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Internet Book of Shadows, (Various Authors), [1999], at

                 Copyright 1992 by Rowan Moonstone and Durwydd MacTara
      AKASHA- the spiritual ether (or Aether); the omnipresent
      fifth occult element which embraces the other four- earth,
      air, fire, and water; and from which they stem. This is the
      realm of "pattern" or causality, from which the realm the
      normally thought of "five senses manifests.  Some define it
      is the "other" of the "two worlds" that the witch or
      magician walks between.
      ARADIA- Daughter of the Goddess Diana, and a name for the
      Goddess used by Italian Witches or Strega, commonly used in
      many Wiccan traditions today.
      ASPECTING- Any advanced magickal activity in which a practitioner
      manifests a particular aspect of the Goddess or God, in thought,
      feelings, behavior, appearance, etc.;  Often as a direct result of a
      "Drawing Down".  Often a minor variation of this phenomena occurs with
      the selection of a "Magical Name", of Craft Name.
      ASPECTS- Forms, facets, or personas of Deity:  for example, Brighid,
      Iseult,Eos, and Kore are all aspects of the Maiden, and the Maiden
      is an aspect of the Goddess.
      ATHAME- black handled, double edged dagger. Principally used
      to cast and dissolve the circle, for which purposes it is
      interchangeable with the magic sword. A tool of the
      "Element" of Fire in the Georgian Tradition and some others.
      BELTANE- May Eve festival. One of the Ancient Celtic "Fire
      Festivals." on this night, the cattle were driven between
      two bonfires to protect them from disease. Couples wishing
      for fertility would " jump the fires" on Beltane night. Also
      the traditional Sabbath where the rule of the "Wheel of the
      Year" is returned to the Goddess.  This Festival also marks
      the transition point of the threefold Goddess energies from
      those of Maiden to Mother.
      BOOK OF SHADOWS- Traditionally hand copied book of rituals,
      recipes, training techniques, guidelines, and other
      materials deemed important to a Witch or a coven. Each
      tradition has it's own standard version of the Book and each
      Witch's book will be different as he or she adds to it with
      time from many different sources. Only another Witch can see
      your book of shadows. Also, traditionally, it may never
      leave your hands or possession until death, when it should
      be destroyed, or (in some traditions) returned to the coven
      to be disposed of.
      BURNING TIMES- a term used by some Witches for the period of
      persecution in the Middle Ages and later. It is in fact a
      misnomer in some places, as Witches were only burned in
      Scotland, and on the continent of Europe. In England and the
      U.S., they were hanged.
                          Last amended June 11, 1989  --  Page NEXTRECORD 
      CANDLEMAS- Festival held on Feb. 1. One of the 4 Celtic
      "Fire Festivals. Commemorates the changing of the Goddess
      from the Crone to the Maiden. Celebrates the first signs of
      Spring. Also called "Imbolc" (the old Celtic name).  This is
      the seasonal change where the first signs of spring and the
      return of the sun are noted, i.e. the first sprouting of
      leaves, the sprouting of the Crocus flowers etc.  In other
      words, it is the festival commemorating the successful
      passing of winter and the beginning of the agricultural
      year.This Festival also marks the transition point of the
      threefold Goddess energies from those of Crone to Maiden.
      CARDINAL POINTS- North, South, East, and West, marked in the 
      Georgian Tradition by candles of green, red, yellow, and 
      blue, respectively. The Circle is drawn to connect these 
      four points. 
      CHALICE- one of the tools of the Witch. Placed on the altar 
      to represent the element of Water. 
      CHARGE OF THE GODDESS- The Traditional words of the Goddess 
      to her followers, or "hidden children". Normally declaimed 
      by the HPS at every coven Circle. 
      CIRCLE- the area in which the magickal worship and spells 
      takes place. Can also be used to designate a particular 
      group of Witches or Pagans such as "Silver Acorn Circle". 
      CONE OF POWER- power raised in the circle by the Witches 
      assembled, and sent out into the world to work magick, is 
      usually visualized as being retained and built in the form 
      of a "cone" prior to release. 
      COVEN- an organized group of Witches, led by a High 
      priestess and/or a High Priest who meet regularly for 
      worship and fellowship. The traditional membership is 13, 
      but in fact most covens number considerably less. 3 is the 
      minimum in the Georgian Tradition. In Middle English, 
      "Covin" a group of confederates;  In Old French "Covine" a 
      band or group with a single purpose; Latin "Com"-together, 
      "Venire"-to come or move. 
      COVENSTEAD- regular meeting place for a coven. Usually the 
      home of the High Priestess or High Priest. 
      COWAN- a non-Witch. Formerly used in a very derogatory 
      manner.  Still used in Masonic Ritual to indicate the non 
      initiate and/or pretender to "real craft".  Not often used 
      today among most Witches. 
                          Last amended June 11, 1989  --  Page NEXTRECORD 
      COYOTE ENERGY- trickster energies. Named for the American 
      Indian Trickster, Coyote, who tricks man into learning what 
      he needs to learn. Applies to one who constantly jokes and 
      clowns.  Also applies to the concept of "Holy Fool" in many 
      CROSS QUARTER DAYS- The modern name for the Celtic Fire 
      Festivals of Samhain, Imbolc, Beltane, and Lammas. 
      DEOSIL- clockwise, or sunwise. Traditional direction for 
      working "building" magick. 
      DRAWING  DOWN THE MOON- Ritual invocation of the spirit of 
      the Goddess into the body of the High Priestess by the High 
      DIVINATION- magical method of exploration or inquiry into a 
      situation via such methods as Tarot cards, runestones, I- 
      Ching, etc. 
      ELEMENTS- Earth, air, fire, and water, plus spirit, which 
      includes them all. These are regarded as realms or 
      categories of nature (both material and non-material) and 
      are not to be confused with the physicists table of 
      elements, which the modern witch, of course, accepts. 
      ESBAT- weekly or biweekly meeting of a coven. Traditionally 
      held either on the full moon or the new moon. 
      FAMILIARS- Either a Witch's pet animal which has been 
      trained  to be a magickal helper, or an artificially 
      created "elemental"  which performs the same functions as 
      the animal friend. 
      FIVEFOLD KISS, FIVEFOLD SALUTE- The Witches' ritual salute, 
      with kisses; (1) on each foot, (2) on each knee, (3) above 
      the pubic hair, (4) on each breast, and (5) on the lips- 
      really 8 kisses in all. It is only used within the Circle, 
      but the words that go with it are the origin of "Blessed 
      GARDNERIANS- Tradition of Witchcraft descended from the 
      teachings of Gerald Gardner. 
      GNOMES- an "entity" or "elemental" that dwells in the plane 
      of Earth or is associated with the EARTH Element. 
      GREAT RITE- The rite which is the main feature of the third 
      degree initiation, and which is also laid down for certain 
      festivals.  It is sexual in nature, but may be `actual' 
      (and private to the couples concerned) or symbolic, as the 
      participants wish. 
      HALLOWS- name used by some traditions for Samhain, or 
                          Last amended June 11, 1989  --  Page NEXTRECORD 
      HANDFASTING- Wiccan equivalent of a wedding. It can be made 
      legal if the Priestess and/or Priest are registered as 
      clergy with the local authorities, or it may only be 
      considered binding within the coven. 
      HIGH PRIEST/ESS- Technically speaking, a Witch who has 
      received the 3rd. degree initiation. More usually, the male 
      and female leaders of a coven. 
      IMBOLC- Celtic name for Candlemas. 
      INVOCATION- The ritual "calling-in" of an entity (or 
      energies) higher than human, either for communication with 
      the caller through a medium or by visible manifestation or 
      else to enter into a human body as in the Drawing Down the 
      Moon. In some traditions, a Prayer. 
      LAMMAS- August 1st. Witch Festival. The Old Celtic name for 
      this festival is Lughnassadh. It is the Festival of the 
      First Fruits, and is the first of the 3 harvests. This 
      festival also marks the change of the Threefold Goddess 
      energies from that of Mother to Crone. 
      MAIDEN- An appointment held by one of the women of the 
      coven. She is virtually the assistant High Priestess. This 
      term is also the descriptive term used to describe the first 
      of the aspects of the Threefold Goddess Energies (Maiden, 
      Mother, and Crone).  It is traditionally associated with the 
      Waxing Moon, and the period from Imbolc (Candlemas) to 
      Beltane (May eve) where the energies are those of 
      initiating, beginning, and creation. 
      OLD RELIGION- another name for the Craft. 
      PAGANING- Presentation of an infant to the Circle and to the 
      PENTACLE- a disc shaped talisman; in particular, the metal 
      disc which represents the earth element among the witch's 
      working tools. 
      PENTAGRAM- The five-pointed star. With a single point 
      uppermost, it represents the human being. Inverted, with two 
      points uppermost, it can have Satanist associations; but not 
      necessarily. Some traditions of Wicca use the inverted 
      pentagram to signify an initiate of the second degree. 
      QUARTERS- The North, East, South, and West parts of a 
      magickal circle or other ritual area. (See also 
      REDE- rule or law. 
                          Last amended June 11, 1989  --  Page NEXTRECORD 
      SABBAT- one of the Eight festivals or high holy days of 
      SALAMANDER- an entity that dwells in the realm of Fire. 
      SAMHAIN- The festival of remembrance for the dead, held on 
      the eve of Nov. 1st. It is the last of the three harvests. 
      This festival also marks the transition of rulership of the 
      "Wheel of the Year from that of the Goddess to that of the 
      SCRYING- divination, usually using such methods as crystal 
      gazing, or divination via incense smoke, or water as opposed 
      to tarot or other manipulative means. 
      SPELL- a prayer, or verbal direction of magickal energies 
      toward the accomplishment of some goal. 
      SUMMONER- The male officer of the coven who corresponds to 
      the Maiden. He is the assistant High Priest. 
      SYLPH- an "entity" or "elemental" that dwells in the plane 
      of Air or is associated with the AIR Element. 
      TRADITIONS- any of the various "sects" of Wicca such as 
      Gardnerian, Alexandrian, Georgian, Seax, etc. 
      UNDINE- an "entity" or "elemental" that dwells in the plane 
      of Water or is associated with the WATER Element. 
      WAND- A rod or staff that is prepared so that it may be used 
      for magickal or psychic purposes, usually to project some 
      form of power. 
                          Last amended June 11, 1989  --  Page NEXTRECORD 
      WARLOCK- a term coined in the Burning Times . It was used to 
      denote a traitor to the Craft, or one who had betrayed the 
      followers of the Old Religion. It's origin is Scottish. 
      Because of the negative connotations, it is not used by most 
      Wiccans today. 
      WATCH TOWERS- Originally from the Enochian branch of 
      Ceremonial Magick, now incorporated into many "Traditions" 
      of Wicca, these are the four elemental "directions" or 
      "quarters" (corresponding to the appropriate points on the 
      compass) called to protect the Circle during its 
      establishment. Each of them have a correspondence between 
      the compass point, an element, and (varying amongst 
      different traditions) color associated with them. 
      WICCA- the name most modern day Witches use for the Craft. 
      It comes from the Anglo-Saxon word Wicce, meaning to bend or 
      to shape. This is the root word from which we get wicker. 
      WIDDERSHINS- counter clock wise. Used for "tearing  down" 
      OR BANISHING magick. 
      WHITE HANDLED KNIFE- the working knife of a Witch. It is 
      used to carve candles, and for fashioning the other tools. 
      Traditionally, it can only be used in a Circle. 
          Copyright 1991 by Rowan Moonstone and Durwydd MacTara.
      Permission to reprint for educational purposes at no cost is hereby granted
      to all and sundry, provided the text is not altered in any way. 
                          Last amended June 11, 1989  --  Page NEXTRECORD 

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