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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


Ganabâ-sar-nigad Nask.

1. The third section is the Aratêstâristân ('warrior code'), particulars about the worthiness of destroying a wolf; and, among wolves, the greater need of destroying (zanisntarîh) those with two legs than those with four legs.

2. About selecting the daily supplies of warriors, the beasts of burden, clothing, and equipment of warriors, and other appurtenances (avâgânakîh) which are to be given to them; also selecting a horse and accoutrements (zênŏ-afzâr) for each one.

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[paragraph continues] 3. About having a man's horse trained before one sends him to smite enemies. 4. About the efficacy of the resources and care of a warrior in the destruction which enemies occasion; also the army and the slaughter of war. 5. About the sin of the village and abode of the warriors on the occurrence of a battle, and what is the retribution for wounds and damage; what is that which is disfiguring (apîrâyak) therein, and what is that which is worthy of death therein.

6. About the characteristics of the wearing of armour (zênâvandîh) and not wearing of armour by warriors. 7. About the rank of the general (sipâhpadŏ), and other officers (padân) over the troops, as to daily supplies, pay, and dignity; also their subordinates (azîrag), and the number of troopers (gûrd) to each one of the officers. 8. About the anxieties of a trooper for the protection of person and family. 9. About the number of troopers when the king of kings goes to battle. 10. About the proportion of daily provision for two warriors, the meat and milk and bread thereof, which are for the sake of providing guidance and causing contests of the warriors in that good eating; also the reason of certifying (gôvâîk) its distribution and weighing, the beast of burden of the original village (bûn kôkîh) 1, and its means of being sent unto the troops. 11. About cutting the herbs for the veterinary surgeon (stôr bezashkŏ), the store of accoutrements, and other things which are necessary with an army. 12. About the feeding of warriors on the day of battle, the meat and whatsoever are their eatables; even so the food of the horses.

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13. About the wealth which foreigners bring away, and this which is declared thereof, that is, 'I, too, am assisting even the wolf.' 14. About the display of esteem by warriors together, the union of friendship one with the other, obedient unto their commander of the troops, and mindfully resigning themselves to death, there being seen a spiritual reward, without doubt, in the future existence.

15. About the choice of a commander over the troops; also as to his coming and understanding the habits of his troops, each separately, through the capability of skill which is theirs. 16. About estimating the strength and resources of the troops, with those of their enemies; that is, how the battle is to be engaged in, or how the case is when it is to be avoided. 17. About the provision of anything requisite 1 which warriors shall leave for safety when there is danger in the neighbourhood from a distant stronghold, or danger to a neighbouring stronghold from afar. 18. About the case where, when it is necessary to engage in battle, the horse of a warrior has not arrived, and it is allowable to seize upon several horses from a herd of horses. 19. About the watchful sentinel (nigâhakŏ pâspânŏ), and of what kind is the information from which this is manifest, to the army and commander of the troops, that the enemy is well dead, or fled.

20. About a demonstration whereby they produce terror and apprehension in the enemy. 21. About an altercation of the commander of the troops with foreigners before a battle; altercation also through an envoy, and calling them into subjection to the

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king of kings and the religion of the sacred beings. 22. About admonition to the troops, and declaring the share and arrangement of special duty of each one in the fight; announcing to the troops the recompense of the active, telling and informing the troops of the reason of being worthy of death, of the worthiness of destroying foreigners, of the command of the sacred beings as to their destruction when they shall not accept the Irânian nationality (Airîh), and the equally great reward and recompense for their destruction announced by revelation, the legal code (dâdistânîkîh) of Irân.

23. About not uttering words of irritation on the day of battle, and not mentioning, among the troops, any intelligence which gives the troops apprehension, but only that which is agreeable and pleasing, through giving heartiness and increasing the strength. 24. About the sacred ceremonial on the day of battle and evil deeds of war;—a twig of the sacred twigs of that ceremonial, and the Avesta as regards fighting, being the first arrow well delivered into the mark shot at;—the consecration of the water which is nearest to the place of battle, even by bringing holy-water; and the sequence of the fight, that is, with which arms and appliances it is first to be fought, and successively unto those which are the last.

25. About the proportion of those who keep the arms (zâê) for the combatants, and, after a victory over foreigners, are taking away the hostages and captives, out of the foreigners, from the combatants; also their return from them. 26. At what degree of distance from them they have to carry the arms and appliances and the restoratives for the unfatigued

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and the fatigued; and, the accoutrements being deposited, a warm bath prepared, and relaxation of the body effected, the reward of merit is given. 27. One has to search offenders, to bring restoratives for the unfatigued and the fatigued, to deliver the accoutrements back to the arsenal (gangŏ), to allot the share of the hostage brought back to his own people, and also much else on the same subject.


87:1 Whence the supplies come.

88:1 Or 'of value;' khvâstakŏ having both meanings.

Next: Chapter XXVII