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Chronicles of Jerahmeel, by M. Gaster [1899], at

XL. (1) It came to pass when the Lord scattered the sons of man all over the surface of the earth that they became separated into different companies. The Kittim formed one company, and encamping in the plain of Kapanya (Campania ###), they dwelt there by the river Tiberio (###), while the children of Tubal encamped in

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[paragraph continues] Toscana (###), and their frontier was the river Tiberio. They built a city and called it Sabino (###), after the name of its builders. And the Kittim also built a city for themselves, and called its name Poṣomanga (###). Now, the children of Tubal were overbearing to the Kittim, and said, 'They shall not intermarry among us.' But it happened at the harvest time, when the children of Tubal had gone to their fields, that the young men of the Kittim gathered together, and, going to Sabino, they took their daughters captives, and then climbed the mountain of Kaporiṣio (###). As soon as the children of Tubal heard of this they arrayed themselves in battle against them, but could not prevail over them on account of the height of the mountain, so they gathered all the young warriors to the mountain.

(2) In the next year the children of Tubal went out again to battle, but the Kittim brought up all the children that were born of their (Tubal's) daughters upon the wall which they had built, and said, 'You have come to fight against your own sons and daughters; are we not now your own bone and flesh?' At this they ceased fighting, and the Kittim gathered together and built a city by the sea which they called Porto (###), and another which they called Albano (###), and yet another which they named Arēṣah (###).

(3) In those days Ṣefo (###), the son of Eliphaz, fled from Egypt. Joseph had captured him when he went up to Hebron to bury his father. It was then that the children of Esau tried to entice him to evil, but Joseph prevailed over him and (capturing) Ṣefo from them, brought him to Egypt. After the death of Joseph, Ṣefo fled from Egypt, to Africa, to Agnias (###), King of Carthage, where he was received with great honour and appointed captain of the host.

(4) At the same time there lived a man in the land of the Kittim, in the city of Poṣomanga (###), named ‘Uṣi (###). He was to the Kittim as a vain god. He died and left no son, but only one daughter, named Iania (###).

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[cont}She was beautiful and very wise, nor was the like of her beauty to be found in all the land. Agnias sought her for his wife, as did Turnus, King of Benevento (###); but they (the Kittim) said to the latter, 'We cannot give her to thee, because Agnias, King of Afriqia, seeks her; we fear lest he wage war against us, and in that case thou couldst not deliver us from his power.'

(5) The inhabitants of Poṣomanga (###) then sent a letter to that effect to Agnias. Thereupon he mustered all his host and came to the island of Sardinia (###). Palos, his nephew, went out to meet him, and said, 'When thou askest my father to come to thy assistance, ask him to appoint me the head of the army.' Agnias did so, and came into the province of Astiras (###) in ships. Turnus went out to meet him, and a very severe battle ensued in the valley Kapanya (Campania), in which Palos, his nephew, fell by the sword. Agnias then embalmed him, and having made a golden human image (mask?), placed him therein. After that he once more set his men in battle array and captured Turnus (###), King of Benevento, and having slain him, made a mask (image) of brass, and placed him therein. He then built a tower in the highway in his honour, and another for Palos, his nephew, and called the one 'The tower of Palos,' and the other 'The tower of Turnus,' and the latter were separated by a marble pavement, which remains unto this day. They were built between Albano (###) and Rome. Agnias then took Iania to wife and returned to his own country. From that day henceforth Gondalas (###) and the armies of the kings of Afriqia used to ravage the land of the Kittim for spoil and plunder, Ṣefo (###) always accompanying them.

(6) When this Ṣefo, the son of Eliphaz, travelled from Afriqia (###) to the Kittim, the inhabitants received him with great honour, and presented him with many gifts so that he became very rich. And the troops of Afriqia (###) spread themselves over all the land of the Kittim, and they having assembled, ascended the mountain of Kaporiṣio (Campo-Marzio?) (###) on account of the

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troops of Gondalos. (7) One day one of the herd of Ṣefo was missing, and after starting in search of it he heard the lowing of a bull in the neighbourhood of the mountain. On going to the bottom of the mountain, he discovered a cave with a great stone placed at its mouth. When he removed the stone he beheld to his surprise a huge animal devouring the bullock. From the middle downwards it presented the likeness of man, while from the middle upwards that of a goat. Ṣefo instantly sprang upon it, and split its head open. The inhabitants of Kittim then said, 'What shall be done for the man who has slain the beast that continually devoured our cattle?' On a festival day they assembled together and called his name Janus, after the name of the beast. They offered him drink offerings on that clay and brought him meal offerings, and from that time they named the day 'The festival of Janus.'

(8) When the troops of Gondalos once more invaded the land of the Kittim for plunder, as heretofore, Janus went out against them, and having smitten them and put them to flight, he delivered the land from their raids. The Kittim then assembled and appointed Ṣefo to the throne of the kingdom. The Kittim then went forth to subdue the children of Tubal and the nations round about. And Janus their king went before them and subdued them. After this Ṣefo was called Saturnus, in addition to Janus: Janus after the name of the beast, and Saturnus after the name of the star which they worshipped in those days, i.e., the planet 'Shabtai' (Saturnus). (9) He reigned at first in the valley of Kapanya, in the land of the Kittim, and built an exceedingly large temple there. He then extended his kingdom over the whole of the Kittim, and over all Italy. Janus Saturnus, after a reign of fifty-five years, died and was buried.

(10) His successor was Piqos Faunos (###), who reigned fifty years. He also erected a huge temple in the valley of Kapanya, and soon after died. His successor was named Latinus; it was he who explained the language and its letters. He likewise built a temple for his dwelling, and

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many ships. He went to battle with Astrubel (###), the son of Agnias, whom Iania bore him, in order to take his daughter Yaspiṣi (###) to wife, as Agnias had done to the Kittim when he took Iania from them in battle. And this woman was very beautiful, so much so that the men of her generation weaved her image upon their clothes in honour of her beauty. A fierce battle ensued between Astrubel, King of the Carthaginians, and Latinus, King of Kittim, and Latinus captured the fountain of water which Agnias, when he took Iania, had brought with her to Carthage.

(11) For Iania the queen, when arriving there, was taken ill, and Agnias and his servants were sorely grieved. Agnias said to his wise men, 'How can I cure Iania's illness?' His servants replied, 'The air of our land is not like unto that of Kittim, nor our waters like theirs. Therefore the queen is ill through the change of air and water, for in her own land she only drank the water drawn from Forma (###), which her ancestors drew upon bridges (aqueducts).' Agnias then ordered his ministers (princes) to bring water from Forma in Kittim in a vessel. They weighed these waters against all the waters of Africa, and found that only those of Goqar (###) corresponded with them. Agnias then ordered his princes to gather together stonemasons by thousands and myriads. So they hewed a vast number of stones for building; and, being in great numbers, they built a bridge (an aqueduct) from the fountain of the water as far as Carthage. All these waters were for the sole use of Iania, who used them for drinking, baking, washing clothes, ordinary washing, and for watering all the seeds which provided her food. They also brought earth from Kittim in many ships, as well as stones and bricks, and they built therewith temples. All this they did for the great love they bore her, for through her wiles she charmed the people, and through her they called themselves blessed, and she was to them as a goddess.

(12) Now, it happened when Latinus waged war with Astrubel that he overthrew part of the bridge, so that the

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troops of Gondalos were exceedingly furious, and fought desperately. Astrubel being mortally wounded, Latinus by main force captured Yaspiṣi (###), his daughter, for his wife. He brought her to Kittim and made her queen. And Latinus reigned forty-five years.

(13) When Latinus died, Anias reigned in his stead for three years, and, after his death, Asqinus (Ascanias, ###) reigned thirty-eight years. He also built a large temple. After him Seliaqos (###) reigned twenty-nine years, and he built a large temple. After his death Latinus, who reigned for fifty years, succeeded him. This was the king who fought with Almania (###) and Burgunia (###), the sons of Elisa (###), whom he took as tribute. He built a temple to 'Luṣifer' (###), i.e., Nogah, and closed that of Saturnus, which was 'the Temple of Shabbetai.' He passed his priests through the fire on the altar of his temple, dedicated to 'Luṣifer.'

(14) After the death of Latinus, Anias Trognos (Tarquinius) reigned in his stead thirty-three years. He also erected a temple to Saturn. After him Alba reigned thirty-nine years. When he died, Aviṣianos (###) reigned for twenty-four years, and built a large temple. After him Qapis (###) reigned twenty-eight years, and built a temple. After him Karpitos (###) reigned for twenty-three years, and built a temple. After him Tiberios reigned for eight years. Agrippa reigned after him for forty years. Romulus succeeded him, and reigned nine years, during which time he built several temples. After him Abṭinos reigned for thirty-seven years. This is the king who waged war with the children of Rifath, who dwelt by the Lira (###), and with the sons of Turnus, who dwelt in Toronia (###) by the river Lira. It was they who fled from Agnias, King of Afriqi (###), and who built Purnus (###) and Anba (###). These Abṭinos brought to submission. After him Procas (###) reigned twenty-three years; and after him Æmilius reigned for forty-three years.

(15) After his death Romulus reigned for thirty-eight

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years. In his days David smote the land of Syria, so that Hadarezer and his sons fled into the land of the Kittim. He there obtained a place on the seashore and a place on the mountain. He there built a city, and called its name Sorento (###). (16) At that place there dwelt a young man of a descendant of the family of Hadarezer, who had fled from David. He built the old city Albano (###), where his posterity dwell unto this day. But within the city of Sorento (###) a well of oil sprung up, and after some years the city subsided, and the sea swept over it, i.e., between Napoli (###) and New Sorento; yet the well did not cease from flowing, for until this very day the oil bubbles and rises upon the waters of the sea, while the inhabitants are continually collecting it.

(17) Romulus was greatly afraid of David. He therefore built a wall higher than any other wall hitherto erected by any king that preceded him, and he surrounded all the mountains and hills round about with this wall. Its length was forty-five miles, and he called the name of the city Roma, after the name of Romulus. And they yet continued to be greatly afraid of David. He made the name of the Kittim great, and they called the place Romania (###), as it is called unto this very day. He built a temple in honour of Jovis, i.e., 'Ṣedek,' and removed that dedicated to 'Luṣifer.' And Romulus waged great wars. He also made a covenant with David. (18) After the death of Romulus, Numa Popilios reigned in his stead forty-one years. After him Polios (###) reigned for thirty-two years. After him Tarkinos (###) reigned for thirty-seven years. After his death Servios (###) reigned thirty-four years. After him Tarkinos reigned. This Tarkinos was he who fell in love with a Roman woman. But as she was already married, he took her by force. The woman was thereat grieved, and she stabbed herself with a dagger and met her death. Her brothers rose up, and, going to the temple of Jovis, they lay in wait for Tarkinos When he came to pray they fell upon him with drawn swords and killed him.

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(19) On that day the Romans took an oath that no king should henceforth reign in Rome. They then selected seventy Roman counsellors and appointed them to rule and to guide the kingdom. 'The Old Man' and his seven counsellors then ruled over them and subdued all the West.

(20) After the lapse of 205 years battles were fought by sea and land between Babylon and Rome, because the Romans assisted Greece when the Greeks fought with Babylon. At that time, when they rebelled, they caused the Tiber to flow into other channels, and made a bottom to the river from one gate (of Rome) to the other, from its entrance to its exit, a distance of eighteen miles, all of which covered with brass, from the gate of Rome where it flows into the sea until the gate where it takes its source, 'a distance of eighteen miles, for three-fourths of the people were on one side of the river and one-fourth on the other side. The river flowed in the midst of the city, and the inhabitants of Rome paved its bed. No ships or boats of the King of Babylon could henceforth enter. The Romans feared and trembled, as they had heard that the King of Babylon had captured Jerusalem. They sent him presents by messengers, and made a treaty after that war so that wars ceased between them until the reign of Darius the Mede.

[Thus far the narrative of Josippon. After this Josippon wrote of the kingdom of Darius and Cyrus, and the book of the Maccabees, and of the kings who lived during the time of the second temple until its destruction. I shall, with the help of God, write it all in its proper place just as it is written in the book of Josippon until the end.]

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