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Pahlavi Texts, Part II (SBE18), E.W. West, tr. [1882], at


1. And 3 those of the primitive faith, the ancients of those acquainted with the religion 4, thus considered, that in the spirit of life (ahvô) 5 there is

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a thought and one appointed who 1 holds the position (gâs), and there is a fiend who stops 2 the way; and in the thought there is a word appointed which holds the position, and there is a fiend who stops the way 3. 2. In the spirit of life 4 is a thought and Spendarmad 5 ('bountiful devotion') holds the position, and the fiend Tarômat 6 ('scornful thought') stops the way; in the thought is a word and Ard 7 ('the righteous') holds the position, and Varenô 8 ('lust') stops the way; in the word is a deed and Dînô 9 ('religion'), the good, holds the position, and self-conceit

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[paragraph continues] (khûd-dôshagîh)stops the way. 3. We men of all descriptions 1 have to become very 2 cautious that, while we do not desist from that way 3, we do not go on to the way of the demons and fiends 4. 4. For the struggling of men 5 is in these three 6 ways and paths; and whoever is saved in these three 6 ways and paths is saved from every place, and whoever is misled there comes into the hands of the demons and fiends 7, and is thenceforth not master (salîtâ) of himself, except when he shall do that which the fiends order him 8.

5. And this, too, was thus considered by them, that that nature only is good when it 9 shall not do unto another whatever is not good for its own self 10; and that wisdom only is good when it thoroughly 11 understands how to utilize the advantage 12 of that happiness which has occurred, and shall 13 not suffer vexation on account of harm which has not occurred; and that intellect only is good which

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understands that it does not understand that which it does not understand.

6. And this, too, was thus considered by them, that one is to become 1 a friend of every one, and this is thy nature 2; also, bring them on into 3 goodness, and, this is thy wisdom; also, consider them as thine own, and this is thy religion;, also, through them it shall produce 4 happiness, and this is thy soul 5.

7. And this, too, was thus considered by them, that, when 6 one shall do even that which he knows to be sin 7, that is disobedience; and disobedience is the nature of the adversary; when one shall not do even that which he knows to be a good work, that is cupidity (varenôîkîh), and cupidity is the wisdom of the adversary 8; and when one shall do 9 even that which he does not know to be a good work or a sin, until it comes fully to 10 his knowledge,

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that is self-conceit, and self-conceit is the religion of the adversary 1.

8. And this, too, was thus considered by them, that Aharman 2 would do everything for the injury of Aûharmazd, but when it is done by him 3 it is then an injury of him himself, and an advantage of Aûharmazd; and Aûharmazd would do everything for his own advantage, and when it is done by him it is then, indeed 4, an advantage of him himself, but an injury of Aharman 5.

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9. And this, too, was thus considered by them, that a person of whatever description is to be kept 1 in remembrance of the affairs of the spirit at every period and time, and of the happiness of heaven and misery of hell at that period when comfort, happiness, and pleasure have come to him.

10. And this, too, was thus considered by them 2, that happiness, indeed, would be there, in the heaven of light 3, when even here it is so happy, though, owing to many things 4, Aharman--with whom the happiness there is not connected--is even here so happy at the time when distress, vexation, and misery have come hereto; and this, too, was thus considered, that evils, indeed, would be there, in hell, when here is such misery, though even here much of the earthly happiness of Aûharmazd--

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with whom the misery there is not connected--is here so evil.

11. And this, too, was thus considered by them, that that person is the more fortunate 1, in whom the soundness of body, happiness, and energy (râyînisnŏ) 2; who has done those things about which the last wish of him who departs from the world is then thus: 'I will strive to do more;' and who shall have exercised much complete abstinence from those things about which his last wish, when he departs from the world, is then such as 'I will strive to do less, and it would have occurred more comfortably for my soul 3.'

12. Do you good people of those of the good religion of these countries of Irân keep in use the laws appointed by those of the primitive faith who were high-priests, so that your bodies may become more renowned, and your souls more perfect, in the radiant supreme heaven which 4 is the seat of Aûharmazd and the archangels, of the angels and all the guardian spirits of the righteous. 13. So these are so many answers of the questions provided, and are given explanatorily from the exposition of the religion and the statements of the high-priests of 

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those of the primitive faith, and are the nature of the teachings that Mânûskîhar, son of Yûdân-Yim 1, pontiff (radŏ) of Pârs and Kirmân 2, and director (farmâdâr) 3 of the profession of priests, ordered to write.

14. Steadfast in the propitiation and praise of the creator Aûharmazd is the righteousness of obtainments of prayers, perfect is Zaratûst, and one only is the way 4 which righteousness obtains, the others are no ways; homage to the exalted pontiff sent from the creator Aûharmazd, the heavenly, most righteous Zaratûst the Spîtamân.

15. Completed in peace and pleasure, joy and delight;. happy for him who reads, and happier for him who keeps it in use and shall take his duty therefrom 5, if they exist unto time eternal.


269:3 The first eleven sections of this chapter are quoted from the beginning of the sixth book of the Dînkard, which commences as follows:--'The propitiation of the creator Aûharmazd is even in the benedictions of the religion of Mazda-worship; this, too, was the settled decision of those of the primitive faith. The sixth book is on a compendium (vasang) which was prepared by those of the primitive faith to maintain about the sayings of the religion of Mazda-worship;' and then proceeds as in our text, with the variations and additional matter mentioned in the foot-notes. It is hardly probable that these quotations were intended as a conclusion to any reply, the beginning of which may be lost, as they refer to a variety of subjects; but they may have been selected by the author as authoritative opinions sufficiently comprehensive for his general peroration. At any rate they show that the Dînkard must have been in existence in its present form before the Dâdistân-î Dînîk was written. All the MSS. have this peroration written continuously with the preceding chapter, without stop or break of any kind to indicate a change of subject.

269:4 Dk. has 'the ancients of the wise.'

269:5 Dk. adds 'of men.'

270:1 Dk. has 'which is appointed and,' &c.

270:2 Literally 'holds.'

270:3 It is evident from the context that something is omitted here, and Dk. supplies the following:--'and in the word there is a deed for the appointed position, and there is a fiend who stops the way. And in the spirit of life is a heart (vâlôm) and Vohûman ("good thought") holds the position, and Akômanô ("evil thought") stops the way; and in the heart is a will and Srôsh ("attention") holds the position, and Aeshm ("wrath") stops the way.' It seems probable that the author did not mean to quote the latter sentence of this passage.

270:4 Dk. has 'and in the will.'

270:5 The female archangel, who is a personification of Av. spenta ârmaiti, and has special charge of the earth and virtuous women (see Bd. I, 26, Sls. XV, 20-24).

270:6 Here written Tarôkmatŏ (Av. tarômaiti); he is the arch-demon of disobedience, also called Nâûnghas (see Bd. XXVIII, 14, XXX, 29).

270:7 Av. areta, a title of the female angel Arshisang or Ashisang (Av. ashis vanguhi, 'good rectitude'), whose name is given to the 25th day of the Parsi month (see Bd. XXII, 4, XXVII, 24, Sls. XXII, 25, XXIII, 4).

270:8 Av. varena, 'desire,' personified as a demon (see Bd. XXVIII, 25).

270:9 Av. daêna personified as an angel whose name is given to the tenth month and 24th day of the month of the Parsi year, and is also coupled with the names of other angels to form appellations p. 271 for the 8th, 15th, and 23rd days (see Bd. XXV, 3, r 1, 20, Sls. XXII, 8, 15, 23, 24, XXIII, 4). Dk. omits the epithet 'good.'

271:1 Dk. omits the words 'of all descriptions;' it also places § 3 after § 4.

271:2 Dk. omits 'very.'

271:3 Dk. has 'from the way of the angels.'

271:4 Dk. has 'go after the fiends.'

271:5 Dk. has 'and the struggling of the fiend with men,' and places this section after § 2.

271:6 Dk. has 'such' instead of 'three' in both places.

271:7 Dk. has 'comes then to the hands of the fiends.'

271:8 Dk. then proceeds with § 3, 'and we men have to become cautious,' &c.

271:9 Dk. has 'which,' instead of 'when it,' both here and in the next clause.

271:10 Dk. has 'for itself.'

271:11 Dk. omits 'thoroughly.'

271:12 Literally 'to eat the fruit'

271:13 Dk. has 'does.'

272:1 Dk. has 'it is the becoming.'

272:2 Dk. has 'wisdom.'

272:3 Or 'through.' Dk. omits this clause, substituting 'and this, too, was thus considered by them.'

272:4 Dk. has 'do thou produce.'

272:5 Dk. continues as follows:--'And this, too, was thus considered by them, that nature is that which deceives no one, wisdom is that which does not deceive itself, and religion is that which is whatever knows where one should perform good works.'

272:6 Reading amat, instead of mûn, 'which,' in all three clauses (see Chap. LXII, 4 n); Dk. omits the word altogether.

272:7 Dk. has 'shall not do even that which he knows to be a good work,' as in the second clause which it omits.

272:8 This clause is omitted by M14, J, BK, and the oldest MS. of Dk.; later MSS. of Dk. give it as follows: 'should they do even that they know to be a sin, that is lustful (varenôîk), and lustful is the wisdom of the adversary.'

272:9 Dk. has 'does.'

272:10 Dk. has 'before it comes unto.'

273:1 In Dk. the following is here inserted:--'And this, too, was thus considered by them, that in one's nature there is no wisdom, but in wisdom there is nature, and in religion are both wisdom and nature. It is known how to manage the affairs of the spirit by the nature, they are preserved by wisdom, and the soul is preserved by a union of both. And this, too, was thus considered by them, that shame is that which should not allow one to commit sin, and disgrace is that it would not allow to cause. And this, too, was thus considered by them, that the essential thing of the primitive faith is freedom from sin. And this, too, was thus considered by them, that one becomes diligent about that with which he is conversant. And this, too, was thus considered by them, that the good thoughts that are in the records of the religion of every kind one should always put fully into practice, so far as he understands them. And this, too, was thus considered by them, that Aûharmazd, the lord, produced these creatures through his nature, maintains them through wisdom, and forces them back to himself through religion.'

273:2 The evil spirit (see Chaps. II, 11, XIX, 1).

273:3 Or 'when he has done it,' which would be expressed by the same words.

273:4 Dk. omits 'indeed.'

273:5 In Dk. the following is here inserted:--'And this, too, was thus considered by them, that people are to keep an eye most diligently on the world for these three things: that which is realisable by a sinner through sin, a follower made famous, and to beg the recompense of good works from the spirits: and keeping their eye on the world is said to be this, that it is he who observes himself, so that a part of whatever he really desires he should always perform. And this, too, was thus considered by them, that three p. 273 things which are very difficult to do are even such as these: one is not to render the sinfulness famous by the sin; one is not to exalt the opinions of the fiend, and the various sovereignties of the evil one, for the sake of wealth; and one is to beg the recompense of good works from the spirits, and not from the world.'

274:1 Dk. has merely 'keeps.'

274:2 Dk. has 'this, too, is to be considered,' as a continuation of the preceding section.

274:3 Dk. omits 'of light.'

274:4 The oldest MS. of Dk. has 'though some of the much happiness of Aûharmazd,' &c., as in the latter part of the section, omitting the passage referring to Aharman and hell; later MSS., however, insert a modified version of the omitted passage, and read as follows: 'When even here it is so happy at the period when it should be distressing and the mischievous vexation of much pain has come; this, too, is to be considered, that misery, indeed, is the calamity (âfatŏ) there in hell, when even here it is so, though some of the much happiness of Aûharmazd,' &c.. as before. This interpolation in Dk. is evidently modern (as the word âfatŏ is Arabic and not Pahlavi), and was probably composed by a copyist in India who was acquainted with the text of Dk.

275:1 Dk. has 'that a person is most fortunate in that.'

275:2 M14 and J have 'are the appearance of health of body and pleasure;' Dk. has 'is the appearance of perfection.'

275:3 Dk. concludes as follows: 'who has done those things which are done, about which on his last day--when the things of the world depart--his wish is then thus, that 'more endeavour should be made by me;' and has exercised much abstinence from those things about which his last day's wish is this, that the endeavour made should not be made.' The quotations from Dk. end at this point.

275:4 Reading mûn, as in M14 and J, instead of amat, 'when,' (see Chap. LXII, 4 n.)

276:1 See p. 3, note 2.

276:2 The two southern provinces of Persia, bordering on the Persian Gulf.

276:3 This title seems to be always spelt in Pahlavi with â in the middle syllable, so that the form framaDHâr in Nŏldeke's Geschichte der Perser and Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden, p. 9, must be looked upon as an Arabic corruption, and the idea that it means 'a preceder or one who has precedence' can hardly be maintained. It probably stands for farmâîdâr, 'a director or commander,' not in a military sense. It occurs also in Bd. XXXIII, 2, where the title 'a great farmâdâr' is evidently equivalent to 'prime minister, or grand vazîr,' but applied to a priest, as farmâdâr is here and in Chap. XLV, 5.

276:4 Reading râs, as in M14, instead of ra, which is merely an imperfect word. This clause of the sentence is a slight modification of a well-known quotation (said to be taken from the lost part of the Hâdôkht Nask) which is often used in perorations.

276:5 Or 'who keeps to duty and shall do his duty thereby.'

Next: Chapter I