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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


Bakŏ Nask.

1. The fourteenth fargard, Ad-fravakhshyâ 3, is that whatever is instruction is to be listened to 4 here as much as is possible, and he who is not to be

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taught is allowed an opportunity for listening by Zaratûst.

2. This, too, that by him who would be a causer of procreation for performers of labour, the perfect nature of the performance of the first next-of-kin marriage 1 is praised; because causing the procreation of performers of labour is the fatherhood of mankind, the proper fatherhood of mankind is through the proper production of progeny, the proper progeny of the producer is through the accomplishment of progeny among his own, according to the disposition of the first creatures, and the accomplishment of progeny among one's own is next-of-kin marriage; and that which occurs, when a causer of the procreation of performers of labour praises the fatherhood of mankind, is that next-of-kin marriage is also praised by him. 3. This, too, that by him whose creatures are in virtue, owing to his virtuous nourishment of the creatures, the performance of next-of-kin marriage 2 is taught, and the virtue is his virtue; even on this account, because, for the sake of keeping the creatures in virtue, he allows (andâzêdŏ) for the virtuous disposition pertaining to the multitude, and that which is born he produces (dahêdŏ) as lineage from the next-of-kin marriage pertaining to the multitude.

4. This, too, that Spendarmad is in daughterhood 3 to Aûharmazd is taught by him whose wisdom is through complete mindfulness; even for this reason,

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because his wisdom and complete mindfulness are within limits which are Aûharmazd and Spendarmad, the wisdom being that of Aûharmazd, the complete mindfulness that of Spendarmad, and the complete mindfulness being the offspring of the wisdom just as Spendarmad is of Aûharmazd; and, owing to this, the assertion is reasonable that, by him whose complete mindfulness is connected with wisdom, it is taught that Spendarmad is in daughterhood to Aûharmazd. 5. This, too, that thus the exercise of that daughterhood is taught by him whose righteousness is through complete mindfulness, and whose ceremonial is also through complete mindfulness; that is, he shall perform the ceremonial and other good works fully mindfully.

6. This, too, that mankind are attracted to religious good deeds by him who shall provide benefit for the people through actions and words; even for this reason, because those actions are religious good deeds, and, when instituted by him, others are also taught by him. 7. This, too, that reverence for Vohûman 1 is taught by him who shall make that which is contaminated obvious to the eye, so that what is dark becomes light; even for this reason, because the display of the work of Vohûman thereby has also taught the offer of reverence for Vohûman. 8. And this, too, that the ceremonial is taught with complete mindfulness 2 only by him who teaches words and actions with complete mindfulness.

9. Perfect righteousness is excellence.


364:3 See Chap. XV, 1 n; it is here written ad-fravakhshê in Pahlavi.

364:4 See Pahl. Yas. XLIV, 1 a.

365:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLIV, 4 a.

365:2 Ibid. 4 c. §§ 2-5 have been already translated, somewhat differently, in S.B.E., vol. xviii, pp. 395, 396.

365:3 Ibid. 4 d. For Spendarmad see Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3.

366:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLIV, 9 e.

366:2 Ibid. 10 a.

Next: Chapter LXI