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Pahlavi Texts, Part I (SBE05), E.W. West, tr. [1880], at

p. 88


1. On the chieftainship of men and animals and every single thing it says in revelation, that first of the human species Gâyômard was produced, brilliant and white, with eyes which looked out for the great one, him who was here the Zaratûstrôtûm (chief high-priest); the chieftainship of all things was from Zaratûs1. 2. The white ass-goat 2, which holds its head down, is the chief of goats, the first of those species created 3. 3. The black sheep which is fat and white-jawed is the chief of sheep; it was the first of those species created 3. 4. The camel with white-haired knees and two humps is the chief of camels. 5. First the black-haired ox with yellow knees was created; he is the chief of oxen. 6. First the dazzling white (arûs) horse, with yellow ears, glossy hair, and white eyes, was produced; he is the chief of horses. 7. The white, cat-footed 4 ass is the chief of asses. 8. First of dogs the fair (arûs) dog with yellow hair was produced; he is the chief of dogs. 9. The hare was produced brown

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[paragraph continues] (bûr); he is the chief of the wide-travellers. 10. Those beasts which have no dread whatever of the hand are evil. 11. First of birds the griffon of three natures 1 was created, not for here (this world), for the Karsipt 2 is the chief, which they call the falcon (kark), that which revelation says was brought to the enclosure formed by Yim. 12. First of fur animals the white ermine was produced; he is the chief of fur animals; as it says that it is the white ermine which came unto the assembly of the archangels. 13. The Kar-fish, or Ariz 3, is the chief of the water-creatures. 14. The Dâîtîk 4 river is the chief of streams. 15. The Dârag5 river is the chief of exalted rivers, for the dwelling of the father of Zaratûst was on its banks 6, and Zaratûst was born there. 16. The hoary forest 7 is the chief of forests. 17. Hûgar the lofty 8, on which the water of Arêdvîvsûr flows and leaps, is the chief of summits, since it is that above which is the revolution of the constellation Satavês 9, the chief of

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reservoirs 1. 18. The Hôm which is out-squeezed is the chief of medicinal plants 2. 19. Wheat is the chief of large-seeded 3 grains. 20. The desert wormwood is the chief of unmedicinal 4 plants. 21. The summer vetch, which they also call 'pag' (gâvirs), is the chief of small-seeded grains 5. 22. The Kûstîk (sacred thread-girdle) is the chief of clothes. 23. The Bâzâyvâna 6 is the chief of seas. 24. Of two men, when they come forward together, the wiser and more truthful is chief.

25. This, too, it says in revelation, that Aûharmazd created the whole material world one abode, so that all may be one; for there is much splendour and glory of industry in the world. 26. Whatsoever he performs, who practises that which is good, is the value of the water of life 7; since water is not created alike 8 in value, for the undefiled water of Arêdvîvsûr is worth the whole water of the sky and earth of Khvanîras 9, except the Arag river 10, created by Aûharmazd. 27. Of trees the myrtle and date,

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on which model, it is said, trees were formed, are worth all the trees of Khvanîras, except the Gôkard tree 1 with which they restore the dead.

28. Of mountains Mount Apârsên's beginning is in Sagastân and end in Khûgîstân, some say it is all the mountains of Pârs, and is chief of all mountains except Albûrz. 29. Of birds Kamrôs 2 is chief, who is worth all the birds in Khvanîras, except the griffon of three natures. 30. The conclusion is this, that every one who performs a great duty has then much value.


88:1 So in all MSS., but by reading mûn, 'who,' instead of min, 'from,' we should have, 'him who was here the chief high-priest and chieftainship of all things, who was Zaratûst.' The Pahlavi Visp. I. 1, gives the following list of chiefs: 'The chief of spirits is Aûharmazd, the chief of worldly existences is Zaratûst, the chief of water-creatures is the Kar-fish, the chief of land-animals is the ermine, the chief of flying-creatures is the Karsipt, the chief of the wide-travellers is the . . . , the chief of those suitable for grazing is the ass-goat.'

88:2 See Chap. XIV, 14.

88:3 It is doubtful whether the phrase, 'the first of those species created,' belongs to this sentence or the following one.

88:4 Or, 'cat-legged.'

89:1 The Sîmurgh (see § 29 and Chap. XIV, 11, 23, 24). In Mkh. LXII, 37-39, it is mentioned as follows: 'And Sînamrû's resting-place is on the tree which is opposed to harm, of all seeds; and always when he rises aloft a thousand twigs will shoot forth from that tree; and when he alights he will break off the thousand twigs, and he sheds their seed therefrom.'

89:2 See Chap. XIX, 16. In § 29 Kamrôs is said to be the chief.

89:3 See Chaps. XIV, 12, 26, XVIII, 3-6.

89:4 See Chap. XX, 13

89:5 See Chap. XX, 32.

89:6 The MSS. have 'in Balkh' instead of 'on the banks.'

89:7 The arûs-i razur is the Av. spaêtitem razurem of Râm Yt. 31.

89:8 See Chap. XII, 5.

89:9 See Chap. II, 7.

90:1 The meaning of Pâz. gobarâ is doubtful, but it is here taken as standing for Pahl. gôbalân, equivalent to the plural of Pers. gôl or kôl, 'a reservoir;' Satavês being a specially 'watery' constellation (see Tîstar Yt. 0). Justi traces gobarân to Av. gufra, and translates it by 'protecting stars.'

90:2 Pâz. khvad and bakagâ evidently stand for Pahl. hûd (Av. huta) and bezashk.

90:3 Compare Av. as-dânunãm-ka yavananãm (Tîstar Yt. 29).

90:4 Pâz. abakagâ stands for Pahl. abezashk.

90:5 Compare Av. kasu-dânunãm-ka vâstranãm (Tîstar Yt. 29).

90:6 Justi identifies this with Lake Van, but perhaps Lake Sevan may be meant.

90:7 Or, 'its value is water.' K20 omits the word 'water.'

90:8 Reading ham instead of hamâk, 'all.'

90:9 See Chap. XI, 2-6.

90:10 See Chap. XX, 8.

91:1 See Chap. XVIII, 1-4.

91:2 See Chap. XIX, 115, where it is written Kâmrôs. This § is at variance with § 11, which gives the chieftainship to Karsipt.

Next: Chapter XXV