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Pahlavi Texts, Part III (SBE24), E.W. West, tr. [1885], at


1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 'Wherefore is it when the knowledge and sagacity of the spiritual and worldly existences, both united, are connected with thee?'

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: 'For this reason, because, from the first, I, who am the innate wisdom, apart from the spiritual and worldly existences, have been with Aûharmazd. 5. And

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the creator Aûharmazd created (âfrîdŏ) the angels of the spiritual and worldly creations, and all the other creatures and creations through the power and mightiness, the wisdom and sagacity of innate wisdom; and I produce 1 and he maintains and stimulates them. 6. And at the end of the renovation of the universe it is possible to cause the annihilation and destruction of Aharman and his miscreations more fully by the power of wisdom; (7) and Sôshâns 2, with Kaî-Khûsrôî 2, and those who the resurrection and future existence are able to act more fully, by means of the power and help of wisdom.

8. 'The knowledge and sagacity of the worldly existence, the learning and teaching in 3 every profession, and all advancement of temporal beings 4 are through wisdom: 9. The souls of the righteous, in escaping from hell 5 and coming 6 to heaven and the supreme heaven (garôdmân), arrive much better by means of the power and protection of wisdom. 10. And it is possible to seek the good living, pleasure, good repute, and every happiness of people in the worldly existence, through the power of wisdom.

11. 'And the maintenance of the seeds of men

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and beasts of burden, oxen and sheep, and also every other creature and creation of Aûharmazd, the lord, the seating 1 of them in the womb, and making manifest what is their food in the womb, so that they shall not die from hunger and thirst, and the allotment and maturing of the limbs are effected 2 more fully by means of the durability (dôrângarîh) and great potency which are in the force 3 of wisdom.

12. 'The arrangement of the earth and the mingling of the water in the earth, the growth and increase of plants, colour of various kinds, and the scent, taste, and pleasantness of various things are allotted and produced more fully through wisdom. 13. And the arrangement of Albûrz 4 around the world, the manifestation of the earth of the seven regions 5 and the sky above the mountain of Albûrz, the motion of the sun and moon and twelve constellations 6, the six times of the season festivals (gâsanbâr) 7. the five times devoted to the guardian spirits (fravardîkân) 8, the heaven which is in the place of good thoughts, the place of good words, the place of good deeds, and the perfect supreme

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heaven (garôdmân) of all gloriousness 1, the path of the spirits and worldly existences, and the Kindvar bridge 2 are produced and allotted through the power of wisdom.

14. 'The watery-looking 3 cloud's seizing water from the sea, advancing in the atmosphere, and gradually breaking away 4, drop by drop, to the earth, and Aûharmazd's 5 creatures’ thoroughly understanding the nature of heaven and hell, the compassion of Aûharmazd, the archangels, and other angels as regards their own creatures, and the devastation and destructiveness of Aharman and the demons as regards the creatures of Aûharmazd it is possible to comprehend through the more complete power 6 of wisdom. 15. And the good religion of the Mazda-worshippers, the sayings and teaching of the spirits 7, and the demons’ demolishing the worldly body and making it imperceptible by the sight of men are apprehended 8 more fully by means of the most perfect means of wisdom. 16. And even the struggle and warfare of Irân with foreigners (an-aîrân), and the smiting of Aharman and the demons it is possible to effect through the power of wisdom.

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17. 'To occasion the sun's inspection of the hidden water also, below the earth, it is expedient to convey it for tillage and cultivation, and the advantage, comfort, and enjoyment of men and beasts of burden, oxen and sheep, through the power of wisdom. 18. The thorough understanding of the pain and sickness of men and beasts of burden, oxen, sheep, and other animals, and the bringing of medicine and remedies, health of body and comfort unto them are much more possible to effect 1 by means of the power of wisdom.

19. 'And as to every man whose participation in wisdom is. much, his share of heaven is then much more. 20. Even as to Vistâsp 2, Zaratûs3, Gâyômard 4, and those others whose share of heaven was much the more 5, it was on account of the much coming of wisdom unto them. 21. And as to Yim, Frêdûn, Kâî-Ûs 6, and those other rulers who obtained splendour (vargŏ) and mightiness (tagakîh) 7 from the sacred beings just as the participation of Vistâsp and other rulers in the religion occurred 8—and their not attaining to the religion, and also as to the times when they have become ungrateful unto their own lord 9, it was on account of the little coming of wisdom unto them.

22. 'And Aharman, also, and the demons deceive that man more, and lead him to hell, who is poorer

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of wisdom and unsteadier in disposition. 23. And it is manifest, that, unto him who is virtuous in disposition, habit, and demeanour 1, praise is then due, owing to his maintenance of wisdom. 24. For it is declared, that Aharman shouted to Zaratûst thus 2: "If thou desist from this good religion of the Mazda-worshippers, then I will give thee a thousand years’ dominion of the worldly existence, (25) as was given to the Vadakân 3 monarch Dahâk 4." 26. On account of complete wisdom, the virtuous disposition and demeanour of Zaratûst not having hearkened and not being deluded, he did not become deceived and longing through that temptation of the accursed evil one, the wicked 5. 27. And he spoke to Aharman (28) thus: "I will shatter and cause to run (dûkânam) 6, and will make downcast (nigûîsâr) for thee 7, the bodies of your demons and fiends, wizards and witches, through the Hôm 8 and sacred twigs 9, and the good, true

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religion which the creator Aûharmazd has taught to me." 29. Aharman, when those words were heard by him, became confounded and stupefied, and rushed to hell, and remained confounded a long time.

30. 'This, too, is declared, that Aûharmazd, when Aharman, by agreement 1, had further operated 2 with his (Aûharmazd's) creatures and creation of every kind, afterwards formed an assembly with the angels and archangels of every kind 3, and the welfare (âvâdîh) due to his own wisdom was mentioned and recounted by him.

31. 'This, too, is declared, that for the nine thousand years of renovation 4, until the resurrection and future existence, wisdom maintains and stimulates the creatures and creation of every kind.

32. 'And this, too, is declared, that, as to him who is an ignorant and bad-tempered man, when he attains even to much eminence, opulence, and authority, even then he is not fit to elevate into that welfare and authority.'


99:1 So in K43, but Nêr. has taken this verb in the third person,. in place of the nearly synonymous âfrîdŏ, so as to state that the creator 'created, maintains, and stimulates the angels' and all other existences through the power of innate wisdom. The object of the Pahlavi text, however, seems to be to emphasize the fact that the creation was specially due to the innate wisdom of the creator, while its maintenance is dependent on all his powers and attributes.

99:2 See Chaps. II, 95, XXVII, 63.

99:3 L19 has 'of.'

99:4 L19 has 'times.'

99:5 That is, in escaping from the risk of being sent to hell.

99:6 L19 omits 'and coming.'

100:1 Nêr. has read shâyastan, 'possibility,' instead of nishâstanŏ, 'seating.'

100:2 Reading vâdûrnî-hênd. L19 has 'are possible to effect.'

100:3 L19 has 'by means of the great potency and force.'

100:4 See Chap. XLIV, 16 n.

100:5 See Chap. IX, 2 n.

100:6 The signs of the zodiac, whose apparent movement, due to the motion of the earth, is here alluded to.

100:7 See Chap. IV, 5 n.

100:8 The five supplementary days, named after the five Gâthas or sacred hymns, which follow the twelfth month in order to complete the Parsi year of 365 days. Together with the five preceding days they are specially devoted to the homage of the guardian spirits or Fravashis.

101:1 The four grades of heaven (see Chap. VII, 9-12).

101:2 See Chap. II, 115 n. By omitting 'and' Nêr. identifies this bridge with the path mentioned before if, but it forms only one portion of the path to the other world.

101:3 Assuming that mâ-vênakŏ stands for mayâ-vênakŏ.

101:4 Pahl. vîkhtanŏ is more probably connected with Pers. kîkhtan, 'to break,' than with Pers. pîkhtan, 'to sift.'

101:5 The Sanskrit version adds 'and Aharman's.'

101:6 L19 has 'more fully through the power.'

101:7 L19 has 'worldly existences.'

101:8 Reading girî-hastŏ. L19 has 'are effected.'

102:1 L19 omits 'to effect.'

102:2 See Chap. XIII, 14 n.

102:3 See Chap. I, 10 n.

102:4 See Chap. XXVII, 2 n.

102:5 L19 has 'who more fully obtained a share of heaven.'

102:6 See Chap. VIII, 27, where all three are mentioned.

102:7 L19 has 'opulence.'

102:8 This clause occurs only in K43.

102:9 They all three suffered misfortunes in their old age, attributed by the priesthood to neglect bf religion, which is here traced to diminution of intellect.

103:1 L19 has 'virtuous in disposition and virtuous of demeanour.'

103:2 This is stated, in other words, in Vend. XIX, 23-32.

103:3 As Vadak is said (Dd. LXXII, 5) to have been the mother of Dahâk, this term may be a matronymic implying 'son of Vadak.'

103:4 See Chap. VIII, 29 n.

103:5 This section is a good deal altered in the Pâzand version, but the general meaning is the same.

103:6 L19 has va vânom, 'and I will smite.'

103:7 L19 has 'and will make withered (nizâr).'

103:8 A plant growing in Persia, small twigs of which are pounded in water, and the resulting juice is tasted by the priest during the ceremonial. It is a symbol of the mythic Hôm, the producer of immortality. (see Chap. LXII, 28). Originally, no doubt, the Hôm (Av. haoma) and the Sans. soma were the same plant (see Dd. XLVIII, 16 n).

103:9 The baresôm (Av. baresma) is a bundle of slender twigs or wires, prepared in a particular manner, to be held in the left hand p. 104 of the priest while reciting certain parts of the liturgy (see Dd. XLIII, 5 n).

104:1 The covenant between the good and evil spirits, by which their conflict was limited to nine thousand years (see Bd. I, 18, 19).

104:2 That is, transformed and vitiated them. The Av. frâkerentad (Vend. I, 7), describing the modifying work of the evil spirit upon the creation, is here expressed by frâgŏ vâdûnd.

104:3 Such an assembly is mentioned in Vend. II, 42, but its proceedings are not stated.

104:4 So in all versions, but, as the renovation is generally considered as confined to the end of the nine thousand years, we ought perhaps to transpose the words and read 'for the nine thousand years, until the renovation, resurrection, and future existence.'

Next: Chapter LVIII