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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at

p. 265


Varstmânsar Nask.

1. The twelfth fargard, the Yasna 1, is about the manifestation of good thoughts, good words, and good deeds by the religion 2; the lodgment of the religion in good thoughts, good words, and good deeds; and whoever possesses good thoughts, whoever has good words, and whoever has good deeds, by him righteousness and the reward of the righteous are possessed. 2. This, too, that neither is he, who is not to be born for Zaratûst, an issue from parents who are not righteous, nor yet is he, for him, who is a manifestation of the righteous.

3. This, too, is said, namely: 'Thou shouldst give a glad-thinking desire for a spiritual lord, and an easy-bodied constitution, to their minds, the religion which I spoke forth to thee; so that the greatest, best, and most beneficial of existences 3, that are those which cattle are wanting from men, are water, pasture, and freedom from danger 4; and those which men are wanting from cattle are also food and clothing.' 4. This, too, that that which mankind ought to give to the sacred beings is a power for completeness of control; and that which the sacred beings ought to give to men is ever that which is good for them. 5. And this, too, that thou who art Aûharmazd also suppliest it from those sacred beings, and thou who art Zaratûst also teachest it thoroughly to that best-ruling sovereignty 5 and authority.

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6. This, too, is said, namely: 'Let no one practise ill-perpetrated deeds, even though in a wilderness when far from publicity, nor in distress, O Spîtâmân! because Aûharmazd, the observer of everything, is aware of them; and the rule is that just as any one whatever of the embodied existence thinks, speaks, and practises, so great is his punishment.' 7. And this, too, that the best ceremonial and obeisance 1 are the ceremonial and obeisance of a righteous man.

8. About begging for life and receiving it, there is this, that it is customarily due to two methods (babâ): one, through leadership of righteousness 2, is that through which it is evident that it is owing to virtuousness; and one, through service of righteousness 2, is that which is not an evidence that it is owing to viciousness. 9. About the case where virtuousness is producing authority over truth, and truth over the tongue, so that thou speakest words through the will of Aûharmazd. 10. And this, too, is said, namely: 'I am the propitious spirit who was at first and ever will be, and am not really deceived by anything.'

11. About fire being given by Aûharmazd for shelter and assistance by the protection of mankind; its maintenance and assistance by mankind; and the openheartedness of the spirit of fire for him who shall perform obeisance to it, and for him who is to perform obeisance to it 3. 12. The work which is the greatest that exists, and is accomplished in the future existence 4, whereby the creatures become pure,

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occurs through fire; and one prays for it for the sake of the requirements which mankind acquired from the sacred beings. 13. This, too, is said, namely: 'Since thou art thus, 'O Zaratûst! most propitiatory, that is, able to perform most for our pleasure, we are more promptly coming than Mânûskîhar was able to come, when thou beggest of us who are archangels, O Zaratûs1!'

14. About Aûharmazd's exhibiting the creatures in the future existence to Zaratûst. 15. And this, too, namely, the all-brilliance of the earth, the all-brilliance of the cattle, the all-brilliance of the plants, and the all-brilliance of every excellence 2 which is a manifestation of righteousness. 16. About the worshipping of Aûharmazd by worshippers, through advancing 3 in the religion of Aûharmazd's covenant (padmânŏ), which gave the world his righteousness; also the good protectiveness of his rule, and of the greatness therein, is owing to it 4, and the name of the ruler is Wisdom 5; likewise his ceremonial—performed while the creations owing to him live. when possessing bodies and possessing life 6—is a benefit to all the worldly and spiritual existences.

17. And this, too, is said, namely: 'Thou art our own 7, and also our confederate, O Spîtâmân! likewise unto us thou comest with the reverence that is good 8; thine, O Zaratûst! are the greatness and completeness in performance 9, so that they

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become thy greatness and completeness, that is, they are thine, O Zaratûst! and are boundless onwards from the middle, that is, we give thee a reward 1 so enormous that, when thou shouldst stand in the middle of it, thou wouldst not see to its limits, the width of the earth, the length of a river, and the height of the sun 2.'

18. Zaratûst begged of Aûharmazd thus: 'Give unto me him who becomes a disciple of men 3 of the mighty through meditation for the religion, of them who shall produce the actual progress of this my religion of the Mazda-worshippers, and who will also explain the good practices to this one of mine, even the blessings set forth by me in the benedictions they possess.' 19. And Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'I will give unto thee him who becomes a disciple of other men of the mighty; they are thy kinsmen and those confederates of theirs, and thine are their companions and their serfs 4, who produce the progress of this thy religion of the Mazda-worshippers. 20. Mostly thine, O Zaratûst! are their worship and their homage; and, through their ceremonial and obeisance, the liberality of him who is worshipped is given to thee, and righteousness for the soul is with thee; also thy life exists owing to us, and likewise thy body 5, O Zaratûst! 21. Forth to thee will I, who am the creator Aûharmazd, come in both existences 6, as assistance; thou becomest worthy, O Zaratûst! through Khûrdad and Amûrdad 7, both of them, and through the gratification of

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me, who am Aûharmazd, by those sayings and deeds which I, who am the most propitious of spirits, proclaimed unto thee.'

22. Zaratûst spoke thus: 'They have become applicants on him who is powerful with thee 1.' 23. And Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'Thou becomest an applicant and powerful in the embodied existence.' 24. Zaratûst spoke thus: 'Be thou a gratification to us in the slow progress of life, thou most beneficent (hû-dahâktûm) of existences! that is, thou shouldst give to us 2.' 25. And Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'I will gratify thee, O righteous Zaratûst! in that best existence 3.'

26. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness.


265:1 See Chap. XII, 1 n; it is here written yast in Pahlavi.

265:2 See Pahl. Yas. XXXV, 4-6.

265:3 Ibid. 9.

265:4 Ibid. 11.

265:5 Ibid. 13.

266:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXV, 19.

266:2 Ibid. 22.

266:3 See Pahl. Yas. XXXVI, 4, 5.

266:4 Ibid. 6.

267:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXVI, 9-14. For Mânûskîhar see Bk. VIII, Chap. XIII, 10, 12, 18.

267:2 See Pahl. Yas. XXXVII (= V), 1, 2.

267:3 Ibid. 4.

267:4 Ibid. 3.

267:5 Ibid. 6.

267:6 Ibid. 7.

267:7 See Pahl. Yas. XXXIX, 13.

267:8 Ibid. 14.

267:9 See Pahl. Yas. XL, 1.

268:1 See Pahl. Yas. XL, 3.

268:2 This expression for boundless extent occurs in Yas. LX, 4, Yt. XIII, 32.

268:3 See Pahl. Yas. XL, 7.

268:4 Ibid. 10.

268:5 See Pahl. Yas. XLI, 7.

268:6 Ibid. 8.

268:7 See Chap. XIX, 1.

269:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLI, 10.

269:2 Ibid. 11.

269:3 Ibid. 15.

Next: Chapter XXXVI