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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at

p. 273


Varstmânsar Nask.

1. The fifteenth fargard, Ad-fravakhshyâ 1, is about the seven 2 perfections of the admonitions of the religion. 2. First, association with the beneficent spirit of the creator, through hearing 3, learning, and practising his religion; and this, too, that thereby arises the preservation of the good creation when the destroyer is separated (vangîd). 3. Second, about separation from the destructive evil spirit 4, and the contempt which is due to his arrogance and falsehood, the chief of all his vice. 4. Third, governing the temper 5 by good thoughts, good words, and good deeds; and this, that, whoever of you does not so use this liturgy as thought and word 6, they will not allot him light, they will not allot him the best existence, and he is miserable up to the last 7. 5. Fourth, about the perfection of the nature of next-of-kin marriage 8, which is when it is a giving of one's own (khûdîh-dahisnîh); and the decision

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given about it, which is the goodness of one's own progeny for the manifestation of progeny; also the relationship, sturdiness, effectiveness, advantageousness, ownership, and giving in next-of-kin marriage. 6. Its first accomplishment was by the creator Aûharmazd in the fatherhood of Vohûman 1 who was the first progeny, and from that arising of the practice (var’z-yehevûnîh) came the progress of the spiritual and worldly creatures and much connected therewith, such as the arising of splendour from light, radiance from splendour, and lustrousness from radiance, and the fully progressive diffusion and succession of mankind till the renovation of the universe; also, through spiritual and worldly passing on in the spiritual and worldly existences, Spendarmad's 2 acceptance of the motherly glory was an ennoblement. 7. Fifth, about providing and maintaining the high-priests 3 who are provided with a spiritual lord and possessing priestly instruction; the listening of his authorities of every kind to Aûharmazd, and the reward of the beneficent good works 4 of the high-priesthood, are authority for Aûharmazd; and the reward of the good works of the high-priesthood is their relation to the best existence. 8. Sixth, about the praise, obeisance, and ceremonial 5 for the creator Aûharmazd; and this, too, that further conference with Vohûman 6 arises, and wisdom and advantage 7 are taught by

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him thus: 'Thou shouldst be a supplicant for the immortal progress of the soul 1, O Zaratûst! so that Aûharmazd may be lord of the creatures 2, and the practice of propitiation by mankind may be that for him, also a proportion of the ordering of obeisance 3.' 9. About the sovereignty of Aûharmazd 4—even through the reward given at the bridge of judgment—which is in his good assemblies 5, those of the restorer of the world, the destroyer of the evil one, and the benefiter.

10. This, too, is said, namely: 'Thou becomest, through complete mindfulness, O Spîtâmân! a perpetual adopter (giriftâr) of this ceremonial of mine 6.'

11. About Aûharmazd having given power 7 to the creatures, the preparation 8 of the power, and the contempt 9 for the evil spirit and his appliances; Aûharmazd and the creations gave that contempt back to the evil spirit and the primary (kâdmon) demons who are those produced by the demons.

12. About the glorification of Zaratûst there is

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this, too, namely: 'Thou art beneficial, thou art high-priest and master, and through thee exists the religion which is propitious 1; thou art brother and companion of all the benefiters, and thus thy friend 2 is Vohûman.'

13. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness.


273:1 See Chap. XV, 1 n; it is here written ad-fravakhshê in Pahlavi.

273:2 Only six are numbered in our text, but the seventh seems to be detailed in § 9.

273:3 See Pahl. Yas. XLIV, 1 a.

273:4 Ibid. 1 d, e.

273:5 Ibid. 3 a.

273:6 Ibid. 3 c, d.

273:7 Ibid. 3 e.

273:8 Ibid. 4 a. There is nothing whatever about next-of-kin marriage in the original Avesta text of this Gâtha, but the Pahlavi translators (in order to interpolate authority for such marriages) took advantage of the Avesta speaking metaphorically of Mazda as being father of Good Thought (Vohûman), and of Bountiful Devotion (Spendarmad) as being Mazda's daughter; while they ignored the old tradition that Vohûman was created before Spendarmad (see Bd. I, 23, 26). A translation of the Pahlavi version of this Gâtha passage is given in S.B.E., vol. xviii, pp. 392, 393.

274:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLIV, 4 c.

274:2 Ibid. 4 d.

274:3 Ibid. 5 a.

274:4 Rather doubtful, as the repairer of the MS. has omitted the first two Pahlavi letters of kirfakŏ, 'good works,' when writing the word on a patch.

274:5 See Pahl. Yas. XLIV, 6 a, b, d.

274:6 Ibid. 6 d.

274:7 Ibid. 6 e, 7 a.

275:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLIV, 7 c.

275:2 Ibid. 7 e.

275:3 Ibid. 8 a.

275:4 Ibid. 9c. This appears to be the seventh 'perfection' mentioned in § 1.

275:5 Assuming that hû-hambâmîhâ stands for hû-hangâmîhâ, just as hanbâm is a common variant of hangâm. It might also mean 'good times,' but it seems to represent the incorrect word amâvandîh in Pahl. Yas. XLIV, 9 e, which each of the four MS. authorities spells differently. Mf4 has hû-dandîh which, no doubt, stands for an original hû-zandîh, 'good community,' a fair translation of Av. haozãthwa, and well expressed by 'good assemblies.'

275:6 See Pahl. Yas. XLIV, 10 a.

275:7 Ibid. 10 e, in which zakŏ-î ought to be zôr-î according to Pt4, Mf4, with which J2 partly agrees.

275:8 Assuming that nîvârûnŏ stands for nîvârdanŏ.

275:9 See Pahl. Yas. XLIV, 11 b.

276:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLIV, 11 d.

276:2 Ibid. 11 e.

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