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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at

p. 348


Bakŏ Nask.

1. The eleventh fargard, the Yasna 1, is that the whole of the good works which are to accomplish, and those, too, which are accomplished 2, are appropriated by the righteous man who teaches virtue 3 to the righteous; even for this reason, of the good works which one accomplishes, and those, too, which are accomplished, there is all one store (anbâr), from the work (var’zŏ) of the original good creation even to the renovation of the universe, and ever afresh the teaching of virtue by those who are righteous comes to the accumulation of the righteous and the accomplishment of that store, and they, too, are in possession of that store, in partnership with the other righteous. 2. This, too, that it is because he would do the best for his own 4, whose meditation of the liturgy is for those who are archangels, and who also maintains, for the assistance of the good, the strength which is his for the existences. 3. And this statement indicates the great participation of any one in that store, because when that store is really an accumulation of work on the way, for the partners in that store who have done more, and also those who have accomplished less, and remains, moreover, in the possession of them all, then, as to those accomplishing more of it, through the original possession of most of that work, and also through that which occurs when the accomplishers have attained to that plenty more particularly owing to their more labour, and likewise through the property, liberally,

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largely, and lordlily, of those accomplishing more, and the indigence, unafflictedly 1, scantily, and subordinately, of those accomplishing less, it is reasonable to speak of that store as in their possession, and of their superiority as greatly over those accomplishing less. 4. This, too, that his work is good work whose liberality is for the archangels; even for this reason, because through a little labour for the sacred beings, which is itself that liberality, he contributes duty and good works.

5. This, too, that it becomes best for him, in both existences 2, who teaches a wishing for living in diligence to mankind; even for this reason, because he is a preserver of them through the wishing for living, and his soul, through the diligence owing to him, attains perfection, here from mankind and in yonder world from the sacred beings. 6. This, too, that the ceremonial and obeisance of Aûharmazd 3 are performed by him who is in the way of like thinking and like praising of the law of Aûharmazd with all the worshippers of Aûharmazd. 7. This, too, that he is in the leadership of his religion 4 who makes the knowledge of religion ever afresh; even for this reason, because every item of knowledge which he provides increases some greatness of it. 8. This, too, that he is in the service of his religion 4 who demands the knowledge of religion ever afresh; even for this reason, because so long as he demands more, he becomes nearer to a knowledge of religion.

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9. This, too, that mankind's wishing for life is authorised (dastovarînîdŏ) by him who authorises the production of anything for mankind; even for this reason, because authority (dastôbarîh) over the production of anything is conjoined with that which is for the wishing for life; so that whosever production of anything is authorisedly, their life is free from any discomfort; and whosever wishing for life is authorisedly, his production of anything is also authorisedly. 10. This, too, that acceptance, hints, and words are given 1 to Aûharmazd by him who asks again, that which he does not understand of the religion, from him who does understand; even for this reason, because knowledge is completed through these three things: obtainment, hints, and speaking, and all three are asked again by him who does not understand. 11. This, too, that the words of Aûharmazd 2 are taught by him who teaches the acceptance, remembrance, and speaking of the religion; even for this reason, because this is the recital of that compendium (hangerdîkîh).

12. This, too, that the care 3 and reverence of fire are provided by him who is liberal to a fire as regards anything he supplies for the care and reverence which others shall provide for the fire, and he becomes equally rewarded for it. 13. This, too, that by him who teaches the religion of Aûharmazd with joyfulness 4, the care and reverence of fire are

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provided as declared by the religion; even for this reason, because even that which is taught by him combines with the action due to that teaching. 14. This, too, that the obeisance 1 to those requiring obeisance is arranged by him who loves Vohûman. 15. This, too, that fire is strengthened—for that work, achieved in the future existence, which is the greatest 2 that exists—by him who invokes fire with the title of fire; even for this reason, because the title is put by him upon a nature that is laudable, and when invoked by him with that title the praised one is then strengthened by him.

16. This, too, that he becomes informed as to the religion of Aûharmazd 3, who teaches the religion of Aûharmazd with pleasure; even for this reason, because every knowledge is exercised and increased by teaching. 17. This, too, that Aûharmazd is propitiated by the excellent sagacity of him who teaches virtuous words and actions 4; even for this reason, because sagacity has two parts, the speakable and the workable. 18. This, too, that the bodily form (kerpŏ) of Aûharmazd is praised as perfection (nêvakŏtûmîh) 5 by him who elevates (bâlistînêdŏ) his own soul 6 to the station of the sun 7; even for this reason, because that bodily form of Aûharmazd exists, and becomes the loftiest and most perfect in the station of the sun.

19. This, too, that all excellence is purely produced for Aûharmazd by him who has root in the

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possession of Aûharmazd; even for this reason, because, when a root is given to him, fruit is also produced by him, and all excellence is both root and fruit 1. 20. This, too, that Aûharmazd is invoked with the title 'lord 2' by him whom Aûharmazd calls; even for this reason, because the interpretation of 'Aûharmazd' is really with the words 'greatly wise lord' (mas dânâk khûdâî). 21. This, too, that the names of the sacred beings which are invoked 3 are the praise glorified by any one, and by him who glorifies them they are named; even for this reason, because the names of the sacred beings are the glorification due to their names of praise. 22. This, too, that among those of the same class (ham-gôharân), when he shall do it for one race 4, benefit is produced by him for other races within that class; among those of the same races (ham-tôkhmakânân), when he shall produce benefit for one species, it is done by him also for other species within that race; and among the same species (ham sarâdakŏ), when  he shall produce benefit for one individual (kerpŏ), it is done by him for other individuals within that species.

23. This, too, that his personality (khûdîh) is the sacred beings’ own 5, who maintains the rites 6 with the assistance of the righteous. 24. This, too, that his own is in the guardianship 7 of the sacred beings, whose vehemence is through Good Thought;

p. 353

even for this reason, because his bravery is for the law. 25. This, too, that life is given to mankind by him who shall do that which is able to remain good for them. 26. This, too, that the friendship of Aûharmazd is appropriated by him who has Aûharmazd as a guardian, and perpetual guardianship is appropriated by him who teaches to mankind that thing which becomes their perpetual guardianship in yonder world.

27. This, too, that he causes righteousness 1 who thinks of anything which is virtuous. 28. This, too, that he has caused the good commands and propitiousness 2 of Aûharmazd, who gives his body and life 3 to the sacred beings; and body and life are given to the sacred beings by him who affords friendship to the religion of Zaratûst. 29. And this, too, that to him who affords friendship to Aûharmazd it occurs owing to the guardianship of Aûharmazd; and that guardianship is perpetually 4 connected with him who teaches to others that thing which always constitutes their companionship with the sacred beings.

30. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness.


348:1 See Chap. XII, 1 n; it is here written yastô in Pahlavi.

348:2 See Pahl. Yas. XXXV, 5.

348:3 Ibid. 4.

348:4 Ibid. 6.

349:1 Pahl. abêshîhâ, but it should perhaps be avêsîhâ, 'unabundantly.'

349:2 See Pahl. Yas. XXXV, 9.

349:3 Ibid. 19.

349:4 Ibid. 22.

350:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXV, 25.

350:2 Ibid. 27.

350:3 See Pahl. Yas. XXXVI, 1. This section implies that the attendant who feeds a fire with fuel supplied by others, obtains an equal share of merit with them.

350:4 Ibid. 4, 5.

351:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXVI, 5.

351:2 Ibid. 6.

351:3 Ibid. 7.

351:4 Ibid. 11.

351:5 Ibid. 14.

351:6 Ibid. 15.

351:7 Ibid. 16; the highest grade of heaven below the supreme heaven, which latter is called Garôdmân (see Sls. VI, 3 n).

352:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXVII (=V), 2.

352:2 Ibid. 6.

352:3 See Pahl. Yas. XXXVIII, 10-12.

352:4 Ibid. 13-15.

352:5 See Pahl. Yas. XXXIX, 13.

352:6 Assuming that atân stands for âyinân, as mûn atân is ungrammatical.

352:7 See Pahl. Yas. XXXIX, 15.

353:1 See Pahl. Yas. XL, 7.

353:2 See Pahl. Yas. XLI, 6.

353:3 Ibid. 7.

353:4 Ibid. 17.

Next: Chapter LVIII