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Pahlavi Texts, Part III (SBE24), E.W. West, tr. [1885], at


1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 'Through how many ways and motives of good works do people arrive most at heaven?'

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: 'The first good work is liberality 5. 5. The second, truth. 6. The third, thankfulness. 7. The fourth, contentment. 8. The fifth, wanting to produce welfare for the good, and becoming a friend to every one. 9. The sixth, being without doubt as to this, that the

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sky and earth and every benefit of the worldly and spiritual existences are owing to the creator Aûharmazd. 10. The seventh, being so as to the unquestionableness of this 1, that all misery and affliction are owing to Aharman the wicked, who is accursed. 11. The eighth, freedom from doubt as to the resurrection and future existence. 12. The ninth, who for love of the soul effects 2 a next-of-kin marriage. 13. The tenth, who arranges adoption 3. 14. The eleventh, who practises regular industry. 15. The twelfth, who is without doubt in this pure, good religion of the Mazda-worshippers. 16. The thirteenth, who is kindly regardful as to the ability and means of every one. 17. The fourteenth, who perceives 4 the kind regard of the good, and becomes himself, also, kindly regardful as to the goodness which one wants among the good. 18. The fifteenth, who seeks the affection of the good. 19. The sixteenth, who keeps malice and uncharitableness far from his mind. 20. The seventeenth, who bears no improper envy. 21. The eighteenth, who forms no desire of lust. 22. The nineteenth, who produces no discord with any one. 23. The twentieth, who brings no distress into the affairs Of a departed and unassisted one (avigîd5. 24. The twenty-first, who

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lets 1 no wrath into his body. 25. The twenty-second, who commits no sin on account of disgrace 2. 26. The twenty-third, who forms no desire of lethargy on account of laziness. 27. The twenty-fourth, who is without doubt as to the sacred beings. 28. The twenty-fifth, who is without doubt as to the existence of heaven and hell, and the account which is to be rendered by the soul, the glory which is in heaven, and the misery which is in hell. 29. The twenty-sixth, who abstains 3 from slander and envious looks. 30. The twenty-seventh, who causes the happiness of himself, and gives happy advancement also to others. 31. The twenty-eighth, who becomes the help 4 of the good, and accuser of the bad. 32. The twenty-ninth, who restrains himself from deceit and evil (dûsîh) 5. 33. The thirtieth, who does not speak false and untrue 6. 34. The thirty-first, who restrains himself firmly from promise-breaking. 35. The thirty-second, who, for the sake of seeking his own benefit and happiness, causes the abstinence of others from evil. 36. And the thirty-third, who provides lodging accommodation for the sick and secluded 7 and traders.'


73:5 Compare Chap. IV, which divides good works into seven classes.

74:1 By the transposition of two words L19 has 'freedom from doubt as to this.'

74:2 Whether for himself, or for another, is uncertain (see Chap. IV, 4 n).

74:3 Nêr. explains in Sanskrit, thus: 'that is, whoever becomes a spirit childless, maintains any man, with his wealth, for his fame and his lineage, then thus the soul, too, is for an increase of good works.'

74:4 L19 transposes the two verbs, 'perceives' and 'wants.'

74:5 Nêr. reads hvazîd, which he identifies with Pers. ‘hazîd, 'concealed, p. 75 secluded;' and which might also be taken in the sense of one who has 'crawled,' meaning a young child; but the identification is doubtful.

75:1 L19 has 'keeps.'

75:2 That is, 'for fear of disgrace.'

75:3 L19 has 'restrains himself.'

75:4 L19 has 'helper.'

75:5 L19 has hvad-dôshî, 'self-conceit.'

75:6 See Chap. XXXVI, 29 n.

75:7 See Chap. XV, 6 n.

Next: Chapter XXXVIII