 1. Neter - Neter is the ancient Egyptian word, that we would
           equate with God or Goddess. But Neter's exact translation is "Abstract
           Principle" or "Divine Principle" and is not a male or female word.
                * 2. Bennu on the Obelisk - the Bennu bird is the Egyptian
           Phoenix, which lives in Arabia, and comes every 500 years to built a
           nest on an obelisk where it lays an egg, and when the egg starts
           hatching, it dies in its own flames, and is reborn from the egg. The
           obelisk is the Egyptian symbol of the first ray of sun light striking
           the earth, and when built, is usually covered in gold or electrum. The
           top of the obelisk is like a pyramid and is called the Pyramidion; and
           the pyramids are all representations of the suns first light on the
           Newly Born Earth.
                * 3. "He holds fast to the Neter's name and inspires others to
           meditate on it." - In addition to the common name of any god, like
           Heru for Horus, they also have a hidden name, a name of power, that
           the priest/esses use in ritual and meditation.
                                   PRIESTS AND PRIESTESSES
                   How did a person become a priest/ess in ancient Egypt? 
                Well, each family had their own family worship area, the size of
           which is wholly dependent upon the size of the house they lived in.
           More about this when we get into the path of the Aait-Shesheta.
           Therefore, in each family, someone had to act as the family priest/-
           ess. If the father or mother was a priest/ess, then he or she was the
           family religious leader, in charge of the family rituals. If the
           parents were not initiated priest/esses, then usually the Elder Son
           acted as the religious leader. However, in some nomes (or states),
           matrilineal descent (through the female) was a tradition so the Eldest
           Daughter was the religious leader.
                The only schools, including most crafts, were taught in the
           temple colleges. A child would be sent to a college to learn a craft
           between the ages of 6-10. If the family had a tradition of priest/-
           esses then usually the children would go to the temple college to be
           interviewed and tested for the priesthood. Exactly how the priest/-
           esses at the college tested the would be initiate is not well known
           yet, but we do know that usually the following priests would be
           1. A Divine Scribe (reader and writer initiate)
           2. A Prophet (who uses divination of some sort and inner visions)
           3. A Purification Priest
           4. A Priest of Anubis (or some other sort related to traveling in 
           Egyptian  heavens (astral plane directly related to Egyptian 
                Every Egyptian temple had 2 types of staff, a magical one and a
           working one (working meaning the scribes, bakers and people who run
           the every day part). 
                If the would be initiate was found wanting in the magical staff
           (called People of the Circle, which we will get to when we talk about
           temple organization), the person may be sent back, or taught a craft,
           or go into the working temple staff.
                One of the first things that any initiate is taught is Egyptian
           Philosophy, which is really less like Voltaire, and more like Ethics
           and Conscious. The would be priest needs to come up with his own
           ethics or philosophy before embarking on to magical training.
                Therefore ethics and morals was the beginning of the training. If
           one had to make a "Readers Digest Condensed" version of all of the
           Egyptian ethics and philosophy teachings it would be; as one Egyptian
           Philosopher put it (but not quite as well).
                Do anything you want, but only in moderation, and while doing so,
           do not harm anyone physically or psychology.
                Almost exactly like the Wiccan motto : Do what they wilt, but
           harm none.
                But to the ancient Egyptian, theirs also says, "don't harm
           yourself, and don't go overboard on anything: Moderation.
                             DIVINATION OF BES, BAST, OR HATHOR 
                                    (from Leyden Papyrus)
                Use a divining bowl of pottery. Use green or some vegetable based
           ink. Preferable to use hieroglyphics, but try it a few times without
           them and use english (but if you can, do as the Egyptians do) Write
           your request or formula in base and inner sides of bowl using the
           vegetable ink. Also write in either Bes, Bast, or Hathor's name three
           times while meditating on the goddess and your request. (pick one
           goddess, not all three) 
                Pour consecrated water in it to dissolve the writing.
                Swallow water
                Go to sleep
           (If you can sleep in a temple, sacred area, so much the better,
           otherwise at home, and record your dreams when you wake up.)
                A divination bowl, in Egypt, was specially made for the purpose;
           however, if you're not a potter, pottering around, find one out of
           pottery, usable (no lead based paint or in the clay), about the size
           of rice bowl. Consecrate and bless it, and viola, a divining bowl.
                Back in those days, green paint was either a vegetable dye or
           green ochre. They didn't use the ochre, but a vegetable dye would
           work. Although I know of people who specifically prepare a vegetable
           ink (macerated herbs in a small bowl of water), a food coloring would
           be okey, but I would still suggest using a mortar and pestle and
           grinding some herbs you specially selected, and putting it into the
           food colored water and let it seep for a bit, and then use that. It
           would definitely be closer to the spirit of the occasion. I know, next
           you are going to ask, what herbs? 
                Well, the ancient Egyptians had comfrey and you can heal thyself
           at the same time. Lettuce was considered an aphrodisiac, sacred to Min
           (so if your request or question is along that line, add that); they
           also used mint a lot.
                                  A BRIEF HISTORY OF EGYPT
                Egypt wasn't always a thin ribbon of life surrounded by desert.
           From 200,000 to 10,000 bce most of what is now known as the Sahara
           desert used to be verdant grasslands and plains with many trees and
           several rivers. There was an accumulation of different cultures down
           to 5,000 bce.
                From 6,000-4,000 bce different belief structures, and both
           matrilineal and patrilineal societies existed along the Nile, for by
           then the Sahara was rapidly turning to desert and the cultures went to
           the only remaining source of water, the Life Giving Nile. Agriculture
           was already developed, and irrigation systems in use. There was
           already predominant Goddess and God worship in these societies.
                From 4,000-3,100 bce, Egypt now evolved into states, between
           36-44 of them, called Nomes. From time to time, Egypt became united
           into two kingdoms, the Upper Kingdom, from about Aswan down to Cairo,
           with its capital at Nekhen, whose chief god was a goddess, Nekhebit,
           the Vulture Goddess; and Lower Egypt in the Delta with it's capital at
           Uatchet, whose chief god was also a goddess, Uatchet.
                Nekhebit, the Vulture Goddess was an Earth Mother, and considered
           very maternal (the type of vultures in Egypt are very maternal birds).
           She also symbolized regeneration of life, from Death comes Life, as
           the vulture is one of the few animals that can survive and mainly
           subsists on bodies of animals that would poison others.
                Uatchet, the Snake Goddess, was also venerated as protection from
           snakes, and of fertility (snakes lay many eggs).
                The two goddess, Nekhebit and Uatchet, Vulture and Snake goddess
           became the part of the crown over the third eye, look at the two on
           most crowns of egypt. Later, the snake goddess became associated with
           the Serpent Fire of the Egyptian equivalent of the Kundalini, and it's
           power came out at the third eye, instead of the top of the head (which
           became associated with another god). 
                The worship of Hathor, Amon, Thoth, Horus, Bast, Sekhmet and a
           few others have already been well established. Isis is yet to be found
           or mentioned. 
           The first three Dynasties: I
                The 1st king, Narmer, united the kingdoms forever (after a brief
           unification prior), and on the famous palette of Narmer is found not
           only the Nome standards (our equivalents of flags), but the 1st known
           name of Hathor.
                The 2nd king of the 1st Dynasty established the right of women to
           rule Egypt. 
                It was during the 1st Dynasty that a woman ruled Egypt, to take
           that into perspective, if the US followed that, we would have a woman
           president well before the Civil War. She was one of 
           the 11 women to rule one of the greatest civilizations in the world.
           And it, like most of the others, was peaceful.
                Rights of women were established. they could marry and divorce;
           there was no community property; women could establish their own
           businesses without a man's consent or cosignature; they could conduct
           them before, during and after marriage. Married couples were con-
           sidered co-partners and co-equals. Pregnant women, by law, had to be
           taken care of by the husband or the police came and beat him up!
                              ANCIENT EGYPTIAN ASTRAL HEAVEN(S)
                Ancient Egypt had more than one heaven, and most of their heavens
           were subdivided into sections or parts akin to, and probably best
           equated with the astral plane. 
                As the astral plane has many different levels, the lowest next to
           the earthly plane, and highest sections up to and pass most of earth's
           religions concept of heaven, the astral plane is like a onion with the
           material world in the center, and the layers going outward (or inward,
           or higher, or whatever). As most religions heavens are manifested in
           the astral plane, they are also separate from each other.
                This is also true in Egyptian heavens of the astral plane. The
           Book of the Dead (a misnomer as the egyptians never called it that),
           lists the sections of the Heaven of Osiris. As you read the book, you
           also see that there is a specific way to get to the heaven and through
                There is an ancient Egyptian writing from a scribe that says, in
           effect: "If you don't use the specific directions to get to a par-
           ticular heaven, you won't get there but to a false heaven."
                As most of us are aware, the astral plane is composed and made up
           of the thoughtforms of mankind and of the gods, hence, there is an
           Egyptian heaven that was formed by the thousands of people who have
           conceptualized it since the beginning of the 1800's, made stronger
           through the Rosecrucians and Blavatsky's, and into the modern metaphy-
           sical movement. But it is NOT the ancient Egyptian heaven. Hence, you
           can't simply just astrally project in order to get to a real Egyptian
                You have to follow the directions by the ancient Egyptians in
           order to make it to one of their specific heavens.
                You may even have to change your astral form to conform to a
           certain type in order to enter. For example, one of the ways to get to
           the Horus heaven is to have project to the Nile, and do certain things
           in order for a boat with a hawk on it to come over to the bank and
           pick you up to take you to the Horus Heaven.
                One of the things you have to do, and not the only thing, in
           order to get into the Heaven of Isis is to change your astral body
           into the shape of a bird, a Swallow! 
                So if someone, no matter how much you respect them, tells you
           that they dreamed or astrally projected to astral Egypt, they are
           wrong, unless they know the specific ways to do it. The Egyptians
           then, have a sort of astral lock on the proverbial doors to the
           entrance of their heavens, and you can't just blindingly end up there
           without the right keys to get there. I can probably safely say that no
           more than a couple of dozen people in the last century have been able
           to enter these heavens, and no one who has written a book about
           Egyptian metaphysics has (including Eliz. Hatch who wrote Initiation;
           who knows nothing about Ptahhotep).
                The teachers are still pretty much in the Egyptian heavens,
           waiting to teach the student who is able to get there.
                Although the ancient Egyptians had the wherewithal to go into
           drug induced states (they had mandrake and poppies for medicine), I
           have yet to find one example of them using them for magic or astral
                Astral sight was taught before astral projection, using tech-
           niques that we still use today. 
                Several techniques that are used today in astral projection today
           were also used in astral projection then, but usually, a priest led
           the student in the first several experiences in order for the student
           to get used to the experience and feelings associated with projection
           to a particular heaven.
                Therefore the guided trips were first used. Usually the first
           trips were done in the temples (easier to do with all of the power
           already resident in the temples). Some, like the priests of Horus were
           also done by the Nile's edge, the student going into a sleep, the
           priest astrally projecting and drawing the students astral body and
           consciousness out doing what is necessary for the Horus boat to arrive
           on the astral Nile, then going on the trip through the Horus heaven.
           Sometimes it was done out in the desert. 
                Once when I was in Egypt, after finding a Eye of Horus between
           the pillars of the temple of the ka of Ptahhotep, I went into the
           Serapeum (desert underground chambers for the burials of the Serapis
           bulls; talk about sensory deprivation! Light wouldn't go farther than
           20' and normal talking didn't extend past 30-40'.) and in the Serap-
           eum, while sitting down next to the stone coffin of one of the bulls I
           instantaneously, and lack of trying on my part, astrally projected. I
           found myself several hundred feet over the desert at Sakkara and flew
           to the Nile and commenced on a trip to an Egyptian heaven.
                When a teacher died, such as Imhotep, he went to the appropriate
           heaven and taught from there (according to the ancient Egyptians, who
           said that at that point their teachers on earth would astrally project
           to the heaven to be taught by him). At that point, all priest/esses
           called him Master, or another appropriate remark. Since apparently
           there was much connections between the two worlds, the priest/esses
           knew when Imhotep finally left the astral heaven to ascend beyond and
           into the world of the god/desses. At that point Imhotep on earth was
           called a God (this process is found in a papyrus fragment translated
           courtesy of the French Institute of Archeology of Cairo). 
                Hence, if you know when Imhotep or some other lived, and know
           that after death he was called a master, then the earliest time that
           he, or she, started being called a God was the time he moved out of
           the astral plane.
                Some other traditions use the symbology of ladders as an analogy
           of the ascent to their astral plane. Each rung represents a god or
           goddess to invoke, the ladder is always held by two gods, which
           symbolize the type of path being used. In some other traditions, there
           was a way to ascend through the astral plane and into the spiritual
           realm, reserved for the higher priests who have passed the Guardian of
           the Threshold. These traditions can be found when you go to Egypt for
           in some of the temples the staircase to the roof will have a god/dess
           for each step, symbolizing those that you will need to ascend to the
           spiritual plane.
                Certain god/desses and spiritual beings can assist or deter you
           from your astral trip.
                THE HELPERS: Anubis is one of the best. Hathor is also great, for
           she gives you magical power during your astral projection. The god Seb
           supplies all a person needs to astrally travel in many places. The god
           Seb, Shu, the goddesses Nut and Tefnut defend people during their
                There was also the Souls of the West, Souls of the East; Lady of
           the Evening, Calf of the Goddess (Morning Star), Souls of several
           different cities for their special heavens; The Catcher of Gods, the
           Divine Being who Examines Gods for Men, the God who Binds Gods.
                THOSE THAT YOU WANT TO AVOID: The Unmentionable Terrible Serpent
           (with Lovecraftian powers and would be great in his novels, like
           Chuthulu or Hastor the Unspeakable, occasionally used in Black Magic,
           which apparently was very uncommon in Egypt) I won't give you his
                There is of course, Apep, Apophis, and a few specific to each of
           the heavens, but are usually particular to the Osirian heaven (Reading
           the Book of the Dead will give you a great idea about them).
                A zoomorphic projection is when you astrally project then change
           your astral body into a zoomorphic figure in order to get to specific
           egyptian astral heavens. An example is turning your astral body into a
           swallow to get to Isis's heaven, or into a hawk to get to one of
           Horus's heavens.
                Following the Eastern Tradition of the astral plane, the Egyp-
           tians have an almost exact duplicate of the concept. Basically it says
           that there is a plane of existence between the realm of the high gods
           and earth, called the astral plane, which has layers like an onion.
           The astral plane is made up of the mind stuff of heaven and earth
           dwellers alike and is as real as both. To the Eastern people, all the
           heavens of all the religions are there. To both Egyptian and Easter-
           ners, to get there you astrally project or out of body experience.
           Although the Egyptians had a more elaborate version.
               The Egyptians, therefore, which had several religious traditions,
           of which Isis plays in a couple) had several heavens. These were
           usually conceived of in layers or parts, corresponding to the layers
           of the astral plane. In Heliopolis there were 12 layers or planes to
           their heaven.
               Each tradition had a different heaven and a different way of
           getting there. The temples trained the people how to do it at home, at
           the temple, or elsewhere.
               Sometimes more than just the astral body took the trip, there was
           also a spiritual body, the soul, the spirit and other forms.
               According to ancient Egyptian practices, you can project your
           astral body, soul, spirit, or spiritual body. However, there is no
           ritual to do all at once, probably because it would kill the person.
           Of course the sa is considered the spiritual power of a person and the
           animating force of the body. As long as you have the sa and one of the
           three (soul, spirit or spiritual body) you're body can still live
           during the projections.
               The Egyptians are the only ones that I am aware of (other than a
           very few Native American tribes) that even project the spirit or the
           spiritual body or the soul.
                Altered state of consciousness was used in Egypt, usually by NOT
           using drugs, although they did have mandrake, poppies and hemp (used
           in medicine as an anaesthetic). What was taught differed by tradition,
           and what kind of altered state differed also. For example: A scribe of
           Anubis: Does he want to become a doctor/priest, a mummification
           priest, or a priest/guide to the astral plane? If the latter, then he
           is taught the basics of the Egyptian astral planes and how each one
           differs, and how each tradition of Egypt has a different path to their
           own. He is taught how to astrally project, and then his teacher will
           project and take him on a guided tour. Eventually he will astrally
           project to the Anubis temple in the astral plane and receive higher
           knowledge from their teachers. Eventually he will teach others to
           project, and lead them on journeys. No one except probably about 15
           people know how to astrally project to an ancient Egyptian astral
           plane. The form you take, the route you take, what you see determines
           if you will get there, and if you don't know these things, according
           to the Egyptians you will not reach the plane. Instead you will end up
           on an astral plane of Egypt created by people who lived from the 1700-
           1800's on, such as Golden Dawn people, Rosecrucians, Wicca people. Is
           there an astral plane? It's up to you. I have my own opinion. My
           opinions are almost always based on experts in their own fields. 
                                ANCIENT EGYPTIAN INITIATIONS
                The mysteries and initiations varied from temple to temple. In
           the Lesser Mysteries of Isis there is preparatory instruction, medi-
           tation within the temple and introduction to the sanctuary for par-
           ticipation in a performance of drama of death and resurrection.
                In today's society, there are many groups that give initiations,
           but the initiation usually fails, and usually for the following
                1. The group doing the initiation does not know enough to do one
           successfully (usually through lack of full knowledge of their trad-
                2. Incomplete preparation of the Initiate. 
                3. Incomplete preparation of the group.
                4. Incomplete Initiatory Ceremonies or process.
                5. Initiation Rituals becomes a bad play at best.
                6. The people directing the Initiations weren't properly prepared
           or initiated in their own initiation.
                In Egypt, they allowed for self-initiation (but only for some
           levels). All cognition, after all, comes from the inside. We 
           are therefore initiated only by ourselves, the master or teacher gives
           us the Key.
                In some Egyptian initiations the goal is the receive the Sa, the
           innate virtue or power of the gods as a sort of fluid (or magnetic
           fluid or aura). It is transmitted by the God's (I will sometimes say
           God, but take it as either God or Goddess) hands through touch or
           passes on the neck or spine of the individual. This operation is
           called the Satapu-sa.
                "The Summit is the Apex of the Mountains height, but there are
           both Summit and Valley, hence, something exists which causes both.
           Equally there is within you that which wants to lift itself despite
           the animal instincts, and also that which wants to remain earthly.
           Summit and Valley, are 2 powers manifested. If there were not these
           two there would be only one. Since there are two 
           there are also all the others which sprang from these, the other
           Neters or Gods/desses."
                "One should pass through complexity in order to exhaust the
           various possibilities until the awakening of the consciousness which
           leads towards simplicity; it is on intermediate phase between dream
           and reality."
                "If the essence and perfection of all good are comprehended in
           the god/desses, and if you adhere to a more excellent nature, you will
           obtain a union with them, the contemplation of truth, and the posses-
           sion of intellect. A knowledge of the gods is accompanied with a
           conversion to and knowledge of ourselves."
                I'll let you contemplate that one for awhile. Written on the
           college walls of the Temple of Horus at Edfu.
                The Egyptian path can be considered (as defined by Frankfort) as;
           1.   Evolution      =    Ignorance
           2    Destruction    =    Knowledge
           3    Dissolution    =    Experience
           4    Reintegration  =    Understanding
           5    Integration    =    Wisdom
           Dear Michael, Not only was this the usual excellent note on Egypt, but
           I was most impressed by your concise description of failed initi-
           ations. You have touched on a topic only a few Pagans are willing to
           think about. Too often initiation in Wiccan and other Pagan groups has
           become a spiritually meaningless ritual, and the worst part is that
           people don't even know the difference. Then there are all these
           novices with no qualifications "self-initiating" themselves. I was
           once initiated as a Dianic Witch, but it didn't "take." I never refer
           to myself as a Witch or a Wiccan. I am a Pagan, and I don't need to be
           initiated for that.
                So many who use the name Wiccan
                Could use, in the pants, a good kickin'.
                     A Pagan I am!
                     I'd give each dam
                Self-proclaimed Wiccan a lickin'.
                                              Jana, Pagan and Proud!
           FROM:     MICHAEL POE
                Except for those very few hereditary witches, most of Wicca is
           new (1940s and later) and as such, much of it is from books and people
           who taught themselves from books and then taught others. All of the
           spiritual exercises and goals that need to be done to be truly init-
           iated are usually missing (unless you are lucky enough to be one of
           the few who was disciplined enough to intuitively done all the right
           things first. I have been to many Wiccan initiations and while a few
           have been magical, none have been fully effective, and most have been
           more like a Catholic mass, all pomp and circumstance and no magic.
           That's also essentially true of white people learning shamanism, they
           don't get the teachers that really know.
                Ancient Egypt had 14 traditions in which the majority of them
           were magical ones. After more than 30 years of studying ancient Egypt,
           even I can't tell you about the proper initiations of several of the
           traditions; but at least I now have the spiritual exercises and whole
           initiations for some of the them and in the group that I am involved,
           we have done a couple of them.
                Most wicca systems that I am aware of need to spend more time on
           the spiritual and magical development of the individual. Some ancient
           Egyptian systems took a minimum of a year to two years of spiritual
           exercises before the person cast their first 
           spell. The priests had the ability to make people astrally project at
           will, for example.
                It's also a mistake being too eclectic. For example, Mercury is
           equated with Thoth by the Greeks and Romans, but while they did share
           some powers and attributes, they were not the same. 8 track tapes and
           regular cassettes both play music, but try putting a 8 track tape into
           a cassette
                Isis, for example, is never invoked as a Great Mother Goddess
           unless she is holding baby Horus. NEVER! I have seen many wiccan
           ceremonies where they use the wrong Egyptian god/desses in their
           rituals, or the wrong god/desses forms for the powers they are invok-
           ing. Remember, that despite some current thinking that it's only the
           association in your mind that counts, and if you want to invoke
           Sekhmet with a knife (for example) as a gentle mother goddess, she
           will appear as that; it just isn't so. This is coming from people who
           have never been properly initiated.
                the prevailing thought up to 10 years ago is that if a form and
           function of a god/dess has been worshipped for thousands of years by
           hundreds of thousands of individuals, including those properly in-
           itiated, then that form and function will always override what one
           individual or group over a few years may invoke. The thoughtform was
           constructed in the Astral plane and is extremely strong, and a few
           people who have decided that (usually through ignorance) he/she had a
           different form or function, will never be able to compete with the
           stronger form. Which is probably why many eclectic wiccan magic
           doesn't work or work well. They don't know what they are drawing from,
           and instead of trying to get the vast astral power out there to work
           for them, it works against them, or else their own little power will
           be the only power they will be able to tap into. Michael
           FROM: BRENDA RYAN   I was wondering about those temples that have been
           moved, do they still retain the power. Is it in the temple building
           itself or in the ground upon which the temple stands? As you know, the
           temple at Abu Simbel had been moved during the building of the Aswan
           Dam but I think you mentioned it one time as a power spot. Also, I was
           more impressed with the temples and tombs in Upper Egypt than in the
           pyramids and the Sphinx. In fact, the Great Pyramid was musty smelling
           and claustrophobic so I didn't go all the way up. My friend thought I
           was missing out on the opportunity of a lifetime, but I just wasn't
           impressed. I didn't "feel" anything there. The tombs in the Valley of
           the Kings were another matter. I felt completely comfortable going all
           the way down in the tombs that were open and was much more in awe of
           the whole area. 
                FROM:     MICHAEL POE    To make a short answer long, let me
                respond by this: Back in pre-dynastic times, the priest/-
                esses had no stone temples, they worked outside (or later,
                in mud and dabble temples) and cast circles; hence their
                name; "People of the Circle". Eventually they had temples of
                sun dried brick, but still retained the name.
                     During the Dynastic period they were building temples
                out of stone. Now the stone temples, if you have seen them,
                are covered with figures of the gods and goddesses and
                religious texts and invocations. The walls became the
                psychic circle of protection and were imbued with their own
                power. Despite the fact that the magical group no longer
                needed to cast circles for protection from without or raise
                power within (as the temples walls did that), they were
                still called the "People of the Circle". Some traditions
                just won't die!     So, yes, the temples themselves, despite
                having been moved, are still full of power as the walls
                themselves is the stone circle of power. Now you might ask,
                well, that makes sense, magic being used in them for thou-
                sands of years, but what about the power spot it was orig-
                inally built over, if any? Well, of course, the temple,
                being built over the power spot and with all the magic
                working in it for hundreds or thousands of years, the power
                from the spot would seep into the temples walls. That power
                would still be there if the temple was rebuilt. Remember
                that the ancient Egyptians would sometimes take an older
                temple apart and incorporate the stones into the walls of
                another temple far away. That is the method of getting
                stones already imbued with power and "precharging" the new
                temple with power. So yes, any temple that has been moved
                still retains it's power.     Michael
                Imagine if you will, a temple 2/3 of a mile long and 1/4 mile
           wide, 6 stories tall. The courtyard, big enough for over 4 football
           fields surrounded by a high, 2 story wall. You enter through 20 foot
           high doors encased in gold into the courtyard at night. The courtyard
           is done in highly polished black granite, so well polished that it
           reflects the milky way. It is like walking in space! In the middle of
           the courtyard is a full size tree, made with trunk and branches of
           blue lapis lazuli, and leaves of turquoise. A dream you say? No, for
           it was the Temple of Ra at Heliopolis, built around 1800-1900 bc, and
           shown to Greeks during 500-200 bc. And if you think that was a truly
           magical and awe inspiring courtyard, imagine what was inside the huge
           covered temple that took up over 1/2 of the area! Complete with it's
           secret corridors and chambers, etc.
                Also, you are familiar with Egyptian temples in Egypt, but did
           you know that Egyptian temples also existed in Lebanon, Syria, Greece,
           Delos, Crete, Italy, Spain, France, Britain and Germany?
                The ancient Egyptians in addition to doctors, also had special-
           ized surgeons, psychologists, OBGYN's, midwives, vets, 
           brain surgeons (with 80% success rate in trepanning, dentists, herb-
           alists, in addition to their botanists and ethnographers.
                The Temple is the House of God. The Body of Man is the House of
           God, therefore the Temple is the Body of Man.
                               (from temple of Amon).
                In nature, everything is linked with everything else, and you are
           a part of nature. Observe outside, observe inside, you begin to see
           the relations between things. 
                The ancient Egyptians didn't worship animals. They had sacred
           animals, but what they worship was the Divine Principle made manifest
           in that animal. Hence, the Serapis bull symbolized the Divine Prin-
           ciple of Strength. The Baboon of Thoth for two things: Society (bab-
           oons have, among the animals, one of the most complex societies), and
           of Contemplation (Baboons will sit and watch the Sun rise, among other
           things). Horus with the Hawk, one who sees or watches the earth from
           above, and sees it extremely well (hawks and birds of prey have a
           binocular vision of about 7x
           power); Hence the celestial Horus eyes were the Sun and the Moon. The
           attributes of Bast and of the Cat is very close. 
                And so, to the Egyptian, while man is an example of ALL the
           powers of all the god/desses; certain animals manifest specific
           powers, and manifest them more than man. Hence they worship the power
           behind the animals. Observe outside, observe inside, you begin to see
           the relations between things.
                An animal does not reason, it experiences directly. Man is
           deceived by the incomplete testimony of his senses and his reason and
           has allowed the instinctive consciousness to atrophy without having
           learned to use his intuitive faculties which to the Egyptians, is the
           wisdom of the heart. Therefore there are ancient rituals to strengthen
           the heart.
                Raise your eyes to know what relates to the laws of the heavens,
                Look around you to study the principles of nature, 
                Look inside you to determine your attributes, to integrate your
           personality, and identify it with the heavens and nature, 
                One can cast your heart ahead on the Chosen Way, 
           then go and retrieve it, and let your steps loyally follow its voice.
                     The Egyptian Way of Life is of Harmony;
                     Within the All-Inclusive Unity of God/desses,
                     Nature and Society;
                     Man can move with Dignity, Safety and Happiness.
                The Egyptian essential Unity in the conviction that man can find
           immortality and peace by becoming part, or as one, with the perennial
           cyclic rhythms of Nature, a recurring movement, part of the estab-
           lished and unchanging Order of the Universe.
                With the occasional exception, I will start posting notes on the
           different traditions; The Ceremonial Tradition, the Philosophical, The
           Arts and Crafts, the Hermetic like, the Wiccan like, the Alchemical,
                Stuck in between will be the occasional hymn to a god/dess,
           observations on astronomical god/desses; parts of man, temple struc-
           ture, etc. Make any comments or questions that you want that are
           related.  Michael  Ankh em Maat 
                One of the traditions in ancient Egypt was that of the artists
           and craftsmen. All of the best artists and craftsmen were trained in
           one place, the Temple of Ptah in Memphis (presently 20 min south of
           Cairo). all other artists and craftsmen were usually trained at the
           Temple or by people who were trained there.
                These artists and craftsmen include: Architects, draftsmen, stone
           workers (large stones and small), jewelers, painters, eventually glass
           workers, dyers, (but not weavers, who studied at the Temple of Neith
           in the Delta). All the architects and draftsmen who produced all of
           the pyramids, temples, palaces, royal tombs, and even forts were
           trained here.
                Have you noticed how all the men and women in paintings and
           statues have a similar body? Unlike the Greeks, who wanted to show how
           a persons body really looked like, the Egyptian were interested in
           showing the "inner essence" of the person. Therefore only in the
           background, the workers, and not the central family, are people shown
           as they really were, crippled people, occasional starvation, over
           weight persons, etc. Therefore the Egyptians were interested in the
           "inner man (or woman)".
                Look at a book on Egyptian art and check out what the god/desses
           are holding or wearing. That is important to see what powers and
           attributes are being portrayed. For example, if Bes is holding a
           knife, she/he becomes a protector and avenger; if holding a sistrum,
           he/she (it's hard sometimes to tell which sex Bes is), becomes the
           God/desses of joy, pleasure, music, dance, and another kind of protec-
           tor; if holding other objects or wearing other outfits, she/he becomes
           a Protector of Women and of the Family, of Mothers. The same holds
           true with all of the other gods and goddesses. Hence, Isis can be a
           Mother Goddess or a Goddess of Women, or of the Visible World depen-
           ding on what she is wearing or carrying. All of this is taught by the
           temple of Ptah to the artists.
                The similar thing occurs with amulets and talismans. Some amulets
           and talismans are always shown in a certain color or always made of
           certain material. The Buckle of Isis is almost always of red carnelian
           or garnets. The Ankh is almost never down in silver (because the ankh
           is associated with the Sun, and gold is the metal of the Sun).
                The temple of Amon at Luxor is patterned after a human body; in
           fact, in the sanctuary part, if you observe the stones in the floor,
           you see that two different stones were used. If you had an archaeolog-
           ical map of the temple with the floor stones shown, and color in the
           darker stones, you end up with a huge side profile of a face! So the
           Temple of God reflected the Temple of Man! 
                Ptah had other powers and attributes than just artists and
           craftsmen (he was one of the Great Creator Gods), and was married to
           Sekhmet (who was into other traditions including healing). Ptah is
           also associated with the Science and Art of Alchemy. Their offspring
           is Nefertum, the God of perfumes and aromatherapy, and of the Lotus. 
                As you will see in future discussions, more than one god/dess is
           associated with a tradition. Ptah is one of the few gods who ever
           since predynastic periods, was always portrayed as a human.
                Remember that most of the popular literature is from material of
           the New Kingdom and later periods. By then Horus was associated in the
           popular ancient Egyptian mind as the son of Isis, and especially
           popular as that during the Greco-Roman period. 
                                 RITUALS and RITUAL ELEMENTS
                How many times do you get into a Book of Shadows and look at the
           rituals? How many of these rituals are complete from opening or
           drawing the circle, invocation of the four directions, blessings,
           consecrations, invocation, and closing? And how many are incomplete;
           in other words, missing some of the elements to the rituals, but maybe
           referring to use a certain 4 direction invocation or closing rite? Or
           missing complete elements; such as a hymn or invocation to a Goddess
           but no rituals around it? 
                To the major ancient Egyptian temple colleges, the elements of
           ritual were emphasized. A magician, priest/ess, magic worker 
           at home would end up with several invocations to the four quarters,
           several closings, etc.
                To the Egyptian; The Way of the Ritual; it's chief god/dess to be
           invoked and the way the ritual is to be directed (weather magic for
           example) will determine which other ritual elements are used.
                Also remember that the Egyptians had generic ritual elements,
           usually blessings, consecrations and hymns. A generic hymn to a
           goddesses will have spaces in which the goddesses name, titles and
           some of her powers would be included.
                There were more than one set of god/desses for the four 
           directions; and even the direction that you started your ritual
           changes with the orientation of the ritual. 
                For example; if you wanted to do a ritual for fertility of the
           land, you start off facing south (the Life Giving Nile), then West (to
           appease the desert), then North (symbol of fertility), then the East
           (rising sun, cosmic fertility), then back to South. Naturally if you
           are solar oriented using gods like Amon, Ra, Horus, and goddesses like
           Sekhmet or Bast, you started with the east and work your way around
                If you are invoking a goddess in your ritual you DO NOT invoke
           the four sons of Horus, UNLESS it is Isis or Nepthys that you are
           invoking. There are 2 sets of goddesses of the four directions, and
           one of the sets would do better. 
                There are at least three different sets of gods for the four
           directions, more, since Thoth has his own set, as does some cities.
                I have a hand written 35 page list of powers and the god/desses
           associated with them. It probably corresponds to a book listed in the
           Library of the Temple of Horus called "The Book of God and Goddesses
           and their Powers". 
                So a magician at home would have more of a recipe collection of
           ritual elements rather than a book of Shadows of complete rituals, and
           would have the know how of how to put them together. I have about
           3,000 such recipes, from Astral projection to Zoomorphic projections,
           including blessings, opening and closing rites, spells, divination,
           consecration, initiation, weather, tantric, etc. The Pyramid Texts
           contain about 700 more, and the Coffin Texts, over 1,200 more. Orig-
           inal, not new.
                The only fully developed cult of the cat existed in Egypt and it
           lasted for over 3,000 years. No one knows when the cat was first
           sanctified in Egypt.
                Bast wasn't associated with Isis until the New Kingdom, about
           1600 bce and later. When associated with Isis it came to be recognized
           as the incarnation of deity, and it was the daughter of Isis and her
           husband, the sun-god Osiris (Osiris was also a Moon-god) (Isis was
           also a Sun/Moon/Earth Goddess by then).
                The worship of Bast overlapped that of Isis, Hathor, Mut and
           others depending on the district in Egypt.
                Bast had a solar son, Nefer-tum (He is associated with unguents,
           perfumes, aromatherapy, alchemy, Lotus) by the Sun God Amen-Ra, and
           Khensu, the Moon God, by Ptah. 
                Bast or Bastet, was originally a lion headed goddess, associated
           in powers and attributes with Sekhmet and Tefnut, and as such, Bastet
           has powers of ferocity and rapacity.
                It is her later cat-headed form that Bastet became so immensely
           popular, although she never ceased to be worshiped as a lion headed
                The earliest known portrait of Bastet was found in a temple of
           the 5th dynasty, a lion-headed goddess who was known a "Bastet, lady
           of Ankh-taui." One of the earliest forms of her as a cat headed
           goddess is in a papyrus of the 21st dynasty.
                Bast cult center was at Bubastis, situated east of the Nile
           delta, and hence, Bast became known as the "Lady of the East" (also
           because of her association with the sun). 
                She then, is almost without exception, invoked while facing the
           East, and is one of the Goddesses of the Four Directions.
                In the XII dynasty, Middle Kingdom, she had her own temple at
           Bubastis. In the 22nd dynasty, about 950 bce, she was known as the
           Lady of Bubastis and became an immense power in Egypt, due to the
           Pharaohs embracing her as a national goddess.
                The temple of Bastet has been vividly described by the historian
           Heroditus, who travelled in Egypt about 450 bce. It stood in the
           center of the city of Bubastis and was virtually on an island, since
           it was surrounded (except at its entrance) by canals from the Nile,
           which were a hundred feet wide and overhung with trees. While the
           houses were gradually raised, the temple remained on its original
           level so that the whole city commanded a view down into it.
                The temple was a building in the form of a square, and was made
           of red granite. Stone walls carved with figures surrounded the sacred
           enclosure, which consisted of a grove of very tall trees within which
           was hidden a shrine. In the center of the shrine was a statue of Bast.
           Note: this is the only temple in Egypt known to have had a sacred
           grove of trees in the center of it, and a shrine in the center. There
           are other sacred groves, some with shrines; but instead of being
           inside of temples, these are all out in the open.
                Cats were found within the sacred temple area and were ritually
           fed. Temple maidens carried cats or kittens in baskets. April and May
           were the chief festivals and rituals for Bast. 
                All cats were revered in the Temple of Bast. Now the question is,
           what kind of cats did the Egyptians have?
                Orange cats
                Orange stripped cats
                A Tabby Type
                Black Cats
                Gray cats
                And an Abyssinian (I used to do well in spelling!) type.
           Of course, Bast is also associated with Lioness, so small cubs and
           adult lionesses were also sacred to her.
                Of the principal Egyptian festivals, that of Bast was one of the
           most popular. Herodotus describes how, in April and May, thousands of
           men and women set off on the pilgrimage in parties which crowded into
           numerous boats. The voyage was gay if not positively orgiastic. Men
           played the flute, women a type of cymbal called crotala, and all
           joined in singing and hand-clapping. As they passed towns, the boats
           drew near to the banks and the women shouted bawdy jokes, often
           flinging their clothes up over their heads. 
                Eventually they arrived at Bubastis, sacrificing many animals,
           and consuming vast quantities of wine.
                Cats were portrayed in every conceivable activity, sculptured
           every material from gold to mud, and in every size from colossal to
           minute size.
                A orange brown cat is depicted on tomb walls, and so is a ginger
           cat, and grey tabbies. 
                During the Bubastite period (XXII dynasty), cat cemeteries became
           popular, and a huge profusion of cat amulets were being made.
                During the entire time of Egypt, household cats were treated with
           the greatest respect. Many of them were bejewelled, and they were
           allowed to eat from the same dishes as their owners. Sick cats were
           tended with solicitude, and stray cats were fed with bread soaked in
           milk and with fish caught in the Nile and chopped up for them.
                Cats love basking in patches of sunlight, and Bast was first
           worshipped as a form of the sun, the source and sustainer of life and
           light. Some of the Egyptians believed that when the Sun went down, a
           combat of cosmic proportions took place in the underworld. One of the
           legends had a persea tree with a cat with a knife leaping on a spotted
           serpent and cutting off its head. During solar eclipses people would
           gather in the streets and shake knives and rattle sistrums in an
           effort to spur on the celestial cat and to terrify the threatening
           serpent in their struggle beside the Tree of Life.
                From the cat's identification with the sun arisen the "cat's
           cradle", a name given to certain string-games. The cats cradle was
           used to control the movement of the Sun through sympathetic magic.
                Sekhmet was combined with Bast and Ra for a triparte goddess
           combining the attributes and powers of all three. It was a combination
           made for ceremonial magic only, as there is no public worship of
           Sekhmet-Bast-Ra at an individual level.
                     Are you soaking this all in with no questions?
                     Remember the story about the cat and the Persea
                     tree that I just related? You should have asked
                     about the Persea tree and if this Egyptian Tree of
                     Life is or can be grown in the U.S. and if we know
                     it by another name.      Come on, ask, come on,
                     come, after all, its the Cat's Meow!
                     There are two sacred trees in ancient Egypt. I
                     mean SACRED! One is the acacia (which varieties
                     grows all over the US.
                     The other is the Persea. There are only 2 variet-
                     ies of Persea in the entire world. One is the
                     Egyptian persea, which I have no idea if it bears
                     fruit. The other variety of Persea (which by
                     Egyptian thought would be just as sacred) bears
                     fruit. The other varieties common name is AVOCADO!
                     That's right, the avocado is a sacred tree of the
                     ancient Egyptians. So the next time that you are
                     preparing to eat guacamole, remember that you are
                     eating a sacred dip! The green avocado would
                     probably also be sacred to Osiris and any other
                     god/dess of vegetation. The ancient Egyptians
                     usually made their wands out of acacia or persea,
                     so if you have any of these trees, you can make
                     yourself an Egyptian wand. Also remember that if
                     you trim your tree, use the branches in the firep-
                     lace for a sacred fire!
                     To relate a story, true: When I was married my
                     wife and I brought home a tabby, and a very young
                     boy, about 5 came up and wanted to pet the cat. He
                     asked me what was her name, and I replied that we
                     haven't named it yet, what would he suggest? He
                     said Abaton. I replied that I would consider it,
                     thinking that it was a strange name for a kid to
                     come up with ("out of the mouths of babes...).
                     About 3 days later, I was going over a book of
                     cities and towns in ancient Egypt, and on a whim
                     (which I have a lot of), looked up Abaton. LO AND
                     BEHOLD, there was an Abaton in the Delta part of
                     Egypt. AND IT WAS KNOWN AS THE CITY OF THE CATS
                     "CAT CITY" to us folk.
                     So our Tabby became known as Abaton, or Aba for
                     short. A year later she became pregnant and we
                     decided that in honor of the Egyptian intercalary
                     days (those 5 remaining days of the ancient Egyp-
                     tian calendar of 365 days, divided into 12 months
                     of 30 days with 5 intercalary days left over,
                     sacred to certain god/desses); as the kitties
                     would pop out (so to speak), we would start naming
                     them for the 5 god/desses.
                     Well, eventually here they came, Isis, Nepthys,
                     Osiris, Horus, and the last, a black kitty, Set.
                     Set died that night, the only one that didn't live
                     to a ripe old age. Horus grew up (a male cat by
                     the way, we named them regardless of sex; when the
                     first popped out, it became Isis; luckily sexually
                     matched their names) to be a hunting cat, who
                     would bring home live rabbits bigger than he was.
                     Nepthys, a black female, was a loveable, loving
                     cat who went to an excellent Wiccan friend, along
                     with Isis, who was occasionally disruptive, usu-
                     ally loveable. Osiris stayed with us and even
                     disappeared for a little over 2 months (close to
                     the 72 day mummification process) until we thought
                     that he was dead, but he came back and lived out
                     his life playing big daddy, master of his domain,
                     and approving the field mice and rabbits that
                     brother Horus would bring back for his approval.
                     They are all gone none, but never forgotten. I now
                     have 2 cats, a blue eyed, long white furry female
                     originally called "Popcorn" (forgive her previous
                     owners, Lord and Lady, they do not know better),
                     but now called Sheba (although, to be truthful,
                     she answers to any name). The other is a Calico,
                     previously named Nikita (little one in Russian,
                     and she is a little cat); now called Spook (she
                     spooks easily, still hasn't figured out shadows
                     yet, and doesn't come to any name called to her).
                          Sheba, by the way, will willingly join you in
                     the bathtub if you're taking a bath! In ritual she
                     just lays there looking bored, but Spook, ah
                     Spook; stays inside the circle and even watches
                     the entities!
                     The five cats of Michael were named
                     For five Gods of Egypt far-famed.
                          Each suited its title
                          In character vital.
                     A five-year-old boy can be blamed.
           FROM LDE BLACK   Cat Fancy March 1993 pg 13, at bottom.
           A French scientist has found evidence confirming that the domestic cat
           existed 4,000 years ago. During excavations of ancient Egyptian burial
           chambers, Alain Pierre Zivie, an Egyptologist, found a network of
           tombs that contained stacks and stacks of cat mummies. "Some histor-
           ians believe the first house cats were wild with long coats," Zivie
           said, "but these cat mummies have short hair and look much like modern
           cats." Zivie made his discovery in Sakkara, 20 miles south of Cairo.
           FROM BRENDA RYAN  I have a set of hieroglyphic stamps put out by the
           Metropolitan Museum of Art. Have you seen these? Are they useful at
           all for actual writing, are they accurate translations, or are they
                     FROM MICHAEL POE  The hieroglyphic stamps are very
                     useful, extremely accurate of the hieroglyph. If
                     using them in magic, be sure to bless and con-
                     secrate them first, along with the ink. You can
                     use henna as an ink.     Michael
                     FROM ANDY BALESTRACCI  Did Hieroglyphics play a
                     similar role in the Temple philosophy(ies) as seed
                     syllables, i.e., that symbolized and embodied the
                     first levels of creation(for lack of a better
                     word) such as the Sanskrit alphabet of Hinduism (&
                     maybe others)?
                     FROM MICHAEL POE    Hieroglyphics did play a part
                     in the Temple teachings, as symbols of the god/-
                     desses, of power objects, of inter-relations. They
                     themselves had power within them and the mere act
                     of writing them down (or using a rubber stamp in
                     today's world) would give the spell more power. As
                     for being seed syllables, I'm not sure; you will
                     have to give a few more examples, but there are
                     hieroglyphics that do stand for and embodied the
                     levels of creation, but not all of them were
                     syllables or letters.    Remember that while a
                     number of hieroglyphics stood for letters, and
                     some syllables, most of them stood for showing
                     what the letter/syllable was for; so that if two
                     objects were spelled the same, another hiero-
                     glyphic of the object would be inserted. Example:
                     Aunt and ant. In Egyptian Aunt would have a female
                     human figure next to it, and in Ant, an ant would
                     be next to it.
                     FROM: ELLEN GUSTAFSON  I was just wondering if you
                     ever checked out the Stele of Revealing and stud-
                     ied It in relation to Its time frame, etc. Crow-
                     ley's intent never was to reproduce the ancient
                     Egyptian religion, as you know. In fact, the
                     A:.A:. has as a guideline, that all cultural
                     references are incidental, not to be taken liter-
                     ally. The Aeon of Horus is a new aeon, and not
                     meant to return to the beliefs of ancient Egypt. I
                     guess that's the difference in perspective.  The
                     Stele of Revealing is a funerary monument to
                     Ank-f-n-Khonsu, a Theban priest of Month,or Mentu,
                     who flourished, according to modern scholarship,
                     725 B.C.E. in Egypt's 25th dynasty. I copied this
                     from notes in The Holy Books of Thelema. There is
                     much about the Stele there. It is interesting that
                     in the Bolouq (sp?) Museum, the Stele was clas-
                     sified as #666! LVX, Ellen 
                     FROM: MICHAEL POE  That's cute, and very appro-
                     priate about the 666. Such stelaes of that period
                     were for protection primarily, invoking various
                     gods, including lesser spirits and beings, includ-
                     ing many that weren't in existence prior to about
                     1,000 bce.I have read Crowley's work, and unfor-
                     tunately, he doesn't know ancient Egyptian, and
                     the Golden Dawn, and A.A. knows very little; when
                     they do use original material, it is always Greco-
                     -Roman Egyptian, a usually decadent form of Egyp-
                     tian magic. Their interpretation of god/desses
                     forms from ancient Egypt doesn't always jive with
                     ancient Egypt's. That is probably because of the
                     both the Greco-Roman later period information and
                     their efforts to try to peg Egyptian god forms
                     into Cabbala Sepheroah. Crowley is NOT ancient
                     Egyptian magic. Even he acknowledges that his
                     ritual that he did in Egypt didn't work out right.
                     It's always potentially dangerous to try to fit
                     square pegs into round holes! Or for that matter,
                     try and change a religious tradition that was used
                     for over 4,000 years by over a hundred million
                     people (based on population estimate of 5-10,000,-
                     000 people at any one time, life span of 40 years,
                     or 15-30,000,000 per 100 years X 4,000 years.
                                          MOON LORE
                Isis is also Goddess of the Sun as well as the Moon, so don't
           invoke her unless you know what you are doing (what symbols she should
           hold, what items should be on her head, etc.).    Usually she is
           invoked as both Goddess of the Sun and Moon at the same time, rarely
           as Moon by itself.
                Since the Great Pyramid was built by the ancient Egyptians for a
           king, Khufu, that is not an important metaphysical spot. Before we get
           into an argument about that let me point out that the Great Pyramid
           has tombs around it by the workers who built it and mention it's
           building and its use as a burial place. There are also ancient Egyp-
           tian records of the Keeper Priests who lived
           there providing food to Khufu. There is absolutely no mention of it as
           an initiation place, and beside the stone coffin, Khufu's viscera was
           found there! However, Europeans are impressed by what is large and
           commanding (it embarrassed the ancient Egyptians) and put greater
           stock in the Great Pyramid than the Egyptians. Also what with the vast
           number of people in the occult who have visited there, it now has it's
           own aura added to it, and most people today can't tell the difference.
           So let's list the truly sacred.
                The Temple of Bast at Bubastis; Delta area. Although not much
           remains there, it still exudes a feeling of serenity and peace there.
           Center to the Bast cat tradition. 
                Memphis: Temple of Ptah: also not well preserved, but serene with
           the ponds of water within the temple enclosure.
                Sakkara: The tombs of Ptahhotep and Kaegemni are extremely mag-
           ical, housing at one time two of the greatest teachers of Egypt.
                the Labyrinth, near the Fayyum; Herodutus described it as having
           3,000 rooms; 1,500 above, and 1,500 below ground that was so sacred,
           no one but high priests could enter the underground rooms. Extremely
           magical, and what is better, almost no tourists, even at the height of
           the tourist season! Initiations took place here. 
                Temple of Hathor at Denderah. Magical place with secret chambers
           and passageways, Initiation center of Hathor. The Zodiac ceiling was
           found in the Temple of Hathor at Denerah (original in British Museum,
           replica in temple).
                Osirieon at Abydos: Center of the highest initiations of Osiris
           (his tomb is located nearby but has not yet been discovered). You can
           visit the once underground chambers where the initiations took place,
           surrounded by a pond, with a secret passageway (now underwater) sup-
           posedly going to Osiris's tombs.
                The Ramesseum: west bank of Thebes; Luxor. Sit on the stone
           throne of Rameses, feel the power, or go find the initiation chamber
           there (the only one that utilizes a coffin). Highly magical.
                The Temple of Hatshepsut, same general area.
                Temples of Amon and Mut at Karnak and Luxor; if size impresses,
           this will! The courtyard itself can easily hold Notre Dame! Too bad so
           many tourists, but seek out the small temple of Sekhmet (but beware of
           doing rituals there, Sekhmet is unforgiving).
                Temple of Horus, Edfu: Most complete temple in modern Egypt, lots
           of subtle power waiting to be reawakened, doing a gentle chant in the
           sanctuary can be heard over the entire temple!
                Temple of Isis, Philae; despite being moved from the original
           island; still very magical, especially because of the surroundings.
                Temple of Shahabu: The Egyptian equivalent of Tantric magic, it's
           place is unknown, and even to the ancient Priests, it's location was
           kept a secret!
                Oracle of Amon; Siwa Oasis, where Alexander the Great went and
           never spoke of his prophecy! 
                The great god Horus was one of the most popular gods of ancient
                At least a 1,000 years before Egypt was unified a new group of
           people entered Egypt called the Followers of Horus. Whether from
           southern Africa, the Sahara are from the Red Sea area we don't know,
           but they settled in Upper Egypt and opposed the Followers of Set in
           the Delta. Eventually the Followers of Horus united Egypt and their
           king, Narmer or Menes became the first 
           king of Dynastic Egypt, and the Horus name of the king started being
                Who was Horus the Hawk or Falcon God? We are especially blessed
           since the Temple of Horus at Edfu is the best preserved temple in
           ancient Egypt, and on its walls contains such things as the different
           forms and powers of Horus, the names of the books in the Temple lib-
           rary, many rituals, hymns, and parts of the types of initiations. 
                First and foremost, perhaps, Horus was a sky god, whose right eye
           was the Sun and whose left eye was the Moon, and where we came up with
           the concept of the right side being solar, the left, lunar. Associated
           with the hawk soaring over the land, and his eyes being the Sun and
           Moon, came his attributes as "All-Seeing, All-Knowing", yet not inter-
           fering unless he chooses to, or is summoned (like a Master of Falcons
           summons his Hawk or Falcon).
                Probably associated with the idea of a Falconer being protected
           by his birds, Horus is one of the most popular gods of Protection.
                Now remember that we have to speak in generalities, for Horus had
           over 24 different forms with associated aspects, so invoking one form
           would not necessarily get you another one of his powers (now you can
           understand why I am writing a book explaining all of this fully!).
                Horus was also the patron god of martial arts, and a couple of
           his temples, and their colleges taught military warfare, strategy,
           tactics, and all sorts of fighting, the officer corps or military west
           point of ancient Egypt. this is one of Egypt's tradition.
                Another tradition in which Horus figures prominently is Alchemy.
           Ptah, Horus, and Thoth were the leaders in the Egyptian school of
                Although Horus, during the New Kingdom and later was especially
           popular as the Son of Isis, remember that that designation is only one
           of his many forms.
                His real consort was Hathor. and Hathor means House of Horus.
           During one festival, the statue of Horus was removed from his sanc-
           tuary and sailed down the Nile in all the pomp and circumstance re-
           quired and was put into Hathor's temple at Denderah for a connubial
                One of the most powerful forms of Protection Rituals in Ancient
           Egypt was invoking the four Sons of Horus as the four directions, and
           Horus as the Protector (and/or as the Avenger). In fact, the most
           common form of invocation of the four directions was the 4 sons of
           Horus; For women however, there are 2-3 sets of goddesses of the four
                While the four sons are associated with various parts of the
           human body, stomach, liver, etc., Horus himself is associated with the
           Eyes (it figures, doesn't it?), but not the third eye (which is one or
           both goddesses, Uatchet and Nekhibet). Sometimes used for astral
           sight, there are actually two ways to get to his heaven, by turning
           your astral body into a hawk, or a boat with a hawk on it. 
                                     INTERESTING QUOTES
                Note that I will use the term god in place of neter, but if you
           are goddess oriented, you can use that instead.
           Early Egyptian saying:
                Put not thy faith in length of years,
                For the Gods regard a lifetime as but an hour;
                A man remains over after reaching the haven of Death.
                His deeds are laid beside him for all treasure.
                He who has reached it without wrongdoing,
                Shall continue yonder like a god,
                Stepping forward like a Lord of Eternity.
                God does not confine his favor to the prosperous and the 
                He bestows it also upon the poor.
                His will is that they be fed and clothed, and exempted from tasks
           beyond their strength.
                That they may not be oppressed, and unnecessary tears be 
           spared them.
           From Rameses II:
                The mortal person is a manifestation on earth of His Divine 
                Splendid actions and great deeds are worthy and precious to the
           gods. but the tasks the Gods alone see- they surpass   all.
                The Ways to God are as many as the breaths in the bodies of men.
           Quote from the entrance to the College of Priests, Temple of Horus at
           Edfu, Egypt:
                "Knowledge is the Way to Life;
                The Way to Life leads to the Way to God.
                The Way to God leads to Inner Knowledge.
                Inner Knowledge leads to Wisdom.
                Wisdom becomes Life."
                The Egyptian word "Neter" is neutral and literally translates as
           "Abstract Principle" or "Divine Principle."
                Ancient Egypt had no conception of the Ultimate as being either
           male or female, for to them, the Ultimate Deity combined both sexes.
           It's only when the "Divine Principle" starts descending down through
           the planes that male and female deities begin.
                Ancient Egypt, for those who don't know, may have had a god, or a
           goddess as a national deity (worshipped during national holidays,
           etc), and a god or a goddess has head of a city or nome (state); such
           as Bast, head of Bubastis; but to the Egyptians, god and goddess were
           CO-PARTNERS, were in reality none was above the other (exceptions
           might be during certain festivals, or the Sun goddess rules during the
           day, the Moon God during the night; that's right, many male moon gods
           and many female solar goddesses!).
           ps. Although that inscription was found at the College of the Temple
           of Horus, it did not directly refer to Horus, or Heru by name, there-
           fore, "Divine Principle" is the logical translation since they did use
           the word "neter" in the saying.
                                    EGYPTIAN RITUAL MUSIC
                They used a 5 note scale, and had such instruments as lutes,
           pipes and flutes, drums, zills, tambourine, and sistra. The sistra or
           sistrum was the most magical instrument used, based on three hori-
           zontal metal bars with round metal clappers sliding on them.
                                       )     (
                                       I-I-I-I   clappers
                                       I     I
                                       I-I-I-I   clappers
                                       I     I
                                          I      handle
                These were used by women only, and only during ceremonies and
           ceremonial singing. We have made several reproductions, most don't
           sound very well. But I was able to "rattle" an original and it sounded
           wonderful. Something of a cross between a babbling brook and wind
           chimes. Developed by the Egyptians to help bring on trance states and
           whatever other emotional responses prior to and during ritual, it may
           very well have worked, especially with half a dozen or more going at
                                THE METAPHYSICAL PARTS OF MAN
           The material body: the spirits of the heart is called Hati. Of hear-
           ing, Setem; of sight, Maa; of taste, Hu; of touch, Saa; of the mat-
           erial body, Khat.
           The astral or Inner Self: Setem, compassion, the ability to feel
           rightly. Maa, justice, the ability to perceive rightly. Hu, command,
           divine utterance. Saa, perception, knowledge, understanding. Heka,
           magic. Ab, the seat of life, source of will and intentions. Ka, the
           astral body; principle of the body and protective genius. Khu, the
           intellect; low form Khu, highest intellect.
           Then we have the Khaibit, or Dweller; the Shadow, the part before, at
           and after the Dweller of the Threshold.
           Higher up, the Ba, soul, sublime, and multi-leveled.
           Next comes the Sahu, part of the spiritual self and is the spiritual
           body otherwise called the spiritual body.
           There is also the sekem; lower force; the power of forms, names, and
           There is also the Sa, the higher force, essential energy of all.
           To give you an idea of the complexity of it all:
                Touch: Saa (Sia) god of feeling, knowledge, understanding, intel-
           ligence. Personification of perception, to feel, to understand (comes
           from Memphis and the Ptah/Sekhmet/Nefertum triad).
                As Saau-ur "The Great Intelligence: the cognitive reception of a
           situation, object or idea. Saau-ur is mentioned as early as the Vth
                As Saa Amenti-Ra "The Intelligence of the Amenti of Ra" god of
           conscience and character.
                Sa is a god of protection within his functions and is associated
           with Hu, taste. Oddly enough Sa is associated also with the heart. Hu
           and Saa together are the Eyes of Horus. More importantly they are the
           tongue and heart of Ptah; as such it is thur the heart that men relate
           their lives to moral precepts, and to be craftsmen.
                                   EGYPTIANS AND THE TAROT
                The first Tarot cards known were found in Italy. A reproduction
           of them has been done and is usable. I believe that they were nailed
           to something. Perhaps someone can fill in where it was found and the
           time period they were made.
                Bernard Bromage, in his book, which I can't recall the exact
           title of (it was years ago), but is something like The Secret Wisdom
           of the Egyptians (I'll look it up). Basically the book is fairly
           uninteresting as it relates to how ancient Egyptian traditions really
           worked. But there was, in one paragraph, something that struck my eye.
           In discussing, I believe, the Tarot he says (and despite not remember-
           ing the title, I do remember the sentence) "The Tarot, of course,
           originated from the Temple of Serapis in Naples, Italy." Well, here is
           something specific. Now to find a picture or reference from another
           source on a Temple of Serapis in Naples. Ancient Egypt did expand
           their temples outside of Egypt, and had temples and sanctuaries in
           Greece, Italy, France, Germany, Great Britain, Spain, and other plac-
           es. To make a long story longer, it took about five years before I
           finally found a reference to the Temple of Serapis in Italy. The
           reference referred to the excavation report done early in this cen-
           tury; that the temple is now pretty much at water level, that the
           illustrations on the wall were destroyed by WWII. That means that if
           the Tarot came from a chance find, it would be in the excavation
           report, if it came from illustrations on the walls, it would still be
           in the report. A friend of mine was in Naples and took a picture of
           the temple, and indeed, it was awash with water and the illustrations
           were definitely not there. Was Bromage right? Did there exist a pre-
           tarot illustrations in either wall form or chance papyrus? If true,
           did it include the minor arcana as well? If only the major arcana,
           what was it supposed to portray at that period of time? Perhaps the
           path of the initiate as supposed today? And whose initiate; a Roman/-
           Egyptian one or an Egyptian one? Where indeed is the excavation rep-
           ort? It was printed in Italian, but is there illustrations or photos
           of the illustrations? Is there a reference to cards or a papyrus or
           manuscript? Are there English translations? How did the Tarot get from
           a 3-5th century ad temple to 13-14th century cards? We know that the
           Italians were interested in retrieving Greek and Roman statues and
           works during that period; was that why and when the transition was
           made? All of these things depended on finding the excavation report.
           And if the report confirmed it, then did it mean that an even earlier
           version existed in Egypt? Lo and behold this could take forever (like
           this note is). But finally, voila! The French Institute of Archaeology
           in Cairo found the report for me and sent me a translation of the
           illustrations found on the wall. The report consisted of, among other
           things not particularly germane here, of descriptions of the illustra-
           tions, and a statue standing in the entrance. There are 20 illustra-
           tions that were on the wall prior to their destruction during WWII.
                Assuming for a moment that Major Arcana card number 0, which is
           the fool and generally interpreted as the initiate starting out on his
           journey, it would follow that, given the sequence of illustrations on
           the temple's walls, that indeed the ) card would be the initiate of
           Card One: Magician:
                Found at the entrance to the temple, just inside, was a partially
           damaged statue of the god Khnemu, and in front of him, an altar. The
           god Khnemu is the only god in ancient Egypt that is shown (and even at
           that, rarely), and applies in this case, with one hand pointed towards
           the sky, the other towards the earth. Khnemu is the god of the Nile,
           and since in the major arcana, water in the cards represents the flow
           of consciousness, it follows that the flow starts from Khnemu, the
           Nile (at least for Egyptians it would). The ritual equipment would
           have been placed on the altar.
           Card II: High Priestess:
                The first illustrations, the first one on the left side is of
           Veiled Isis (also one of only two Egyptian goddesses ever shown veil-
           ed). The illustration was between two pillars, the lotus and a papyrus
           pillar, and in the illustration Isis is seated, holding a lotus. Crown
           of sun and crescent moon.
           Card III: Empress:
                The second illustration again shows Isis, this time holding and
           suckling the baby Horus. Crown of Isis, the throne, symbol of the
           maternal power behind the throne, etc.
           Card IV: Emperor:
                The third illustration is of a Roman emperor in Egyptian garb,
           holding the was and flail.
           Card V: Hierophant:
                The next illustration is of an Egyptian priest, dressed in the
           leopards garb, making offerings to an altar.
           Card VI: Lovers:
                The next one is of the unification of Northern and Southern
           Egypt. The intertwining of the lotus and sedge plant, two Hapi gods
           (Showing both male and female traits). The Egyptian meaning is very
           similar to the card.
           Card VII: Chariot:
                Shrine procession, with two sphinxes in front of the shrine,
           being dragged by 4 anubian priests and 4 Horus priests (in a Temple of
           Serapis in Egypt, it actually is a chariot scene).
           Card VIII: Strength:
                The illustration is of the goddess Sekhmet, the Lioness goddess,
           who is the Egyptian symbol of strength. The scene also has a priestess
           offering a symbol of her heart to her (which is done after the bal-
           ance, weighting of the heart).
           Card IX: Hermit or Sage:
                The next illustration on the temple wall is of Imhotep, the prime
           example of the perfect man or Sage/Priest, with a scroll in hand.
           Card X: Wheel:
                The illustration is of the 7 Hathors, long regarded as the 7
           fates in ancient Egypt and part of the concept of time as regarding
           Card XI: Justice:
                This illustration is a quite common one in ancient Egypt, the
           Judgement scene, where the initiate or deceased is judged of his heart
           (actions, etc.) against truth.
           Card XII: Hanged Man:
                This illustration in the temple walls, although badly damaged,
           does show Osiris, who you may remember, was martyred, cut into bits,
           put back together, etc., and who symbolizes resurrection.
           Card XIII: Death or the Reaper:
                This scene, also badly damaged, clearly shows the god Set (Lord
           of Chaos and Disorder) with what looks like Anubis before him (the
           Guardian of your soul, the Guide of the Initiate). The interpretation
           works in well with our interpretation of the 13th card.
           Card XIV: Temperance or Alchemist:
                The illustration in the temple, damaged up to the waist of the
           individuals, shows Horus and Set, which would mean in its broadest
           sense, the tempering of one's bad traits with the good, the unifica-
           tion from within.
           Card XV: Devil or Black Magician:
                This illustration is a classic Egyptian one of the solar god Ra
           fighting Apophis, with a lesser scene of priests offering. In Egyptian
           initiations, this is the part of the Dweller of the Threshold, and the
           attempted crossing.
           Card XVI: Tower or Lightning:
                The illustration is of two obelisks. Obelisks, you may remember,
           always stood in front of the temple. Obelisks represented the first
           ray of light striking the earth. It would symbolize here the initiate
           passing the Dweller and now ready to enter the temple for final in-
           itiation for the first time, like the light hitting the earth for the
           first time, the transition is almost complete.
           Card XVII: Star:
                The goddess Seshat and a libation scene. Priestess with two
           bowls, one of water, the other of earth in front of Seshat, a Bennu
           bird in the water. Seshat has many attributes, but she has a star as a
           crown, the only one that does, and she is a consort of Thoth (god of
           Ceremonial Magic) as well as being the goddess of Libraries and Sacred
           Knowledge. The initiate is about to, or is receiving his sacred know-
           ledge about the world, himself, and of magic.
           Card XVIII: Moon:
                Top part of illustration only, of Khonsi, God of the Moon, and
           possibly of Thoth, also a God of the Moon.
           Card XIX: Sun:
                Clear painting/carving of the sun god Ra. flanked by hawks (also
           solar deities, Horus) and the sign of eternity. Perhaps at this point
           the initiate, now at dawn, is led out (or the doors are opened to
           reveal the morning sun) with the initiate now in the light (symbolic-
           ally and realistically).
           Card XX: Judgement:
                Illustration scene of initiate, hand in hand with the god Thoth,
           being led away from the Weighing of the Heart scene. His heart has
           been found true and just, in balance.
           Card XXI: World:
                The last illustration is somewhat damaged but clear enough to
           show the famous Nut, Geb, Shu scene. This scene is of the goddess of
           the Heavens, Nut, over the god of earth, Geb, with the god of space,
           Shu, in between. This is the classic Egyptian motif of all the world,
           heaven, earth and everything in between. The initiate is now one with
                Now, although all of the above scenes are for initiates, this
           could mean two things:
                1. This is a "storyboard" set of illustrations of one, albeit,
           long and very involved type of initiation.
                2. This is a "storyboard" set of illustrations of a series of
           steps and initiations of any initiate of Serapis and could conceivably
           take a lifetime to achieve.
                It is important to note that this room does not have one illust-
           ration of Serapis himself in it! He shows up on the outside of the
           temple in illustrations!  The excavation report concluded that this
           room was either a special place of initiations or a special place of
           worship. During the 10th-16th centuries, when the Europeans were
           rediscovering Greek and Roman statues, books, etc., this temple could
           very well have been recovered and uncovered. In fact the illustrations
           were partially still open to view before the excavation! I have traced
           several temples of Serapis, and have been trying to get notes on their
           illustrations as well. Two temples of Serapis in Egypt, one during the
           Greek/Ptolemaic period, and one of the 19th dynasty also show like
           illustrations, getting more and more Egyptian as the temples got
                Did the Egyptians actually have tarot cards of the major arcana?
           Not likely, as papyrus would be pretty much impossible to shuffle!!
           But here is the initial result of my study, it took years to find this
           material. Did the Temple of Serapis inspire the Italians to make the
           Major Arcana of the Tarot? It certainly contained the elements and the
           interpretation! Perhaps Bromage, who is rarely right, was right about
           this one. Further studies on Serapis temples that I did seem to keep
           the illustrations in order, but we do have a big gap between the
           temple and the first known cards!
                The tradition of Serapis starts from an early age, from the 1st
           dynasty of about 3,100 bce with Seken-ka as the first master of the
           tradition. In the XVIII dynasty Amenhotep enhanced the tradition, as
           did XIX dynastic Khawmwese, XXVI dynastic Amen-em-apt, XXXth dynastic
           Nectanebus, the last native king of Egypt, who ordered the spread of
           Egyptian temples throughout the known world.
                During the Roman period, Psoiphis and Chaeremon were leaders in
           the tradition.
                We have possible other sources of the ancient origin of Tarot
           including the ancient book, "78 Phases of Ra," the Book of Gates (it
           has 21 gates).
                There are temples of Serapis at Alexandria, Naples, Rome, Mem-
           phis. The nome state of Ament's capital was sacred to Serapis, called
           Apis, from the pre-Serapis tradition of Apis, from which Serapis is
           derived. There is a temple of Serapis in northern Amant called He-t
                There is a temple of Serapis at Pithom (the Bible mentions the
           city); a cult center at Mendes, one at north Meteliles.
                Now, is the word Tarot actually Egyptian or a derivation of an
           ancient Egyptian word or words? It very well could be. Ta and ro or
           rot are two Egyptian sounds.
           Ta = the following words:
                thou                bread, cake              to give
                staff (wand)        this                     moment/time
                land/earth          TO JOURNEY               THOTH
                earth god           time                forms/likeness/image
                essence of a god    glory                    the
                You also have the possibilities: tara: (long a) meaning time or
           season; teru: meaning a god of light.
           Ra, ro, or rot (no Egyptian vowels):
                man            chapter of a book        a covered court
                mouth, entrance, opening, door, gate
                entrance to a path or road
                sun, day            sun god                  words, acts
                storehouse or chamber
                Chapters of Coming Forth by Day
                     "    " Divine Rites
                     "    " Mysteries
                     "    " Praisings
                So you see, if Egyptian, it could mean "journey of the road" or
           "journey of time" or any number of things! It could mean "the glorious
           road." Or it all could be just a coincidence!!!! It's up to you.
           A LATER RELATED NOTE:   To give you an example of the differences,
           take the Strength card. That normally is depicted as a woman holding
           open the jaws of a male lion, quiet strength in check. In the temples
           of Serapis that corresponds to the illustration of the goddess Sekh-
           met. Sekhmet is a lioness goddess, but is usually depicted with a
           small mane! Hence, in Egypt, the female and male are combined into the
           Sekhmet form. The Isis Veiled card is almost the same in the two
           illustrations. Isis is shown veiled (one of two goddesses ever shown
           that way), sitting, holding stalks of wheat and a container of water
           in the Roman Serapis temples.
           ANOTHER LATER RELATED NOTE:  So far, there hasn't been found any
           evidence of wood, stone, papyrus, or any other form of the major
           arcana for use in divination. Note that many of the arcana of the
           Temple of Serapis are common motifs, and as such, can be found in
           clay, stone, papyrus, etc.; but never has been found in a group,
           incomplete set or not. Perhaps to the Egyptians, the Major Arcana was
           not a form of divination but the initiate's initiation or life cycle.
                Divination was used in ancient Egypt, by both priests and people
           alike. I have various types of divination by bowls, by oracles, by
           dreams, by ceremonies. There is even divination by casting stones into
           a certain type of decorated bowl of water. There is divination by
           using a particular set of the popular Senet game. But, alas, none yet
           by Tarot.
               there is a lot of information out there about divination and
           ceremonies, but much of it, like I said before, is in German, French,
           Arabic, and part in english.
               for example, there is a two volume work on Senet, including the
           divination part, but alas, it is in German.
               See if you can get a book by Serge Saureon, called, the "Priests
           of Ancient Egypt."  although it is mainly during the greek period of
           ancient Egypt, much has not changed.
               if you look at the translations of the Pyramid Texts, the Coffin
           Texts and the Book of the Dead (Papyrus of Ani, translated by Faulk-
           ner), you would find that it is a lot of disjointed rituals put toget-
           her. Most was not originally written for the dead, it was just sligh-
           tly revised.
              In the Pyramid texts and Coffin Texts, for example, you have texts
           on astral projection, blessing tools, consecration, initiation, hymns,
           etc. If you can find an english copy of the Harris Papyrus (good luck,
           long out of print, very expensive), it is THE magical texts and divin-
                I am familiar with the Church of Light organization in Los An-
           geles. They are no help in assistance, as all of their information is
           of Greek/Roman period and doesn't go any further back, and I already
           have the Greco/Roman period down. It's true that Iamblichus did write
           about Egyptian initiation, but the translations of his work do not
           include any descriptions of Tarot-like illustrations. Unlike what the
           Church of Light says, the translations are readily available. One must
           remember that initiations done in the 4th century do not and will not
           accurately reflect the initiations that took place in ancient Egypt.
           Egypt took a profound change in the late dynastic period prior to the
           Greeks, and even more during the Greek and Roman periods. Much of the
           magic, mysteries were lost and new ones invented or gaps were sub-
           stituted by current thought. It was a decaying period for Egypt,
           adopting to Greek ways and then to Roman ones. The mysteries and
           initiations became an echo of what they once were.
                The Church of the Eternal Source, also in Los Angeles, on the
           other hand, is a very Egyptian mystery oriented organization, but
           centers around the Old, Middle and New Kingdom, using the original
           papyrus and temple inscriptions for their mysteries and initiations.
           But still, in both cases, their knowledge is limited by what has been
           published and available. The translations and the original documents
           about such things are either not published, or published in limited
           editions and not available in most libraries. The French Institute of
           Archaeology in Cairo has the most complete library of all published
           and unpublished material related to ancient Egypt. I use them exten-
                The Church of Light, on the other hand, uses adapted to modern
           symbolism, not ancient ones. The Tower card would never have been done
           in ancient Egypt like the Church of Light did it. In essence the
           Church made up a Neo-Egyptian religion incorporating ancient symbols
           and modern thought, when they just could have used the ancient symbols
           as is. In other words, they tried, without much research, to make a
           modern Tarot deck using ancient symbols out of place, rather than
           making an ancient tarot deck using ancient symbols in place. Then they
           think that this is going to get you in touch with ancient Egypt.
           Wrong! It may get you in touch with modern man's (since the time of
           Blavatsky) metaphysical idea of what ancient Egypt was, but to get in
           touch with ancient Egypt, you need to use ancient Egyptian methods.
           Kind of like getting a model airplane and putting it together without
           a picture to go by or the guide to do it right.
                             THE INHERENT DIFFICULTY OF STUDYING
                                  ANCIENT EGYPTIAN RELIGION
                Throughout its 4,000 odd year old history there is no systematic
           account of the doctrines used. Different men living at different times
           do not think alike; and no college of priests had formulated a system
           of beliefs that was received by all clergy and laity alike. 42 nomes;
           42 religions in 4,000 years! Changes were extent, differences, even in
           the same periods, were great. But all had one thing in common, Organic
                Organic Totality: the physical environment, human organizations,
           conscience, language and ultimate goals, all make up Egypt's totality.
           Egypt did not have a central dogma or sacred book. But the one thing
           that prevented them from losing their individuality and from coa-
           lescing into a common unit is the belief in more than one set of gods.
           The Egyptian religions were both personal and nationalistic. It was
           personal to each individual or family; private, interwoven with a
           sense of personal right and wrong, with a personal shrine or "niche"
           in every house to their personal gods/desses. It was nationalistic
           because usually the place of the national seat of government deter-
           mined, for the most part, the overall thought of the period, the
           morality of the period. The Egyptian religion offers a variety of
           paths to the ultimate source by individual contact and tailoring
           information and guidance according to an individual's needs and level
           of development.
           Three aspects of the Egyptian religion and culture.
           1. Polytheism; all gods and goddesses are emanations or forces from
           one source (although in each state, the one source may have a dif-
           ferent name).
           2. Actualization of the Individual; the development of the potential
           of the individual was important to the Egyptian colleges.
           3. Direct communication/relationship of an individual's surroundings.
                The kings of Egypt had from three to five "great names" and Lee
           mentioned only one, the Horus name. There is also the "nebti" name.
           This name is from the Two Ladies, Nekhebet and Uatchet, and Pharaoh
           becomes the force uniting the dual monarchy. This name goes back to
           the 1st dynasty and is based on the two capitals of pre-dynastic
           Egypt, Neken and Buto, seats of the two goddesses. The third name is
           the "bee" name. "He who belongs to the sedge plant and the bee," the
           "nesu-list" name, symbolizing the union of Upper and Lower Egypt.
           Predynastic: According to Manetho, a race of people came into Egypt
           and some became the founders and rulers of This and Memphis. The
           system of solar theology arrived in Lower Egypt (Delta) as early as
           5,000 bce in the form of the "Shensu Heru" or Followers of Horus. They
           made their way to upper Egypt before the 1st dynasty. In predynastic
           times there were two distinct kingdoms, Upper and Lower Egypt, with
           their capitals at Neken (slightly north of Thebes) and Buto (in the
           Delta). We have names of at least 12 kings of these two areas, al-
           though the Book of Sothis lists 86 kings, and the "Old Chronicles"
           lists 84.
                There are several approaches taken by metaphysically minded
           people of today about ancient Egypt. There are those who see only what
           Edgar Cayce or something like Urantia has to say about Egypt, and
           don't take the time to discover Egypt for themselves, or to see if
           what they learned was actually true. There are those who have worked
           beyond Cayce, and find a "pull" towards Egypt and read many books
           about the subject. Unfortunately, Budge, the most predominant writer,
           gives an unrealistic view of ancient Egypt, and many things are not
           mentioned, such as personal worship, initiations, changes of con-
           sciousness; therefore the reader is forced to rely on another source,
           who may not know anything at all about Egypt, but a lot about meta-
           physics and give you bum information. Elizabeth Haitch's (?) book,
           "Initiation," supposedly an Egyptian initiation, bears no relation to
           an actual Egyptian initiation and should be treated as fantasy. Then
           there are those in metaphysics that like to practice the ancient
           religions. Their approach is usually through another tradition, i.e.
           Golden Dawn, or Wicca. Both of these traditions (Wicca having many
           traditions and only some incorporate Egyptian into them) do not draw
           upon real Egyptian traditions. The Golden Dawn uses Greco-Roman Egyp-
           tian Tradition, acknowledged by Egyptologists as the period when most
           of the Egyptian traditions have been radically changed by outside
           influences, much already lost, and even hieroglyphic writing being
           incomprehensible. The Wicca traditions take god/desses wholesale, give
           them new attributes, new powers that they never had, have the rituals
           in English, etc. 
                No one studies the Egyptian traditions from the texts, temples,
           or tombs in order to find out how it works. Except me. Perhaps that is
           because I believe in finding out about a tradition by getting it from
           the original sources. And a major part of the problem is that although
           there are a lot of books, they are for the most part, too general. To
           find out what the Egyptians practiced, how, why, when and by whom
           requires years of searching obscure journals, papers, translations of
           texts, excavation reports (which have illustrations, translations of
           what was excavated) of tombs, houses, temples, and how many people
           have the time, money, experience to do that? Almost no one. So every-
           one else makes it up or speculates about it. I am going to try to make
           up for this loss by publishing a series of books on the ancient Egyp-
           tian personal worship, and the Temple Priesthood. What was taught, how
           was it taught, who did they teach it to, who were the teachers, how
           were they qualified, where was it taught, what differences are there
           between personal worship at home and temple worship, etc.?
               There was a note about religions borrowing elements from others
           and that it happened for millennia. Such is definitely not the case.
           Granted it is easy to find a few that did, Christianity, Islam, Roman.
           And granted it is easy to find more that borrowed SOME of its trad-
           ition, but let's look at a couple of those.
               There is no evidence that the Ancient Egyptian religion came out
           from somewhere else. From pre-dynastic to the Middle Kingdom there
           were only one or two examples where borrowing took place, but in each
           and every case, they adopted THE ENTIRE SYSTEM. In fact in almost
           every case of a pagan religion part of another system, they almost
           invariably adopted the priesthood with it, or had the priesthood teach
           them, Or made it a part but separate from the main religion. This is
           totally different from today's pagans. Instead of being taught from
           the priesthood of the other religion or adopting the entire priest-
           hood, they take bits and snatches that they don't understand and adopt
                Now it is agreed by both Egyptologists, The Church of the Eternal
           Source (see Drawing Down the Moon), and many Hermeticists that in the
           Late Period of ancient Egypt, the priesthood not only started forget-
           ting the important esoteric side of their own religion, but started
           adopting others bits and pieces, without the total integration that
           they practiced earlier. It resulted in a almost total breakdown of
           usefulness in practicing magic, mumbling now meaningless phrases, and
           effectiveness in their magic and rituals.
                One can count numberless examples of just how much one can be
           effective when you only know a small part of the whole (kind of like
           driving a car for the first time when the only thing you know about is
           the trunk).
                Also in ancient Egyptian, Hindu, Buddhism, and many American
           Indian religions (and paganism in the 1950-1970's) there was a belief
           that a symbol, if believed in by a large number of people over a large
           span of time, is far more effective than a symbol that is used by a
           small group over a short period of time. Does it not hold true that a
           magical object is imbued with more magic every time it is used?
               Thus, then how effective can a system be if it is 20-30 years old,
           practiced by 500 people, using symbols that are either brand new or
           misunderstood? (Like using a red pentagram for bring forth the earth
           element; how less effective is it as opposed to a green one which has
           been used by millions of people for thousands of years?)
                Occult philosophy by these groups and many others maintain that
           the more powerful an object is based on the formula: # of people using
           it + # of years in use + the ability of the individual to use it + the
           correctness in its use. The astral plane is exclusively made up by
           just this principle, and it's this plane where much of the magic is
               The effectiveness of the individual to practice his magic or
           religion is also directly proportional to the abilities and effective-
           ness of his/her teacher, and the degree of success in achieving the
           goals in his/her training.
                FROM MARK REYBURN   On borrowing, syncretism is and was
                common among many religions, including Egyptians, as you
                note. It tends to occur most frequently in cultures with
                regular contact with different practices. One of the Sun
                Dances, I think it's the Cherokee, is supposed to be syn-
                cretic. Who they got it from escapes me, my anthro classes
                are practically history themselves by now! Selective borrow-
                ings are, as you note, tricky things. But, we would be
                poorer without it. And ceremonial magic aside, symbol use is
                more free-form than most of us would prefer. Not quite,
                words mean what I want them to mean, but symbols are much
                more personal than the "Official" correspondences. The
                "well-worn path" of symbol meaning is certainly helpful IN
                SOME TRADITIONS, but is completely irrelevant to someone who
                is using symbols on a personal level. Although less potent
                magickally, religiously personal symbolism is much more
                potent than time-worn symbols. Besides, how else do new
                religions develop symbolism?
                FROM DOMI O'BRIEN   In ADF ritual we specifically note that
                the more-- and the more of us-- that call upon the old gods
                the more they respond to our need-- one is reminded of "the
                old gods only sleep, you know, although betrayed and slan-
                dered; they guarded us from every woe, and blessed each crop
                and fine herd..." and, oddly enough, Tinker Bell-- if you
                believe in fairies-- read DDW-- we focus belief, and will...
                FROM GARY OHLEMILLER     This is an interesting dichotomy I
                haven't heard much about before. One group seems to prefer
                the Bonewits/Parapsychological approach which holds that the
                power of a symbol comes from the strength of association it
                holds in the individual's unconscious. Mr. Poe seems to
                advocate a Jungian approach in which the archetype exists
                "objectively" and is waiting there to be used. Does anyone
                out there have enough practical experience to tell us which
                is more efficacious? I sure don't.
                FROM MICHAEL POE   In reference to what is more (?) effec-
                tive or powerful, actually both together would be the most
                powerful of all.
                My little experience, such as it is, has been working in the
                area for 20 years, bring apprenticed to an Havasupi shaman,
                personal knowledge from four other systems, watching and
                working with 3 other shamans, and personal tours to sacred
                sites around the world. Go to a sacred site and see just how
                powerful it still is, like a huge untapped battery.
                Feel a talisman that was made and used 4,000 years ago, yet
                still has as much or more power than anything you have
                touched by a modern worker of almost any system. 
                I gave a 4,500 year old scarab that hasn't been used since
                to a friend of mine who put it in a box. 2 months later,
                when he opened the box to use it he found the box has been
                burned from the inside out. (although admittedly that scarab
                is an exception).
                I have found that both ways can work, but an old cultural symbol
                (in Jungian terms) is more in our subconscious as a type of
                universal symbol, and will be more powerful and last longer than
                a personal one.
                Get the most magically powerful person you know, have him/her do
                a circle ritual in a square area, and go back a month later and
                see if you can find it by feeling for it. Go to a ancient sacred
                spot that hasn't been used for hundreds or thousands of years and
                feel its power. Which is greater?   My bet goes to the ancient
                one. More use over more time.  
               There are some definite misconceptions expressed here on Alchemy.
           Alchemy is not about transmuting lead into gold (that was, at the
           most, a test on your elixir), it does not involve using electricity,
           it is not part of tantric.
               One of the problems involved is that people get a tradition that
           they don't understand and misuse the term until it loses almost all of
           its original meaning.
                Alchemy is a spiritual experience that is a combination of two
           things, the transmutation of the workers spirit with the transmutation
           of physical substances (which creates the Elixir of Life).
                while in the broad sense that Alchemy is a transmutation, it has
           no part in Tantric.
                The physical and metaphysical process has always been described
           in allegories, hence the confusion of work with metals.
               In order to practice alchemy today, you need to read only about 2
           or 3 good books on the subject
               "Gold of a Thousand Mornings" is a non-fiction book describing
           alchemy by a man/wife team in France. It dwells on both the spiritual
           and physical aspects and describes the work that they did.
               "An Alchemists Handbook" has a brief description of the meaning
           and the "Great Work" (as it is called), and gives you in great detail
           how to do the physical work.
               In order for alchemy to work, you need to do both at the same time
           as you need self transformation to work in order for the physical
           transformation to work.
               the chemical side of work delves mainly into herbs, and if you use
           herbs in your regular work, then you will have real use with alchemy.
               In the chemical aspect, the herb's essence  is extracted (the gold
           from the dross), as well as yourself (your essence is purified). To do
           so, you usually need chemical glassware such as a condenser, or
           soylent extractor. This is a typical operation when making perfume
           from flowers or making an herbal extraction. The main difference is
           that the extraction takes place with a magical bent to it. rituals are
           done during the extraction process, timing is essential (astrological,
           lunar, and solar, and seasonal timing) .
                So,  since you may already be familiar with blessing and con-
           secration of magical tools, and putting power into them, a very
           similar thing is done to yourself (an human vessel) and your herbal
           product during the alchemical process.
               also, there are two existing alchemical schools, one in France,
           one in Utah (of all places!)
               If you already use herbs in your other work, following this
           process will net you much more powerful herbal concoctions as well as
           a more powerful and spiritual self.
               I myself use the process. One of the aspects in alchemy is that
           one gathers certain herbs, minerals to produce an elixir that will
           extend life (as one of it's benefits). but before ingesting it, an
           alchemist would sometimes test it by adding a pinch of it to lead, and
           if it turned into gold, then your elixir is finished and can be used.
               However, turning lead into gold was never the end product for the
           work, but merely a test. You can make other useful herbal/concoctions
           without achieving the 'Elixir of Life.'   Since alchemy is non-denom-
           inational, it can be used with practically any tradition.
                The source of the word Alchemy has had a lot of discussion among
           alchemical writers and alchemists. Although chemy did eventually
           become chemistry, the origin of the word did not.
                The most agreed upon definition of the term Alchemy is this:   Al
           (arab word meaning THE)  Khemia;  meaning Egypt, which comes from the
           ancient Egyptian word for Egypt meaning "black land"   thus:   The
           Black Land
                since Alchemy does originate in Egypt, it makes sense.
               The first alchemical work is called the Emerald Tablet, written by
           Thoth, or Hermes Trismigistos.
               the father of alchemy is Zoismos, an Egyptian.
               the mother of alchemy is Marie, the Egyptian, who describes in her
           works the actual equipment used. (the only person who does!!!!).
                The Fellowship of Isis is the only group that I am aware of that
           worships only Isis and is not a Wiccan group. Their headquarters is on
           the British Isles but has many members in the US. They do, however,
           use almost exclusively late Dynastic and Greco-Roman Isis rituals,
           which many people believe are disbased and not well understood (true
           of most of the Egyptian traditions at that time).
               The Church of the Eternal Source uses rituals from the Old to New
           Kingdom ( I-XXIst. Dynasty) and includes Isis. It is a federation of
           Egyptian temples, so there are Priests of Horus, Thoth, Ptah, Pries-
           tesses of Bast, Sekhmet/Bast, Hathor and Isis. And, oh yes, a priest
           and priestess of Osiris. They are currently looking at an initiation
           plan based on ancient Egyptian sources to possibly adopt as their own.
              If there is a group by the name that the person mentioned, it may
           be either a new Egyptian traditions group, or an eclectic Wiccan
              Isis was never worshiped by Wiccans prior to the 1950's and should
           best be worshipped by people acquainted with the ancient Egyptian
           Traditions related to her. Isis went through many changes, adding more
           powers and attributes as time went on. She wasn't even called a Mother
           Goddess for the first 2,000 years of her worship.
               Most people who don't know ancient egyptian traditions don't get
           the response from Isis that they expect (or a totally different
           response). Isis is very powerful, but exacting. It's always best to
           know what power relates to which of her forms in order to invoke her.
                One thing to remember. Isis belongs to several ancient Egyptian
           traditions. As such, you won't be aware of her powers and attributes
           unless you are familiar with the Egyptian traditions.
               For example, as an Enchantress, she is invoked with a special form
           in mind (holding specific objects, in specific positions, wearing
           specific clothes). Not to have that form in mind, according to ancient
           Egyptian tradition, is to negate your entire ritual, or to degrade it
           (it won't have the effect as much as if you did it the right way), or
           to have an effect entirely different.
               Isis, for one, has many powers and attributes, and many forms.
           Just invoking her in a different direction invokes a power you may not
           be aware of. As such she can appear to be both benign or terrible (she
           is one of the Dweller of the Door, or Threshold goddesses).
               Even during the Egyptian period, 4,000 bce (predynastic) to 641 ad
           (the closing of her last temple) she went through many modifications
           and changes. She wasn't even known as a mother goddess for at least
           1,500 years!
               It's too bad that people borrow god/desses from traditions that
           they know little about, to use in ritual. If they knew the tradition
           better, their ritual would be better.
              There is also an Isis heaven to astral project to, but again, in
           Egyptian tradition, you must know the way, the form to use to get
           there, otherwise you go to a false one.
              She also appears as an astral guide, but again, only assumes a
           specific form.
              Unfortunately there is little written about how to actually prac-
           tice Egyptian ritual (although the Church of the Eternal Source
           knows). That is a gap that I hope to fill one day, having spent over
           30 years studying ancient Egypt, worked there for several years in the
           tombs and temples, and have the best resources available to me in the
           term of published and unpublished material. I am currently working on
           what could be 
           several volumes on the Theory and Practice of the Ancient Egyptian
           Traditions (good title!)
                                     INFORMATION ON BAST
                                from ancient Egyptian sources
           Powers and Attributes of Bast:
              Lady of the East (IVth Dynasty on)
              Female Personification of Fire
              the Light Bearer
              Female power of Light, Heat, Sun, Fire, Mild Heat of the
               day and Year
              Power of germination of seeds
              Power of early Summer
              Goddess of the Birth Chamber
              Goddess of Full Moon
              Goddess of Cats
           Bast festivals occur in April and May in her temple at Bubastis,
           facing east.
           The Greeks associated her with Diana.
           Bast was also used to learn words of power to vanquish the powers of
           darkness (IVth Dynasty).
           Bast attributes are also related to cats.
           Bast had at least four different forms (and no breastplate related by
           another, more contemporary book)
                     FROM BRANDY WILLIAMS   Ref.: THE BOOK OF GODDESS &
                     HEROINES by Patricia Monaghan. "She originated in
                     the Nile delta, but by 930 B.C., the power of Bast
                     was acknowledged by all Egyptians. At first she
                     was a lion-goddess of sunset, symbolizing the
                     fertilizing force of the sun's rays. Later her
                     image grew tamer: she became a cat carrying the
                     sun, or a cat-headed woman who bore on her breast-
                     plate the lion of her former self." Bast ruled
                     pleasure and dancing, music and joy. At Bubastis
                     ("House of Bast"), the center of her worship,
                     great celebrations were held. Boatloads of wor-
                     shipers - hundreds of thousands of them, Herodotus
                     said - were greeted by pleasant flute melodies as
                     they debarked for a worship service combined with
                     a vast trade fair. Bast's followers believed that
                     in return for this reverent celebration Bast
                     bestowed both mental and physical health.
                As a cat goddess of the moon she lit up the night, throwing light
           on things which would otherwise be concealed. Moon lights up a world
           hidden in darkness, and the cat gives us insight with her light of the
           under, or inner world. The Moon is the searcher, a seeker of Truth.
           Bast is known as the Lady of Truth. Beams of the moon point the way
           and a narrow path called a cat walk, usually called in Egyptian as the
           Middle Way or Path.
                When a cat curls up with its head touching its tail, it forms a
           circle, symbol of eternity.
                Bast also symbolizes sensuality, grace, coordination of movement.
                Bubastis (town of Bast) also called Per-Bast, Pa-Bast, Pibeseth,
                Location:  lower Egypt, northern kingdom and capital of the 18th
           nome or state, Am-Khent.
                time Period of Bubastis:   IInd Dynasty to at least 640 ad.
                IInd Dynasty:  "in the reign of the 1st king, a chasm opened up
           and many people perished."
                IV:  Khufu (builder of the Great Pyramid) built here.
                XXII:  Libyans ruled Egypt here
                640 ad:  Bubastis still alive and worshipping cats here.
                Temple of Bast on an island with only an entranceway bridging it.
           There is also a Temple to Thoth, and a shrine to Temit. Minor gods: 
           Temit: Lady of the Two Lands and Osiris:  the thigh of Osiris is in a
           hidden chest at Netert.
              Triad at Bubastis:  Bast, Osiris, Heru-hekennu, and to a lesser
           extent: Nefer-tem.
           Invoke the cat Bast to learn words of power to vanquish the powers of
           darkness (IVth dynasty on)
               Bast attributes related to cats;
               refusal to take things overseriously
               science of relaxation, never waste energy
               accepts the nature of things, superb indifference to opinion, 
           refusal to be at beck and call
               insistence of complete freedom of expression
               when a cat curls up with its head touching its tail, it
                     forms a circle, symbol of eternity
               luxuriating sensuality, grace, coordination of movement
               Egyptian cats are typically orange-brown, ginger and a gray tabby.
           As a lioness, (her earliest forms), painted green, she personifies the
           Sun. As a cat, she has connections with the moon.
           Mother of lion god Ari-hes of Aphroditopolis, Mother of Sekhem, of
           Bast is also considered to be the Soul of Isis.
           Forms usually seen:
            1. Upright cat, holding a sistrum and aegis, surrounded by four
           protector cats.
            2. woman's body, head of lion or cat, holding sistrum and either a
           basket or a aegis (can hold uatchet)
             3. Aegis of Bast sometimes has a head of a cat crowned with solar
           disk and uraeus, emblems of Sekhmet.
             4. Lion headed woman, oldest form of Bast. In 5th Dynasty temple
           called, "Bastet, Lady of Ankh-Taui."
           Also associated with:
                Mut-Bast:  personification of the moon in Thebes, she is a woman
           wearing horns on her head with a sun's disk between them. Mut-Bast is
           the counterpart of Amen-Ra-Temu-Khepera-Heru-Khuti
                Sekhmet, as a counter-part
                Assessor Thenemi (he who goes backwards) and who comes forth from
                Assessor Basti
                A good description of the Festival of Bast, called the Festival
           of Lights, has been described by various Greek and Roman writers.
                The temple of Bast in Bubastis,  while on a island, is lower than
           the rest of the city, and therefore, is the only temple that the
           people can see into the courtyard. Also there is a sacred grove of
           trees in the courtyard (the only one known of all temples in Egypt).
           At the festival of Lights, all light in the city is extinguished. then
           a new fire is made in the temple and the priests come out to light the
           torches of the people who then parade throughout the city to relight
           all the home fires. by the Greek/Roman period there was also a kind of
           sexual license at the time at the festival. Food and drink for all
           (which is typical of the temple festivals).
                Speaking of cats!   I had a request from Jennifer about Wadjet,
           the rearing cobra, sometimes lioness. Good observation, most people
           don't know that Wadjet is VERY occasionally depicted as a Cat. Here is
           the answer.
              Wadjet, the cobra depicts two things: the real snake (in the prov-
           erbial papyrus grass) with it's dangerous forms and powers. And 2, the
           Kundalini, or Serpent Fire of the human body coming out of the third
           eye!  That's why the serpent is always on the crown or is the crown
           over the third eye. It's also symbolic of the sun. I know, you think
           that the Kundalini comes out of the top of your head, as Hindus would
           have you believe. Could be true, but in Egypt, when one works with
           Wadjet's fire, you direct the route to the third eye (the burning,
           purifying fire), while redirecting a lesser (gentle growing heat of
           the sun) to the top of your head (hence, the Lotus depicted on top of
           the head).
               So, yes, different aspects of her nature. As depicted as Wadjet
           the cat, here is a dichotomy!  Cats protect humans from snakes, so
           Wadjet is also invoked to protect humans from her very own physical
           manifestation, the deadly cobra.
            As depicted as a cat, it shows her protection from her very real
           counterpart, the asp.  Asp and you shall receive! (g)
               Now as to relationships with Bast/Sekhmet/Mut.
               Think of fire and think of sun/moon. Think of opposing sections of
           the same thing (burning fire, gentle heat; light of day, dark of
           night) and you have some basic differences between Bast/Sekhmet. Have
           you seen the National Geographic special on cats: our pets and how
           they relate to the big cats. think of the attributes of the big cats
           and think of Sekhmet; think of the attributes of the domesticated cats
           (really, cats domesticate people) and think of Bast. The shared at-
           tributes of Bast And Sekhmet are the same as the shared attributes of
           big vs. little cats. Mut is a maternal cat, big or small.
                Sekhmet destroys, but she is also a healer
                Bast is playful, but also protective
             When the Christians decided to kill all the cats in Egypt in the
           700's ad, they did so. Two years later, the Black Death came out of
           Egypt and devastated Christian europe. 
               Was this revenge by Sekhmet and Bast onto the Christian
           population for destroying their physical symbols, the little kitties?  
           Or was it because the amount of cats kept down the rat population
           enough that the Black Death (a rat flea borne disease) didn't come out
           until the decline of the cats?  Or both?
                                   A BLESSING FOR THE DEAD
                                          (TO BAST)
                Having worked with the High Priestess of Sekhmet-Bast-Ra (and
           taught most everything she knows), and member of the Egyptian temple
           federation, Church of the Eternal Source, I have the information you
                Since you don't practice Egyptian traditions, instead of giving
           you a whole ritual, I will give you a hymn/prayer to Bast that is a
           Blessing for the Dead, that you can incorporate into your ritual, plus
                Bast is a goddess for the Sun and the Moon, but for the dead
           Sunset is the best time;  Night comes second, sunrise third, and
           daylight comes in fourth for ritual for this.
                Face the West, setting sun (or if not at sunset, either the moon
           or the sun depending on you doing it in the day or night time.
                If you have an oil lamp lit it; if not use white candles, and a
           little votive candle. Bless the two white ones to Bast, the votive to
           the dead cat.
                Meditate upon the cats attributes; able to see at night, intel-
           ligent, quick, independent, very maternal, luxury minded and sensual.
           (if you have a cat, invite her in your circle).
                Bast nefer dy ankh
                Beautiful Bast giving Life,
                A Bast, shu asenu
                Hail Bast, in visible form, casting light into the darkness
                sesept em kekui,
                I have come before you, the path is opened,
                the earth is at peace.
                i kua ser-ten,  uat sesh-tha, ta em hetep.
           (Egyptian pronunciation is optional, but in ancient Egypt
           was imperative to speak the language to create the sounds to
           get the response.)
               O Great goddess, Bast,
               Soul of Isis,
               Heart of the Sun-hear my call.
               Enter now this consecrated shrine (or circle)
               Make Thy presence known to me.
               (envision the dead cat)
               Aid thy servant in reaching the source of all things,
               Guide thy servant's steps on the true path
               Answer your physical manifestation's soul's desire for Thou.
               Blessed be Bast,
               Who gathers her children into life everlasting.
               Blessed be Bast,
               The Beloved of Bast has gone to the Horizon,
               Your physical manifestation lives now only in the sunset.
               May it's ka endure and it's shadow seek the light.
               The power of Bast protects her,
               Shut en Bast sau.
           FROM PETE STAPLETON   Michael Poe, I knew if I posted here i would
           find someone who could help me resolve some of problems regarding the
           failure of certain historical astrological techniques. The Egyptian
           calendar I was referring to was the 30 day lunar calendar - the one
           introduced to the Romans. To my knowledge there has never been an
           Egyptian Solar Calendar. I'm sure I must have misunderstood your post
           - or you may have confused my reference. So we will both relate to the
           same calendar - I refer to the 360 day lunar Calendar composed of
           twelve 30 day lunar months and with the extra five days added on each
           year. This was the calendar discussed at the meeting called to discuss
           what to do with the extra five days of the year - which resulted in
           the Decree of Canopious - I think if was first published about 250 BC
           or thereabouts - hope this helps. I am impressed with your EZ cosmos
           program which shows the sky 4,117 BC to 10,000 AD - how delightful for
           you. I wonder if you could tell me how such a program handled the
           calculation past 500 BC - to my knowledge even Ptolemy's eclipse
           tables only go back to about 580 BC - which suggests some problems
           with calculations beyond that date - but I'm certain you must have
           taken this factor into account - so could you help me understand what
           they are?  Certainly the meeting to account for the extra five days of
           the year at that time must have been the reason why there is not any
           contiguous record extant in the entire world past 580 BC. I would
           appreciate your help here. Then next area where you have set me stra-
           ight is the day starting with sunrise at that time. I know the marking
           stars and the water clocks of that era all showed the day starting
           with Sun set - but certainly you have a better grip of the details and
           can explain why all the WATCHERS began their vigil and day at sunset.
           I do think the evidence points very definitely toward the source of
           the constellational names being that of river based culture where
           there was a great inundation once a year - but since you make the
           point that the Egyptians at that time didn't have the present names,
           then what did they have - or what other river based culture was there
           where there was a flood of the dimensions of the Nile river within the
           Nile valley. The zodiac at one time on the ceiling of the Temple of
           Dendrah has to have been painted about 100 ad and the constellational
           names as we use them today were in existence much before that time. I
           am also a little confused about your reference to Sign as being dis-
           tinct from Constellations. There never was a zodiac of Signs prior to
           the 8th century AD. All previous reference were to the star spangled
           constellations - each precisely 30 degrees in length - each measured
           by a precise 30-day lunation - again I refer you to the problem of
           what to do with the extra five days of the year meeting. It is my
           understanding that the Kings list and the dynasty lists are in com-
           plete disarray - so how do you know these astronomical texts you
           mention relate to the 18th dynasty. Also, I do believe the Pleides
           were referred to as the seven sisters in ancient Egypt - but of course
           I will bow to superior knowledge - I wonder if you could cite the
           reference. As far as being the goddess of Fate and Fortune - the
           influence of this particular pattern was then and is now considered
           quit negative - bad luck.
                FROM MICHAEL POE   You are partially out of my league except
                for the Egyptian lunar calendar, which was not made up of 30
                days months, but 28 day months. Of course since the Egyp-
                tians was made up of 42 states, 2 kingdoms, and at least
                13-14 traditions, there was more than one calendar. there
                was one based on the Sothic year (when Sirius sets just
                before the sun rises, which is a 365 day solar calendar; a
                Lunar calendar of 28 day months (which eventually coincided
                with the solar during the "Sothic" cycle), a 260 day calen-
                dar not based on any aspect of the sky, a solar 360 day
                calendar with 5 "intercalerary" days. Their lunar calendar
                was made up of 7 day weeks, while the solar had 10 day
                weeks. Oddly enough (or perhaps not so oddly), the solar
                calendar was the civil calendar for working, the lunar
                calendar was for the farmers.
                     My EZ Cosmos program, which shows the sky from anywhere
                on earth from 4,117 bce to 10,000 ad, can give me the
                beginning Sothic year during ancient Egypt. It gave me the
                date of the 1st day of the 1st use of the Sothic calendar
                (which also coincided with the lunar calendar that year). A
                friend of mine did an astrology chart that showed a most
                intriguing configuration for that time.
                     In case you're wondering, the year always starts on
                sunup, so the date was sun up at Memphis, Egypt at a certain
                day in July, in a certain year. Of course the Egyptians
                didn't, at the time, have the same zodiac names, although
                they recognized the constellations. The first zodiac of the
                common signs (or today's signs) in Egypt were done in the
                temple of Denderah (temple of Hathor), a beautiful work on
                the ceiling. Astronomy played a big part in ancient Egypt,
                notice the astronomical texts of the 18th dynasty.
                     In case you are interested, Pleides was called the
                seven Hathors in ancient Egypt, and were considered the
                goddesses of fate and fortune.
                               THE TEMPLE OF RA AT HELIOPOLIS
               The Temple of Ra in Heliopolis as described by Herodutus.
               Probably the largest temple in the world, it was about 2/3 of a
           mile long, and a 1/4 of a mile in width.
             The courtyard was described as made with polished black basalt
           stones, so polished that it reflected the stars above and made it look
           like one was walking among the stars. In the middle of the courtyard
           was a full size tree, its trunk and branches made with Lapis Lazuli,
           its leaves made with Turquoise!   No doubt a most impressive court-
               The entire temple is now under the suburb of Heliopolis, a suburb
           of Cairo.
               A small portion was uncovered 3 years ago, and showed the black
           basaltic paving stones of the courtyard.
                                       TAROT SYMBOLISM
           FROM:    MICHAEL POE   Since the tarot is not related to any Hindu
           philosophy, I don't, and neither do the earlier tarot references,
           refer to their philosophy to the symbolism, which is generally Her-
           metic (Hermetic is derived from Hebrew, Christian, Greek, and Egyp-
           tian). In hermeticism the eye is also symbolic of the Eye of Horus,
           the Egyptian Hawk god, who soars over the earth seeing everything that
           White, red and black also refer to Egyptian garments worn by Initiates
           at least as early as the Greco-roman period and represents something
           completely different than the Hindu. White is the undergarment because
           it symbolizes the purified;  the first garment put on after the
           initiate bathes in the sacred lake. The red lining is for the Inunda-
           tion of the Nile, or potential life giving. and Black is symbolic of
           the black earth of Egypt, the life, manifested.
              In the Waite deck,  the dog also represents God, which it is if
           spelled backward, nipping the initiate along the path, but in 
           ancient Egypt it is Anubis, the Guide and Guardian of the Initiate.
                Right hand and left hand have always in Hermeticism been
           associated with the Sun (right) and Moon (left), with the symbolism
           and meanings associated with both (and corresponds to what was prev-
           iously noted)
               Actually, all of the early Tarot decks, from the very first found
           in Italy up to the 1970's, reflect Hermeticism, and probably should be
           interpreted that way.
               However, currently there are so many different types of variations
           that interpretations of elements may need to be referenced to a
           particular deck. Hence, although, taking the Waite deck in view, the
           Hindu interpretation of the clothes changes the meaning from the
           original meaning of the card.
               Symbolism of the tarot is not universal. For example, black
           represents death (as a color) in Hermeticism, the tarot, and western
           civilization; but in eastern civilization black represent life, and
           white represents death. clearly a problem there!
               Skeletons generally represent death or afterlife to western
           civilization, but to some native american tribes and other people, it
           represents power and not death!   Hence, not every symbol in the Tarot
           is universal or has a universal meaning. The tarot cards in general,
           like Jungian's archetypes, are universal, but the individual symbols
           are not.
               Another example:  the lightning hitting the pyramid and the person
           falling off has no meaning with civilizations that don't have pyra-
           mids, and little to most that do. However, did you know that the
           pyramid in ancient Egypt represented the obelisk, which symbolizes the
           first ray of light (lightening) striking Earth?  And that the pyramid,
           represents the top of the obelisk. that the obelisk were lightning
           rods?   Pyramid in ancient Egyptian language means "Place to Ascend",
           whereas the card shows the person falling off after being struck by
           the first ray of light!
                Now, as to the left/right hand depictions. Of course in the
           earlier decks the Magician does not hold all four elements, but are
           located on the table.
                The Ace of cups, representing water, is not feminine in ancient
           Egypt; it is either masculine or both. Wands are neuter (the word for
           wand is neither male or female), earth can be either male or female,
           and air is male (while heaven is female). In fact the variety of male,
           female, neutral of the elements vary greatly in shamanistic religions
           of the Native Americans. But it is Hermeticism, which combines the
           Hebrew, Christian (more accurately Gnostic/Coptic), Egyptian and
           Greek, than assigns our present meanings to the four elements and
               Since the earliest deck is Italian of the 14-15th century, the
           major influence would have been Hermeticism, not Hindu or other
           eastern religion. Bernard Bromage builds a decent case for Egyptian
           origin, which I explored in previous notes (did you see it, the
           symbols were so close that there had to be an influence). One may
           expect some Arab/Islamic influence (the Crusades were over), but the
           interest in Greek/Roman art and writers were great at that time.
                                    MIXED PANTHEONS, ETC.
               Pan is not Bacchus, or the great horned god of Europe.
               Despite the eclectic mind of today's Wiccan, that is of associat-
           ing all male gods with each other and all female gods with each other,
           is a disservice to both the god/dess and to the tradition.
               Ancient Egyptian traditions (of which there were a dozen or more)
           taught that you don't mix gods and goddesses indiscriminately, even if
           they do share SOME attributes or powers. Their "High Concept" was that
           even any one god/dess has several powers and to invoke specific powers
           required the knowledge of what sacred symbols are associated with that
           power, even if he/she (the god/dess) should be sitting down or stand-
           ing up, the ritual done in daylight or nighttime. Many shamastic
           religions don't mix and match their god/desses, don't do sun god/des-
           ses at night and vice versa. The thoughts or reasons behind it is that
           mixing and matching causes:
             a. The ritual will not be as effective.
             b. The ritual may not be effective.
             c. The ritual or the residue afterward will have powers that weren't
           intentioned by the person, but was part and parcel to the god/dess
             d. The ritual will backfire.
               e. The ritual will have residue that will be uncomfortable.
               f. It's warps the lines of power (more shamanistic thinking than
           Egyptian, who says that it warps the Sa, which translates as spiritual
               Many shamanistic religions do not ground their power after the
           ritual (after all, it usually is being held at a sacred spot). They
           feel that either because the power will be contained at the power
           spot, or the powers you invoked were clear enough not to leave a side
           effect. Still, I am not proposing to not ground yourself afterward.
                So, what I do propose is to not try to associate one god/dess
           with another. None of them will have the exact same attributes or
           powers. And invoking Pan and Bacchus at an Egyptian temple, or Pan at
           Stonehenge is just as bad as invoking Gabriel at the Great Pyramid! 
           It won't work, you won't get the power from the spot you want, only
           your own, or negative power.
               Isis, for instance is considered by most Wiccan's as one of the
           Great Mother Goddesses. yet in ancient Egypt, out of her 3,000 year
           history, most of the time she was not known as a Mother Goddesses.
               At the Church of the Eternal Source (federation of Egyptian
           temples) Isis Priest/esses rarely held out for very long. All kind of
           terrible things generally happened to them. The main reason is that
           all of them used part of Isis's powers, and would not work, or refused
           to recognize her other powers. Eventually though, they seeped in
           anyway and to their detriment. Had they recognized all of her powers
           in the first place, things might have been different.
                Perhaps your basic misconception is that all goddesses represent
           the same forces; they don't; and neither do the gods.
                Yes, basically there is one great force that encompasses both
           male and female powers. This basic force, as it filters down, dif-
           ferentiates into different types of forces, and these forces are the
           god/desses that we know.
               Isis doesn't have the same powers as Sekhmet or Hathor or Bast.
           they may share some of the powers, but they have powers unique to
               Kind of like Leonardo De Vinci knowing a lot about everything, but
           Cellini was an excellent goldsmith, Van Gogh a painter, Perot a
               Hence, not all goddesses are the same, nor do they have the same
               You might consider it like rivers and oceans in reverse. The ocean
           has all the attributes, and it drains it attributes into separate
           rivers (some swift, some calm, some wide, some narrow, some short,
           some long.
               In Egypt the ultimate deity was called "Neter", which translates
           as "Divine Principle" and the work is neuter, having both male and
           female principles within. The next in order is a male neter and a
           neteriat, a god and a goddess. Below that comes numerous god/desses
           which more specific powers and attributes.
                Now the question is, where these receptacles of specific powers
           invented by mankind or higher powers?  In the long run, it doesn't
           matter as long as they work.
               Patheonists generally believe that there was a highest deity,
           followed by two (male and female), followed by others down to the
           spirits of earth, air, fire and water.
               If you want to make use of a specific power, you should go to a
           specific spirit or god/dess who has that power. You may not have a
           great success with one who only has some of it, or is so undefined or
           has so many other powers that it may get a little lost.
               If you want spicy food, don't go with a mole sauce, go for a
           Jalapeno sauce.
               Also it seems that the further away from the highest deity to get,
           the closer and more responsive it is to you.
               You may find that you get a better response with a fire ritual
           when using a fire elemental than of Sekhmet, and even less than using
           Amon (a solar god).
                                          THE ANKH
                Unfortunately the entry for "Ankh" in Barbara Walker's "Women's
           Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets" got just about everything wrong.
                The ankh is not evolved from an ancient symbol of the Goddess in
           Libya and Phoenicia; the narrow triangle surmounted by a crossbar and
           a round or oval head in both Libya and Phoenic evolved long after the
           standard Egyptian ankh was made. In fact, it wasn't until after the
           ancient Egyptians either conquered or did extensive trading with both
           areas did their symbols evolve.
                Well, maybe the book didn't get it all wrong. It is a symbol for
           life (although not universal, for universal means that it was used
           universally or all over the world, and it isn't). It is true that both
           gods and goddesses in ancient Egypt  held it, but they never presented
           it to kings and the people, the scenes show the god/dess holding it to
           the person's lips or head (which means bestowing life, and was not a
           present). the part about the Christians is true, and it's true that
           the ankh is the hieroglyph for the word "life",  and is used in a
           common saying "Life, Health, Strength."
                But the ancient Egyptians never said that the ankh represented
           the union of male and female sexual symbols (which were quite dif-
           ferent symbols and bore no relation to the ankh, or resemblance to
           it). It was not the "Key of the Nile" (except maybe it was mentioned
           by the Greeks, who got most everything wrong about Egypt), nor is
           there any sacred marriage between God and Goddess taking place at the
           source of the Nile before the flood. In fact, in all of the Egyptian
           mythologies there is not one mention of any God and Goddess being
           married at the source of the Nile.
               the  copts and the Gnostics both used the Ankh or Crux Ansate
           (Coptic word) before the 5th century ad, and both are Christian (well,
           an argument can be made about the Gnostics being Christians).
               The question is then: what did the ancient Egyptians consider the
           ankh representation? There are two ancient Egyptian references to the
           ankh representation, and both agree.
                The round oval or loop represented the Sun rising above, but not
           yet above the horizon; in the desert that makes the Sun elongate next
           to the horizon, making a loop like affair.
                The crossbar represents the horizon.
                The vertical section below the crossbar is the "Path of the Sun",
           which would be the light casting a path across the Nile.
                Hence, the Ankh represents Life because it represents the Path
           across the Nile (life blood of Egypt, but oddly enough the Nile is
           either male or hermaphrodite) past the horizon to the Sun (which,
           depending on the traditions of Egypt can be either male or female, but
           usually male).
               The most ancient ankhs cross bar was actually the symbol of the
           two mountains of sunrise and sunset (life and death, east and west),
           and also consisted of papyrus (or some other plant tied together).
               Taken as the two mountains, then the ankh represents the path of
           birth, life, and death. It never had male or female attributes, but as
           the path of birth, life and death, represents both. 
                               CO-PARTNERSHIP IN ANCIENT EGYPT
                The goddess dominated group seem to be the most outspoken in the
           *p* BBS, and it's a good thing that this particular subject was
           broached, as all the co-partner groups have come out (and alleviated
           the possible false impression that Wicca was just goddess oriented to
           those who are new).
               Horned gods in Egypt include Amon, Menthu, Serapis, Sokar.
              Since at the inception of ancient egypt, 42 different societies
           were involved in the consolidation of the kingdom (later to become
           nomes or states), and these societies were patrilineal or matrilineal,
           accommodation had to be made for both, so laws were passed making male
           and females equal. It was the 2nd King of the 1st Dynasty (around
           3,070 bce) that passed a law that women could rule Egypt.
               Here they are, with the dynasties that they belonged.
              1.    Ist Dyn.   Merneith
              2.       "       Horneith
              3.    IV  "      Henutsen
              4.    V   "      Inty
              5.    VI  "      Ankhsenmerira
              6.       "       Nitrokris (Noblest and Loveliest)
              7.    VII        queen, name unknown
              8.    VII        queen, name unknown
              9.    XII        Sebek-neferu-Ra
             10.    XIII       Aufna
             11.    XVIII      Hatshepsut
             12.  Ptolemiac Period    Cleopatra II
             13.      "       "       Cleopatra III
             14.      "       "       Cleopatra VII (the famous one)
               In the high magic section of ancient Egypt (the temples and their
           staff), in the temples to Gods the male priesthood predominated.
           Conversely in the temples to the Goddesses the female priesthood
           predominated (yet you still find male and females in both). Since many
           of the groups of gods in the cities were triads (male, female, off-
           spring), there were rituals to each separately, and rituals for both.
           Many times the god was worshipped in the day, the goddess at night,
           but of course, in Egypt, where many traditions did their own thing,
           sometimes it was reversed. In others, such as the city of Memphis, the
           female was the Sun, the male god was the moon or something else.
             Now as to magic and worship within the family and village. this is
           the part that is closest in tone to Wicca, so those of you into Wicca
           may find this interesting (especially as this is a little explored
           area even within Egyptology!). All families had a family shrine. Who
           presided over the shrine was usually determined by whether any in the
           family was an initiated priest/priestess. If none were, the eldest son
           usually presided (but again, there were many exceptions, in states
           where goddesses predominated, it was the eldest daughter). The orien-
           tation of the family life (farmer, sailor, trader, etc) determined the
           chief god/dess. A farmer's family usually had Osiris and Isis and
           co-partners; a healers, Sekhmet and Thoth.
              In villages, where there were no temples, then there were groups of
           interested people who belonged to a group, more formal than the family
           group, less formal than a temple, and was headed by an initiated
           priest/ess. Hence, in a village where there may be four initiated
           people, there usually would be four groups. For example, in a suburb
           of Hermopolis state there was a male healer of Thoth, a female healer
           of Sekhmet, a priest of Thoth, and a Priestess of Isis. Hence, there
           was a healing group, a female oriented (emphasis on midwife types)
           group, a divination group, and a family group (Isis). Some people
           belonged to several groups. All groups also worshiped other god/dess
           besides the chief one, and even in Isis, Osiris, during part of the
           year, had more emphasis than Isis. The Isis group did their magical
           thing in a sacred grove (another similarity, as sacred groves were
               Many families had dual shrines, with eldest son leading the god
           rituals, and eldest daughter leading the goddess, and neither predom-
           inated. In fact, god AND goddess were considered essential, each
           predominate in their powers, but always complementing each other.
               In the big temples, there was a lot of god/dess images going on
           visits to their spouses, and once a year, all of the god/desses
           journeyed down the Nile to the main temple.
                There is a book called "Mythological Papyrus" that has exact
           copies of the initiations of both priests and priestesses of various
           god/desses of the 21st Dynasty. All involved astral journeys of some
           sort according to their traditions.
               For those who are really into goddess worship you will be pleased
           to know that the last operating temple of Egypt was the Temple of Isis
           at Philae before it was closed by the Christians in the late 5th/early
           6th century, however people continued coming for 100 years later,
           despite the Islamic conquest over the Christians in Egypt during that
                Hatshepsut is well known because the next Pharaoh became famous
           and his monuments (and those of hers that he defaced) are still in
                In case you, or anyone else is interested, and especially if you
           are planning on a trip to Egypt in the future, Queen Henutsen, also
           called Isis, Mistress of the Pyramids and wife of Khufu (or Cheops) is
           sometimes seen in a white robe flittering (if that is a correct term)
           around the Great Pyramids and the other pyramids. The Egyptians raised
           Henutsen to the status of a Goddess and shrines were built for her. if
           you visit the pyramids, give an offering or a prayer to her, for she
           is the Mistress of the Pyramids and Guardian thereof. In ancient
           Egypt, to say the name of a person who is deceased is to make them
           live forever in heaven.
               by the way, other ruling queens were later elevated to Goddes-
           shood, Nitrokris, Merneith, Hatshepsut.
               If one looks carefully at the legends (also the sources and time
           periods of each legend) concerning Isis, one is led to the conclusion
           that there were indeed, two Isis's. There was Isis, the Goddess
           worshipped in the Predynastic period, and there was Isis, the Queen,
           who eventually merged with the goddess to our presently known Isis.
               the early stories of Isis's, shows a definite mythology of Isis
           the goddess, and a historical treatment of Isis the queen. Can it be,
           you ask?  Yes. Predynastic and early Dynastic rulers had very short
           names, many of them named after their local gods. There was a predyna-
           stic king of Upper Egypt called Aher, named after Anher, the God of
           War. There are other examples,and everyone knows that later kings
           still incorporated God/desses names into their own names.
               Perhaps then the Contendings of Horus and Set, which is a tale of
           Osiris the King and Isis the Queen battling their brother Set, between
           the two kingdoms is actually a revised version of 2 brothers vying to
           unite the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt in predynastic times, with
           the names of the King and Queen of Upper Egypt being Osiris and Isis
           (or a close version thereof), versus Set of Lower Egypt (or a version
           thereof). It is interesting to note that up until the 7th Dynasty, the
           Egyptians reported to have known exactly where the tomb of King Osiris
           was in Abydos, and regularly put offerings there. during the 2nd
           Intermediate period (civil wars abounded), this knowledge was lost,
           and another tomb was misidentified as the tomb of Osiris.
               Therefore, if indeed, as the ancient Egyptians insist, that there
           was indeed a real Osiris, then it follows that there was an Isis that
           lived and breathed.
                The canonization of people in ancient Egypt into a form of saints
           or even gods are as old as predynastic times and existed all the way
           through to Cleopatra VII, last ruler of Egypt. There are famous women
           who were not rulers who were thus canonized.
           If you want to read more about Osiris, I suggest you read:
                Henri Frankfort:  Ancient Egyptian Philosophy
                E. Wallis Budge:  Osiris  (not great, but comprehensive)
                W. Faulkner:  The Egyptian Book of the Dead
                Rundle:   Ancient Egyptian Religion
                Sigmund Morenz:  Ancient Egyptian Religion
                Klaus Baier:  Osiris, His Tomb in Abydos (article in the 
           French Institute of Archaeology of Cairo, if you read       French).
                Have you gotten a newsletter in May?   The CES is currently
           undergoing a restructuring, there should be 4 newsletters and 1 to 2
           Khepera (journals) per year. I will be contributing to both. In past
           newsletters I have contributed some spells, rituals, and many hymns
           that have been translated from temple walls or papyri or osteraca. I
           will be doing more extensive articles for the magazine, like one that
           will be on the metaphysical parts of man in ancient Egypt. Much of the
           material are extracts from my Magnum Opus. 90% of it is on paper as
           notes, and 1st drafts. Only 10% currently on computer, and that is
           where the future time will go. As putting it on computer, the notes
           will become 1st drafts; the 1st drafts will become more finished and
           polished to the 2nd draft stage (with additional notes added in; isn't
           computers a wonderful tool; insert note between sentences or add a
           paragraph without having to retype the entire page!). The 3rd and
           probable final draft will be adding last notes, final polishing,
           footnotes, indexing, and grammar and sentence checking.
               the Rituals, hymns, spells, blessings, consecrations, 4 direct-
           ional rituals, initiations are complete on paper, with about 10% of
           that on computer. Basically all of this is going into a data base, so
           cross referencing can be done.
             Although it may not be needed (but you may want to think about doing
           it) in Wicca, in Egyptian it is essential because of the traditions
           and large time frame involved.
                Type:  Blessing, Consecration, astral projection, mantras (yes,
           even mantras in Egypt).
                Main God/dess or Goddess:  Main goddess invoked, plus any others,
           also there are some generic rites.
                Traditions:   identifies the different traditions this particular
           ritual comes from.
                Source: Where did I acquire this?  Much is from translations from
           published books (like Excavations at Abydos by Petrie (translations of
           hymns on temple walls), or from the French Institute of Archaeology in
                Time Period:  important occasionally because the god/dess powers
           and attributes changed over time.
                Form: what does the god/dess look like, stand/sit, hold during
           this spell/ritual. Visualizing one form of Isis that naturally invokes
           one set of specific powers, but using a ritual that invokes another
           set of powers creates conflict, and at best, won't be effective, and
           at worst, down right dangerous.
              Corresponding Codes:  Since most Egyptian rituals are composed (as
           are wicca) of elements, such as drawing the circle, consecration,
           blessing, hymns, etc.; in Egypt they were given to the individual in
           parts. the individual was already trained on how to put the parts
           together. Hence, he or she may have 5-6 ways to invoke the 4 direc-
           tions, using three sets of god/desses. He/she may also have 10 bles-
           sings, 20 hymns, etc to different gods/goddesses. He has to know (like
           a alchemist) how to successfully match the parts together to make a
           successful whole.
           Recommendations on books on ancient Egypt and it's practices:
           Priests of Ancient Egypt:  Serge Sauron (last word is probably 
           Egyptian Religion:   by Morenz
           Ancient Egyptian Thought and Culture: Henri Frankfort
           Egyptian Temples: by Margaret Murray
           Isis in the Greco-Roman World:  probably by Michael Hoffman.
                             MICHAEL POE'S EGYPTIAN READING LIST
                             Compiled by Lady Lyn DenElder Black
           Ancient Egypt Thought & Culture, Henri Frankfort
           Ancient Egyptian Literature, Miriam Lichtheim 3 vol. set
           Ancient Egyptians, A. Rosalie David
           Egyptian Astronomical Texts, 3 vol. Neugebauer & Richard
           Egyptian Hieroglyphics, Mercer, SAB vocabulary & exercises
           Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, Faulkner
           Egyptian Reading, deBuck, Middle Egypt texts, exercises
           Egyptian Religion, Sigmund Morenz
           Egyptian Temples, Serge Sauneron
           Egyptian Temples, Margaret Murray
           Isis in the Greco-Roman World, ? Michael Hoffman ?
           Origins of the Zodiac, Rupert Gleadow, astronomy/astrology
           Priests of Ancient Egypt, Serge Sauneron
           Rise & Fall of the Middle Kingdom, H.E.Winlock
           anything by Henri Frankfort
           NO - BUDGE!!!
           There are some more specific books out, one on Thoth, one on Hathor,
           one on Imhotep, and a couple of others. The most interesting ones not
           on the list are also long out of print; The Coffin Texts (XI-XII
           Dynasty) of about 1,200 rituals and spells. The Pyramid Texts (IV-VI
           Dynasties) of about 700 rituals and spells, The Harris Magic al
           Papyrus, whose English edition runs around $ 1,700 or more, assuming
           you can find one. I finally found a German and perhaps a French
           translation and have a friend whose roommate reads both. The Harris
           Magical Papyrus is considered THE MOST IMPORTANT magical papyrus EVER
           found.    I believe that Michael Grant is the author of Isis in the
           Greco-Roman world, but will check up on that.

Next: Beltane. 90