Spiritual Diary, by Emanuel Swedenborg, , tr. by Bush, Smithson and Buss [1883-9] at sacred-texts.com
THOSE WHO LOOK ABOUT THEM, AND ARE NOT SO MUCH ON HIGH: WHAT OF HARM THEY INTRODUCE. There were some spirits from Utrecht who were in a society, not particularly evil but not at all in thoughts. They were in a place almost level, not on high, and frequently sallied forth and thus looked around from all points, and this from inquisitiveness. I conversed with them, and they spoke without any intelligence; to such a degree that I could not listen to them. By their looking around, they called forth spirits from every quarter, and when they turned themselves from them to me, those spirits operated into me and introduced evil, and sometimes wickedness. The spirits of the society considered that they were guiltless, because they did not introduce the evil themselves; but it was shown them that they furnished light, and thus the means, to those who did, and that, apart from such direction, they would not have known me. As, also, they still brought about evil, like those who call forth the evil [spirits] and inflict harm in conjunction with them, all those [female spirits] who went forth from the society were cast out. Similar ones from the same country, corresponding to these, were also overhead: these, likewise, inflamed with the desire of looking down, were enraged against me, and were instructed by a certain foreign spirit how to make an opening beneath them; and then, by looking in, they called forth execrable spirits from whom issued wickedness. It was hence manifested, that it is not permitted to anyone to go forth and look around him, beyond his own territory.5902.
The means of going out of his own society, or town, and to ramble about there, is given to every spirit. Those who love use for the sake of use, never wish, they do not even know how, to look around them beyond their own territory; nor, inasmuch as they have no such purpose, have they such a view: wherefore, the territories elsewhere do not appear to them. It is different with those who do not love use for the sake of use. With these, the desire of seeing things outside is ingrained; and they do it. These, also, are the ones from whom all societies are purged; and they are cast forth to some other place, according to their life.5903.
HYPOCRITES. When hypocrites ascend into the heavens, and converse there with the wise respecting the things of the Church and of heaven, they appear in the eyes of the angels, there, of a hideous countenance; but they think they appear of a handsome countenance, and say that they so appear. But, still, the angels see them as they are inwardly. To the simple, however, they appear of a countenance which they adjust in agreement with their description: wherefore, as they have such an appearance, they are instantly cast down.5904.
THOSE WHO ARE ABLE TO TURN ASIDE THOUGHTS. There are certain [women] in society, who perceive the singulars of thought; and they are in that kind of malice that they then instantly turn them aside in some other direction, so that the other is not able to remember. They also know how to involve in obscurity, and thus to cover up, that which they have turned aside, so that he [i.e., the other person] can with difficulty bring it back to remembrance. But, as these [women] are malicious, they are all rejected.5905.
THOSE WHO SEE AT NIGHT, AND NOT BY DAY, LIKE [CERTAIN] BIRDS. Many of the Spiritual are not able to see those who are in an interior heaven; and, if they see them, they see them in the dusk, as it were, of evening, and then do not see them otherwise than as unlovely; some, also, see them as one sees an object in gloom, which he sees under another form determined by fancy. The same ones, in the light itself in which the interior angels are, can see little, if anything. It was told them that their eyes are such as their thoughts; inasmuch as, with spirits, the thought and the sight of the eye make one. It was hence manifest, that everyone's sight in the spiritual world is such as is his intelligence. It is the same with those who are in hell: the sight of their eye corresponds to the thought; and, since the thought is thought of falsity, hence, also [the things seen are] phantastic; for they believe falsity to be truth: wherefore, the sight does the same, and they actually see those things which are not, just as if they were: which is the reason that mere phantasies are there, and nothing real.5906.
The Spiritual were indignant at its being so said and shown, and supposed that they saw quite as clearly as the interior angels, because their light appears equally clear to their eyes and not at all in shade. But this was illustrated by comparison with birds of the woods, which see and sing at night, and which then see clearly, but in the light of day shrink away, because, then, they do not see. The nightingale 5906-1 was instanced: possibly there are many others; - but infernals were compared to night-owls, horned-owls, bats 5906-2 and the like, which see clearly at night and nothing by day.5907.
WHITHER JEWS TURN THEMSELVES. It was permitted me to observe whither they turn themselves: it was backwards from the Lord, directly to the west, where there is a thick darkness in the place of the sun of the world; and certain ones, nearer to the north there, stated that some see the thick darkness. Those who are towards the north there, in the west, see as it were a vapor, and persuade themselves that their Messiah is in it, and that he will shortly come out.5908.
ILLUSTRATION. That Divine truths are of such a nature that they are not perceived save by an enlightened person, and are rejected by an unenlightened one, was manifest to me from the following experience: The books about Heaven and about the Last Judgment were given to a certain spirit to read through, and examine as to whether what is therein is such that it can be printed in Holland and sold at a profit; as I believe he was one who had held such a post in Holland when he lived in the world. These are such that they are able to see very clearly whether they are of such a character: thus, too, whether they will be acknowledged as true, or rejected as false. He read them through, and said that he found in them such things as could be printed with every advantage; but, after some interval, he read them again, and said that they had no merit at all, and would be accepted by nobody. It was hence plain, that, the first time, he had been in enlightenment, and saw the things which were there from the light [lux] of heaven, but that the second time he saw them from a light [lux] resembling natural light [lux]. It was also manifest therefrom, that Divine Truths are in clearness, and are pleasing, when read in the light of heaven, and are in shade, and are consequently unpleasing, when in natural light [lux]: with other writing, to which the light [lux] of heaven is not necessary, it is different. The same books were given to another who was also of such a quality; and he gave an almost identical report.5909.
THE HOLY SUPPER AND LUTHER IN RELATION TO IT. Inquiry was made whether anyone from the Popish communion, or from a Christian people, when he partook of the Holy Supper, thought of the Lord's body and blood, according to the doctrinal; and all confessed that they did not, but only about the holiness which they are receiving. Papists also were questioned, and they said similarly, namely, that when they partake of the Sacrament of the Supper, they had not that material idea.5910.
Luther, also, was questioned, whether at such times he thought according to his doctrine, which is, that [the Lord's body and blood are] in, with and under [the bread and wine]. He said that he thought of the holiness, and not according to the doctrine. He stated, moreover, that he wished to think according to the doctrine, and that, as often as he was so impelled, he was tortured in mind, and, therefore, he never afterwards thought in that way.5911.
PERSUASION AND LUTHER. It was said by others that the affection of truth constitutes the Church with man; and the affection of truth cannot be given from the doctrine of those who are in faith alone, inasmuch as they have no doctrine of life. But the former ones replied that still they are in the affection of truth, namely, of their own truth as regards thought respecting those thing - not knowing that the affection of truth looks to life and not to thought only, nor yet knowing that that affection which looks to thought alone is the affection of its own glory, or of its own advantage, which, in relation to truths, is filthy, or, that the faith of that affection is either nothing, or is persuasive. Having heard these things, Luther rushed out of his dwelling, because their speech was pleasing to him, and he was at the time in the same [idea], and in such a persuasion5912.
that the thing was so, that the truths which teach could not be seen, because it [i. e., the persuasion] smothered the understanding of those who were at the same time in externals. They saw that it was false and that there was nothing of confirmation in it, thus nothing from rational light, but only from persuasion. He had contracted this through the circumstance, that he had believed that whatever he thought was indubitable, because in the world men followed him, and [his doctrines] were received in whole kingdoms, - and, thus, owing to the fire of glory: wherefore, no other reply was then given him, because nothing can be answered to such a persuasion until the persuasion is dispelled. There is no interior understanding; wherefore, he became a turtle dove as to countenance, peaked from the fore part of the brain towards the mouth; so that he appeared like. . . . . . . , 5912-1 at the mouth, as also he confessed. This occurred because he drew forth nothing. . . . . . . , [from] the will but only from thought.5913.
At length, when [his] persuasive [ardor] cooled down, I spoke to him about persuasion and persuasive faith, saying that it chokes the understanding of others, and that it also exists with evil men who have confirmed themselves in falsities; as, for example, who have confirmed themselves against the Divine in favor of nature. [Something] was said respecting the persuasion of such [ones], and respecting Nephilim; also, that persuasion does not exist with those who are in a genuine affection of truth, but that, in place of it, there is intellectual light, along with its reasons and confirmations, which are then simultaneously presented. It is different with those who are in persuasion; for, if their reasonings and confirmations were to go forth they would perish, for they are all opposed to heaven. Luther said that it is not allowed him to be in his persuasive, and that as often as he comes into it he is tormented, and therefore he desists; also, that when he apprehends that his persuasive may insinuate itself, he flees into a chamber where it is dispersed, but that still it is allowed him to confirm his own [doctrine] by reasonings. It was said that the reason this is so, is in order that those who come from the world, and are in a similar doctrine, may come to those who are in the like, and this according to the order of heaven.5914.
Afterwards, I said various things to him about the good of charity and faith therefrom, and this in intellectual light. On another occasion, also, I spoke for two hours; and, at that time, angelic spirits were associated with him, so that he might be able to perceive the things that were said; and then he acknowledged them, and confessed that he had been in falsity, but that he was not able to enter farther into these things, and this for the reason that he had confirmed himself in faith alone. He proceeded so far as to wish to make those things of his doctrine; which also he attempted, but in vain, since he was then entirely darkened as to his understanding, as also was told him. He was, therefore, removed; and there were taken away from him the angelic spirits who had been adjoined to him; and so he returned into his doctrine and into his natural lumen, consequently into his life wherein he had been before.5915.
Luther was fonder than others of arguing and of confirming by reasonings, and said that he rarely comes across such as were able to debate with him concerning his doctrinals; thus, lamenting that he was rarely able to be in that delight. It was, therefore, told him, that the reason he is such, is, because he hatched his dogmas from his thought, and also meditated continually about the connection of things with his principle; and that they who do so, love to argue, and to present and listen to, such things, in thought. The reason others are not like this, is, because they learn doctrinals, but do not ponder the connection of other things with the principle, except when they do it from others and not from themselves. They, therefore, do not let themselves into interior thought; for they who are only in confirmations of a dogma, and also let themselves into confirmations of the connection [of other things with it], not from themselves and from their own thought but from that of others, do not see them; and those who are learned think only of the confirmation of one thing; thus, they do not have the mind diffused to other things, like their leader. Besides this, the followers have thought but little about such things save when they have been preaching and teaching, and, in the interval, of worldly and bodily matter - he, however, continually, from morning even until evening: wherefore, as he said, when those come to him who are able to debate, they do not long stand against his reasonings, but, after a short stay, retire, because he wearied their thoughts.5916.
Still, he is preserved, although he had been in falsities of doctrine, because he, still, spoke much in his conversation about the good of life, and thus because he had been, notwithstanding, in some good of life. He was told, also, that, as often as he had been in the good of speech and of life, he had not thought from his doctrinal respecting faith alone which happens also with others, as has been proved by various experiences.5917.
THERE ARE TWO STATES OF MAN, ESPECIALLY OF A LEARNED MAN. With men who teach and who reason about Divine truths, there are two states; one when they are teaching and thinking from doctrine, the other when they think in themselves apart from doctrine. While they are in the former state, they are [not] then in a state from themselves, because only in thought from doctrine; and, as long as they are in this state, they know nothing else than that the things they are saying are true: at such times, they take the things they say from the memory. But, when they are in the second state, they are then in themselves; and they think from their will, or love, consequently from their life; and then they do not think anything from their doctrinal. This state is the proper one of a man's spirit, because he thinks from his will, or from his love, therefore from his life: the former state is not his proper one, because it is apart from the will, which constitutes the very life. After death, therefore, a man remains such as was his second state, because that state is the state of his life; but the former is not the proper state of the man, because this state is merely a state of thought from the memory. In the latter state, the former state is laid asleep; and, in that state, he is urged to speak as he then does by the love of fame. Many examples may be given of those, who, in their proper state, have thought against the Divine and against all things of the Church, but, in the former state, while they were preaching, have thought nothing else than that the truth really is as they [then] declared.5918.
With those, who are in the doctrinals respecting faith alone, and still in some good of life, there are also two states. When they are in their doctrinals, they are then in their light [lumen], and as it were in their wakefulness, being in the enjoyment of talking about the affairs of the Church; but when they are by themselves, and think within themselves, then, inasmuch as they are in some dim good of life, their ideas are also in shade, and then comparatively, as it were, in a sleep; for they then think, apart from the doctrinal ground, that the good of life saves man. This was the case with Luther. He was in the joy of his life when he was able to argue, and the more sharply, the greater his delight; but, when he thought within himself, apart from a doctrinal ground, he was in obscurity, and then he pondered about life.5919.
THE LORD [AS CONCEIVED] AMONG THE AFRICANS. The Africans with whom there is a revelation, do not know, respecting the Lord, that He was born a man; but they know that God is a man, and say that He Himself created Himself Man. On hearing this, it was granted me to talk with Africans; to whom it was stated, that it is true that Jehovah Himself created Himself Man, because from His own proper Power, He had made His Human Divine.5920.
MELANCTHON AND THE PERSUASIVE [FACULTY]; ALSO CALVIN. THE ORIGIN OF THE LEEK. I conversed with Melancthon, and a little with Calvin but the latter withdrew, because he was not such [as Melancthon] for he led a Christian life; but Melancthon confirmed himself in faith alone, and was scarcely willing to hear of charity and the good thereof - wherefore, his thought was full of things of such a kind, and hence he acquired a Persuasive, which, indeed, was not strong, but still such that it extinguished intellectual life in others, so that they were not then able to see truths in any light, as previously; and, as his species of persuasion, which appeared snow-white, was of such a nature, therefore, when he was not able to convince people concerning faith alone by arguments, he fixed his eyes upon them, and directed his Persuasive into their eyes, and thus they were unable to bring forth anything in opposition to him. They told him, however, that this is an artifice, in order that they may not perceive what they did before. He, therefore, went away from them, knowing well that he employed such artifice. Wherefore some complained of him. He also directed such Persuasive into us, and in a similar way endeavored to overshadow the light of truth;5921.
but, as this was perceived, it was said that the Persuasive is of such a nature, and that in the spiritual world it is wholly forbidden to speak from the Persuasive, but from reason, and so from truths themselves. To these observations he replied, that he knows how to present such Persuasive. Wherefore, as it was forbidden, he was conducted hither and thither, in order that this Persuasive might be taken away from him; but he was for some time protected by those who were in a similar situation with him - whereby they, also, were separated from others. He came to me in his persuasion, and there exhaled from him as it were the smell of leeks [hvitlok 5921-1], and the pungency strongly affected the left eye. Hence was evident to which ones the smell of leeks corresponds. I also spoke with him about the Persuasive, saying, that it is given in connection with those things which belong to the Church, and also which are opposed to it; also, about the hell of the Nephilim, of what kind their Persuasive was; likewise, that some of the Papist communion, who are in the Persuasive of their religion, are cast therein: and so forth. It was also stated that all who employ persuasion are rejected, and, for the greater part, [are cast] into that hell and round about in that region but that those who are able to refrain suffer great severities.5922.
Melancthon stayed for several days after this, and was behind, at the left. He was partial to places from whence his life was somewhat communicated; and it was then evident that he has been a hypocrite, for he induced great pain in the temple and teeth, on both sides, respecting which I spoke with some, who said that he declared that he loves the life of good and also leads it; when, notwithstanding, from his principle of religion, he utterly rejected it. It was also said that he preached, several times, and, when it was about faith alone, that the Church was not willing to listen to such things as he said; wherefore, he had refrained from preaching in that manner.5923.
It was next shown, how he procured for himself communication with heaven by abuse of correspondences, [namely], that he extended some red thing in front above the forehead, as it were, [concealed], 5923-1 and that he made it into various forms, whereby, a communication being established, he spoke with certain ones there, and was rebuked, because such a thing was magical; besides similar things. Other like things, also, were projected into the air. He said that he ascended into that heaven, and that when he came thither, he saw nothing; but, when his eyes were opened, he saw magnificent things, but that he was immediately compelled to descend. This was permitted, in order that he might know what heaven is like, because he had thought deeply about it. But, after some days, he began to act in unison with the malignant who secretly infested me, by instigating those who were above to persist therein; wherefore, he was next cast back among those who are in faith alone and dispute from falsities, where there is gnashing of teeth.5924.
THE LORD [AS CONCEIVED] AMONG THE PAPISTS. I conversed with a certain one respecting the Lord, as to whether he has thought about the Lord's Divine: he said that as often as he was in doctrine with discernment, he knew the Lord's Divine was equal to the Divine of the Father. Thereupon, inquiry was made of the Papists, whether they have thought about the Lord's Divine. They replied, that they had not; and, when it was urged that yet this is of their doctrine, they turned away. The reason that they do not reflect about the Lord's Divine, is because they have transferred all His Divine to themselves, saying, that that power was conferred upon His Human, by the Father, and not by Himself; and, even if conferred by Himself, that the Divine was in the Human Itself as the soul in the body, and that they were not then able to separate them.5925.
THOSE WHO ARE IN GOOD AND NOT IN TRUTHS. There were certain ones on high, who might have been supposed to be among the angels; but they turned themselves away as often as they perceived truths arising from affection, and then, at the same time, countenanced the diabolical crew, which was beneath, by consenting with them. By this they were detected and they were cast down. They were capable of being among the lowest in the heavenly Kingdom, if they can be separated from the diabolical. Their quality was exhibited, by the turning of the hinder part of the head [towards us]; and that part appeared extremely becoming on account of the hair being as it were combed, by which good was signified; but they were not willing to show the face, saying, that they are unwilling to do this, because the face is hideous. It was stated by others, that their face was almost a monstrosity, from protuberances and lumps. Hence it was evident, that the intellectual conjoined with the voluntary appears in the face. [This was] a proof that they were averse from knowledges.5926.
FAITH. I spoke in the presence of Melancthon concerning faith alone, that a spirit is not a spirit save from his good or evil, and that his whole bulk is as are his goods and evils, both as to the face, and as to the body, and the speech; for from the speech is heard what he is; and that thus he has faith in the same degree that he has good; but of what degree and quality he is as to life, was also shown by living experience. Of what kind his spirit is, was shown - which can take place in the spiritual world - and then his whole inward nature appeared such as it is, as regards good; and it was also then shown that he has no more faith than as much as proceeds from his good, and that the residue which he called faith, is in front outside of him, as it were in the skin. Many said this; and a certain one who previously believed that faith alone does exist, and salvation thereby, advancing, cried out that he now saw that no one has more faith than he has charity. Wherefore, they [i.e. such spirits as Melancthon] should be called cutaneous spirits.5927.
THE LORD. I conversed with angels about the Lord, saying, that His Divine was from eternity, for the doctrine of the Church from the Word teaches, that He was born of the Father from eternity. Hence it might follow that He was not conceived by the Father, but that He was conceived by His own Divine, and thus could not be termed, in the world, the Son of God, but His own Son.5928.
THOSE WHO MAKE THE LUTHERAN RELIGION OF THE LIFE. There are a few who make the Lutheran religion of life for they have no doctrine of life, but of faith alone; but, still, those make that religion of life who think, from faith, that, after they are justified, nothing of evil is imputed to them, and that good of life contributes nothing to salvation. These, when, from faith, they frequently think thus about the acts of their life, make that religion of the life, and it is ill with them in the other life; nor can they be amended, inasmuch as the spirit is such as the man was, in respect to life from faith. There was a certain one who underwent a certain temptation, and, in consequence thereof, thought thus about his evils, and made no account of good. He became such that he was incapable of receiving any truth: wherefore, he was separated from the rest. He was in a society of the good, and dwelt in the boundaries there; and when he came towards the middle, they perceived annoyance, as it were an impediment to thinking about good.5929.
THE INFLUX OF THOSE THAT ARE IN EVIL, WHO ARE ON HIGH, INTO THE DRAGONS BENEATH. That the evil, by means of phantasies, also ascend on high, and then believe that they are in heaven, has been stated many times already; for of these consisted the former heaven, which perished. Those are in these places who look down to the lower parts, and also some who do not look down. Both sorts like the places, there, because those who infest the upright, and commit disgraceful acts, are diametrically beneath. Since these things are of their love, and they have a communication with those who are diametrically beneath, therefore such places are agreeable to them. These they choose: they go to them in order that they may be in their delight. Some of them know that such things are beneath. These are they who look down. Some do not know, because they do not look down; but, still, they are then sensible of the delight, and love to stay above the place; and then, at the same time, they cast down an abominable influx of the affection, or love, of such things, and thus inject it into abominable affections and thoughts; but they who have not been in such things in the world, are removed from such abominable influx by the Lord, for, on a higher level, things act very extensively into lower things. Wherefore, as such ones had constituted the former heaven so-called, they were all cast out. Those who have been in faith alone, or in no doctrine, but merely knew something of the sense of the letter of the Word, cast down a sphere of abominable adultery with an aunt, and with a daughter-in-law; which adultery is from the lowest hell, with which they have a communication.5930.
HOW SPIRITS ARE EXPLORED BY BEING TURNED ROUND. When any spirit comes into a good society, investigation is then made, in various ways, as to what he is; and also by turning him round, so that it is seen what he looks like in front, or as to the face, and what he looks like as to the back part of the head; and if he looks as it were becoming as to the back part of the head, he is then received. The reason is, because the face may deceive, but not the back of the head; for it is into the back of the head that the affections which are of the love inflow. Wherefore a spirit is manifested as to his love, in the back of the head. But there are spirits who know how to deceive others, by the artifice of turning the back of the head to a good society with which they have procured to themselves communication. Wherefore such a one then appears as it were becoming, even as regards the back of the head; but, if the same spirit be turned round to the other side of them, so as not to be able to turn the back of the head at the time to that society, he then appears such as he is.5931.
HOW THAT WHICH IS FROM HEAVEN IS RECEIVED BY THOSE OF THE CHURCH AT THE PRESENT DAY. I heard that many have looked into my books on heaven and hell, etc., and yet have not been satisfied: wherefore, they leave them alone; when, nevertheless, they are arcana of heaven. As I wondered at this, many Christians now in the world, differing as respects life, were instanced: some who do not care for such things; some who care little; some who are in worldly pursuits, which they prefer; some who attend churches only from habit - some one way and some another - and it was discovered that there are very few who receive anything which is from heaven; and that many nauseate and reject it; so that this is the character of men in the Church, at the present day.5932.
THE STATE OF THOSE IN HELL. It was granted to see into a certain hell, where they were not so very evil. I saw many there in a chamber towards the front, and another chamber within, leading out of which was an apartment for a judge, who was there alone. Thither came a certain one . . . . 5932-1 a lover of self; and when he came thither he placed himself upon a kind of throne, believing that he was admitted there in order that he might be the judge; but the crowd, there, went behind the throne, and some crawled across beneath the throne, along the length and breadth, in consequence of which he became, as it were, invisible, not only to me, but also to himself, and almost insensible. He knew only that he was there. They also made fun of him, by sitting near him and over him. At length, the judge came out of his room, and seated himself upon that throne at the right-hand side, and there then appeared as it were a fieriness in the right cheek, and then in the left cheek also; which was a sign, not only that he was the judge but also that he would administer judgment. He inquired whether anyone had committed evil. Some were arraigned and sentenced to punishment. The rest were commended and let go. The judge tolerated everything as regards making fun and having their jokes, only they must not do evil to anyone. They fear him exceedingly, because he possesses power. It was also seen, in what manner they seek out those who do evil, and, when they discover them, keep them in restraint. They go with a sort of banner of a round form, which shades of from dark to white; and with this they make search. They are thus led to those who do evil; and they let down that banner upon such a one, and he then lies under it, nor can he stir from thence, and this even until he has been judged. This hell, however, was among the milder ones.5933.
SIGNS OF THE CONJUNCTION OF A MAN WITH HEAVEN Nobody can be conjoined with heaven, and therefore with the Divine, save by such things as are of the Word, and thence of the Church. A man who is not in these, no matter how morally, that is, sincerely and justly, he lives, still has no conjunction with heaven. The reason is, because man becomes spiritual solely by the things which are of the Word and the Church; and all who are in the heavens are spiritual. To become spiritual, is not only to know those things, and to speak of them, but also to be affected therewith, thus to live according to them. The life of a man according to these things, and for the sake of them, makes the man spiritual: then, first, is there effected with him a conjunction with heaven; but, if a man act sincerely and justly for reasons pertaining to the world, gain and honors, and on account of the civil laws, he does not become spiritual, because the end he proposed to himself is worldly and bodily; and the justice and sincerity derive their existence and essence from that, which is not spiritual, but worldly and bodily. By much experience it has become certain to me, that they who have not, by goods and truths carried right into the life, acquired for themselves spiritual life, are not admitted into heaven, because they have no conjunction, but that they are rejected. This, too, every one may see by intuition from natural light alone, namely, that nobody can be conjoined with the spiritual, thus with the angels, unless he be spiritual; and that nobody can become spiritual save by the goods and truths of the Church; also, that knowing those things and talking about them is not spiritual, but living according to them, inasmuch as nothing enters into a man save what is of his thought, from affection or love. To these observations must be added, that nobody can become spiritual unless he acknowledge the Lord's Divine. Everyone must have knowledge of his God in order that he may be conjoined with heaven; for the Divine of the Lord is what constitutes heaven. Wherefore, the first of the Church, is to acknowledge the Divine of the Lord, and that apart from Him there is no salvation.5934.
THE LORD ALONE DOES EVERYTHING IN THE HEAVENS AND ON EARTH FROM HIS OMNIPOTENCE. THAT THE EVIL WERE ABOVE. There were some who ascribed the Lord's power in ultimates to men, to those who are in faith in Him; and very many were in this notion; many societies, also, above me, on heights and places still higher; but it was shown that the Lord alone effects the thing, and not in the least man. He also filled many in the lowest places, and for the most part such as were in evil and in a pernicious faith, with His Divine in ultimates. These, in like manner, acted in agreement with the ultimate Divine; and He thus cast down many societies in the higher places, as also they saw. I also saw that [it was done] independently of me. They believed from this that all were capable of being saved, even those who are in hell; but it was stated that they are not, because then they would not be in the freedom of thinking, willing and acting, consequently not in their life. It was shown that the Lord's Divine power in ultimates can fill those who were in knowledge respecting the Lord, although in a pernicious faith. They who are not in this knowledge, are not able to receive. Hence it was manifest, that it is the Lord's omnipotence alone which does a thing, and not in the least man, spirit or angel; also, that it is His Divine in ultimates, because He made His whole Human, even to the ultimates, Divine. What I wondered at, was, that not only those who were almost directly overhead were in evils and made one with the wicked round about, but also those who were above them, and also those who were still higher, as far as the third and fourth degrees of height. The worst were those who were highest. Here they were entirely in favor of hell, and said that the Devil rather than the Lord has power. They who were next below these, said that the Father possesses all the power, and not the Lord, not otherwise acknowledging a Divine of the Lord [than] so much as He receives from the Father; also, that now He receives nothing, because He wishes to possess all things. These, when dispersed, appeared to be dispersed into nature; by which was shown that they acknowledged nature as the Father, and so forth.5935.
VASTATION. After a spirit has completed his time in the world of spirits, he at length arrives at the last [period], which is his vastation. He then appears, for the most part, such as he was in the world, and is set at liberty to go whither he pleases; and thus he reaches a place where all conjunction with anything spiritual is taken away. He thus becomes, as it were, silly, and casts himself into hell.5936.
WOMEN WHO PREACH. Women who think in the way men do on religious subjects, and talk much about them, and still more if they preach in meetings, do away with the feminine nature, which is affectional; owing to which they must be with married men: they also become material, so that affection perishes and their interiors are closed. They also begin to develop a tendency, as regards the thoughts, to take up with crazes; which takes place because the affection, being then destroyed, causes the intellectual to be crazy. In outward form, indeed, they are still able to appear like other women. In a word, they become sensual in the last degree. Woman belongs to the home; and she [becomes] of a different nature where [she engages in] preaching.5937.
THE LAST JUDGMENT UPON THE REFORMED. This lasted for a considerable time, for the reason that they have the Word; and they were cast out in various modes. Most of them who were not before cast into hells or raised up into heaven, climbed on high, upon some mountains, where there were many expanses, and all there who gazed about or looked through, were cast away from that place, part into by-ways roundabout and below, and part into hells. They continually formed leagues, so that twenty, fifty, or a hundred societies leagued themselves together: one crew with one lust, another with another. Some of the confederacies were discovered and cast down, and this even to myriads. Some of the confederacies appeared like bundles which were cut asunder with knives and pincers. On being cut asunder, they were unrolled as of themselves. Some confederacies were rolled up like parchments, and were unrolled. Some were borne across like clouds. Some fell down into the abyss. The greatest part betook themselves from thence, by marching into hells; and so with much variety. They who were at the back, lay in wait for the affections and the thoughts therefrom - for the most part when there was a state of despair anywhere; where, also, similar things occurred: and so forth.5938.
PAPISTS WHO WISHED TO BETAKE THEMSELVES TO THE CHRISTIAN WORLD. Many of the Babylonish crew burned to kill the Reformed, dispatching to them spies, whom they sustained from their places; and this in various modes by forming leagues. But they were punished most grievously, by the destroying of everything human and by being rent asunder, and were thus cast into hell. But yet, even so, they are scarcely deterred; for they burn with the passion of destroying all the Reformed; which passion burns very fiercely with them at the present day.5939.
THERE ARE MANY THINGS WHICH BRING ABOUT WHOREDOMS AND ADULTERIES. All degrees of criminality correspond to such things as are spiritual sins. I will mention two. Those who are in faith alone and do not trouble about life, produce adultery with an aunt, and with a mother. At the presence of these [spirits], such a thought occurs. Those who worship piously and devoutly in churches, and at such times think solely about God, and not about life - to these adulteries with a sister correspond. Such a thought occurs at their presence. Another execrable adultery [is produced] by those who talk much about God, and yet have no scruples about cheating men, and, if they could, about robbing them of their possessions. These, in their place, commit adultery with their maids, whom they change frequently, and thus with whomsoever they please. Those who are in the love of self, and whose love is to rule over others, are Sodomites.5940.
ALL THINGS FROM THE SPIRITUAL WORLD ARE AFFECTIONS WHICH ARE OF LOVE. There were spirits with me, who were in thought as to what faith and love are; but, for an hour's time which passed they thought respecting affection, which is love, in this wise: that the universal heaven is arranged according to the variety thereof, and also everyone of the societies there among themselves; also, all and everyone of the things which are with man, in his understanding; consequently all things of the body, because these are material forms belonging to the will, and hence to the understanding; moreover, that there is nothing at all else, which lives and forms and acts; consequently, that there is no faith at all apart from it, since faith apart from it is formed from the affection which is of the love of self and the world, and then it forms that faith as it does worldly scientifics, and reigns over it in a similar way; for it produces it in a like manner. Hence it is, that there is with them nothing of truth, no rational sight, nor aught of life, in the things which pertain to the Church. It was also ascertained that the varieties of affections which are of love, are indefinite and manifold, and that few come to the knowledge of man; also, that the government of the Lord's Providence is through them, thus through good into truth, or through affection into thought.5941.
THOSE WHO ARE IN THE CELESTIAL KINGDOM, AND THE GENII. Those become of that sort who do not reflect upon any subject, but sometimes remain as if they do not think, and suppose that, if they do not reflect upon the matter, they do not think at all. At such a time, the affections which are of their love are varied without their perceiving it; which also appears in the changes of their minds, and sometimes in their faces. In consequence of this, they believe that they do not think at all. With those who are in the spiritual love of truth, which is perceived by delight in listening to preachings and other [disquisitions] upon the truths of Word, of Heaven, and of the Church, - when these think, good affections from the Lord through heaven are varied, and perfected daily, they being ignorant of the fact and according to these they live. But with those who are in the love of self and of the world, evil affections, which are numerous and antagonistic to the neighbor, are varied; these become genii. The first and last named perceive a delight in sitting as it were without thought; this is their repose and refreshment. They are also able to think from the understanding if they see anything, but not with penetration; also from the memory of such things as have met their sight, but not about matters of faith. When they are together they also speak but little; and when they wish to say anything, they first exhibit it in dumb show: for instance, if they are going anywhere, they first go to a place which looks thither, and point, and afterwards say. They show many things by representatives: as, for example, when they meet with anyone spiritual, they represent a ship with such things as correspond: if that spiritual person is crafty and evil, they surround the ship with serpents. So in a thousand ways.5941a.
THOSE WHO ACKNOWLEDGE THE FATHER ONLY, AND PASS BY THE LORD, ARE TURNED TO THE LOVES OF THE BODY AND OF THE WORLD. All persons whatsoever, in the other life, are fixedly turned to their loves, thus either to the loves of heaven, or to the loves of hell. Those who acknowledge the Father only and not the Lord, inasmuch as these cannot think about the Father under any form, are unable to be turned by the Lord to Himself. Hence there was with them a looking around on every side, which is contrary to order. Wherefore, they can only be turned to the loves of the body and the world. They were likewise turned thus, in the life of their body and, for that reason, they have not any religion in their spirit. Some look above them, in the sky overhead, or the zenith, at one, as it were a man, whom they say is the Father; but these also are in like manner without determination [of loves]; wherefore, they who have lived well are turned by little and little to the Lord, as a sun, or as a moon, but those who have lived ill are rejected. Determinations to loves are all in the face. Sometimes those who are turned to the Lord are remitted into the idea of a God overhead; and then they are not in intelligence, but in a sort of stupidity. The greatest part are at such times in ideas of natural thought.5942.
INFLUX. I have perceived, with others as well [as myself], an influx sometimes of sadness, at others of cheerfulness; and have perceived that there were spirits beneath, who sought out whatever of sadness is with me, and spoke of those things to each other. Moreover, I have heard it. And hence the undelightfulness that was with me formerly, was perceived in me as undelightful [at these times]; and so forth.5943.
THE SPEECH OF ANGELS, EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR. I have been in company with the angels, and it has been granted to become acquainted with their speech by experience. There are four kinds of speech, like as there are four kinds of angels: a material speech of visible objects, and an interior speech of visual things; which are speeches of the understanding, or of the thought. There is a speech of the affections of the body, and a speech of the affections of the heart; which are speeches of the will, or of the affection. Some who were able to be in the speech of the affections of the body, conversed with me, and expressed my affections when relating to the body, in suitable terms; at which I was astonished that they were able to express these in terms, and perfectly suitable ones, and the exterior and interior affections of the body without exception. They were delightful and charming, and conjoined with many affections which were expressed. Certain spirits from a distance heard and understood; but I, being in the natural [state], did not hear the words, but I perceived the affections which they uttered in the words. This speech cannot be understood by those who are in the visible things only, as they also said. But it was told them that there is also a speech of the heart, which is a speech of love to the Lord. These afterwards spoke with the former ones, and said that they did not hear, nor were they able to hear the words, but that they perceived the things which they uttered, from affection, as I did when the former ones spoke. Regarding the former speech, it was said that it was indeed similar to the speech of visual things, as regards the words which the letters compose, but still that each letter is uttered differently, namely, according to the affection; and that there is also this difference, that other words are unintelligible to those who are in visual things alone. But the speech of visual things consists in speaking and expressing those things which are seen by the eyes, and describing them, and this according to visual and intellectual ideas; for example, houses, palaces, gardens, men's clothing, and many other things. This speech is both exterior and interior. The exterior is material or sensual; the interior is natural, or intellectual. I afterwards heard spirits conversing with angels of the interior heaven. They said that they heard speech with the ears, but yet did not comprehend, because things which were of interior wisdom were expressed by their words, and, inasmuch as they did not understand these, therefore neither did they the words.5944.
THE TREE OF KNOWLEDGE. Few are aware what their having sinned against God by eating of the tree of knowledge signifies; and they who are spiritual are not able to know this, but only those know who are celestial. This was made clear by the following considerations: (1) For instance, anyone is able to think well from the analytical faculty implanted in every man, and from its rules, which are innumerable; and afterwards he desires to think from metaphysical and logical rules: immediately he, in thinking, [wishes] to think of these, and afterwards from them, his former faculty perishes. (2) In like manner, when anyone is able to bear himself with propriety, so that nothing is deficient: if he afterwards learns the rules of etiquette from science, and regulates his conduct, and moves his body and face, according to this, then his natural faculty perishes, and he regulates himself from simulation belonging to proprium. (3) The case is similar if an excellent dancer afterwards wishes to learn rules, and dances according to them; still more if he wishes to dance according to a knowledge of the muscles. (4) In a word, so far as a man wishes to think and act from science, which resides in the memory, so far he acts from his intellectual proprium but so far as he does so from affection, so far it is from a different origin. As respects truth and good, so far as he thinks, wills and does these things from science, which is of the memory, thus from mere mechanical compliance, so far he acts from the intellectual proprium, thus from evil: the proprium is evil. (5) It is hence manifest, that, so far as a man is led by the Lord, so far he is led by affection within him, and by means of innumerable laws almost all of which are unknown: if he, then, desires to act from science, at that moment, the former faculty, which is from the Lord's Divine influx, perishes, and there exists a state from proprium, which is from evil. (6) This is meant by the Lord's words: "Let your speech be yea, or nay; what is beyond, is from evil."5945.
FAITH IS OF CHARITY, AND AS TO ESSENCE IS CHARITY. I have been in conversation with certain Englishmen. It was believed that in the world they were Bishops. I spoke to them about faith and charity. They supposed, from the opinion they had adopted in the world, that faith could be given without charity; also, that faith was prior to charity, because [the latter was] from it: [we conversed] also of other matters relating to justification by faith. Their discourse was exceedingly clever. They said that faith could be given without charity, not only because doctrinals from the Word can be believed in; for example, that [a man can] believe that there is a God, that the Word is Divine, and the like; which, except they were believed, they could not have been received by man, in life and heart; for unless there be faith, said they, how can they be received; wherefore, they enter by faith, and unless there were faith they would not enter. Hence, also, they concluded that faith can be given without charity, and that if faith can be given without it, it is saving [without it]; since man is then led through that, by God, away from evil and in good; so that there is then the presence of God, which they declared to be justification by faith alone. But it was shown them to the life, that there was no faith, unless there were at the same time charity, but what they believed to be faith, is, manifestly, merely the knowledges that there is a God, a Divine Word, and many more; and that knowledges, although they appear as it were of faith, still are not of faith; also, that these are the first things with man, and that they do not become of faith, before man is in charity. They appear as if believed, but yet, interiorly, they are not believed; and, therefore, the faith of these things gradually recedes as the man begins to think and will wickedly, and they also themselves recede from the man's spirit after death, because they were not rooted in charity. It was also shown that that faith is what is called historical faith; which is that a thing is believed to be so, because one of whom they held the opinion that he was learned had said so. Such a thing, also, is foreign to the man himself; for that which is another's in oneself is not one's own. And, moreover, there are things unknown, which, as they stated, must be believed notwithstanding that they are not understood. From this it was manifest to them, for the first time, that these things were not of faith, but merely knowledges, and that knowledges were the beginnings by means of which faith is, because charity is. But they repeatedly insisted, for a long time, that it is still faith, and that it ought to be prior to charity, and if prior, that it is therefore in God. But it was shown to the life that charity and faith were a one and so far as man is in charity, so far is he in faith, and thus that they both, namely, faith and charity, exist together; but, since faith as to essence is charity, exactly as truth as to essence is good, therefore, so much of truth as has life, consequently as is in man, or appropriated to him, so much is there of good, which is the conjunction of these into one. This truth is only the form of good; for good, while it exists in shape and form, is called faith; consequently, one does not exist without the other. Whether you say faith, or truth, it is the same thing, and whether you say good or charity, it is the same thing; moreover, this is as it is with man's thought and affection. Thinking apart from affection is impossible; for the very essence of thought is affection. Man can, indeed, think whatever he knows, but this is from natural affection, which is the affection of glory, of reputation and of honor. This affection, however, does not cause the thought to become spiritual; but there must be spiritual affection, which is called charity. Besides, so far as man is in charity, so far is he enlightened and sees the truths which are of faith. These he acknowledges from illustration, but never from natural affection - concerning which above - from which if he acknowledge them, it is by virtue of the light of confirmations, which light counterfeits the light of truth, but is an illusory light, for by it falsities can be acknowledged equally with truths; for example, that there is no God, and that the Word is not Divine. The evil who are of such a quality, and have confirmed themselves in those falsities, appear to themselves to see them as in the light. Such light is there with those who have confirmed in themselves that faith alone is saving. Moreover, the faith of charity, or the faith which as to its essence is charity, is continually perfected by such things as confirm; for it always sees many more truths from spiritual light, and these all conjoin themselves to the good of charity, and perfect it. They who are in natural, but not in any spiritual faith, believe that it is easy to receive faith, if not in the world, at any rate in the other life, saying, Can I not believe as soon as I hear and see that it is so? Thus do many of them think in themselves; but after the life in the world, the same persons, if they have not received spiritual faith by a life of charity in the world, are incapable of ever receiving it afterwards, as may be plainly manifest from this, that all persons whatsoever who come from the world, are at first adjoined to good spirits and angels, and instructed in every manner, and they [i.e. those spirits and angels] say, show, and confirm by ocular demonstration that a thing is so; but, yet, not one of them receives it; they reject it as in the world, for the reason that [their] faith is not in them, but outside them. Besides, if anyone were able to believe in the other life when he hears and sees, then would all be saved; which is also a proof that there is no faith unless there be life, or charity. It should be known, moreover, that, so long as man is in knowledges only, and not in any life according to them, he is in his proprium and led by self; but, when he is in a life according to them - and to the same extent - he is elevated out of his proprium, and is led by the Lord. This man does not perceive, but still it is so; and so far as man is led by the Lord, so far is there good in him, or good is what he wills and thinks. But it should be thoroughly known, that nobody can live according to the knowledges from the Word, except from them he reflect upon his thoughts, intentions and deeds, that is, examine himself, and abstain from evils and do good as from himself: otherwise, there is no reception by man; and if there is no reception, there is no conjunction with the Lord; therefore, neither can he be led by the Lord.5946.
THE AFRICANS. I was brought by the Lord, through changes of state which went on for about half an hour, in a southerly direction, as far as to the wiser African sort; and it was granted me to converse with them about various matters; and from my discourse with them, it was granted me to perceive that they knew the truths of the Church in themselves. They ran over the things which I knew, and stated that they knew all these, and more. I imagined that they were of those who indeed perceive the truths of the Church when they hear others [utter them], but still do not talk about them; but it was noticed that these likewise speak of them. I also spoke to them about the knowledges which are representatives and correspondences. Of these they knew little; but it was shown them what these contribute to wisdom and happiness - to wit, when they are conjoined. Various things were pointed out respecting that matter, which things also delighted them much. I was also informed where their best ones are, namely, at the side towards the sea, [occupying] more than half of the region, with almost this form: [Map of Africa] namely, the best of them are in the whole tract, D E, but the worse are towards the Mediterranean Sea, H, and at the Cape of Good Hope, F; so that the kingdoms of the best are D E; but they who are towards D B, that is, towards Asia, are not wise, and are infested by those who come thence, because they speak things which they do not perceive. It is like this almost to C; and those who are still worse are towards A, where Egypt is. They stated that in that great tract D E they all worship the Lord, and are taught by many who communicate with the angels of heaven; that the communication is not through speech by the angels, but through interior perception; and that these are their instructors, whom they perfectly discriminate from all others. They also stated that those from Europe are not admitted to them; and that if they come thither, and are not willing to be their servants, they are sent away from there, by a road at B, and that they are sold by them, in order that thus they may be safe from infestations. When any of the Papal religion come there, they say that they are saints; but they are immediately examined, and they perceive that they know nothing about truth, still less perceive it; wherefore, they are either not admitted, or are sent towards Asia, like the rest. Next they received the Word and read it; and on reading it they perceived nothing of holiness at first, but afterwards more and more of holiness; and then they gave it to their instructors, who said that they have it but have not disclosed the fact. The instructors stated that they dictated it to the men in Africa with whom they have communication, just as the Lord guides [them]. Hence it is evident that there is now a revelation there. Afterwards, also, the work on Heaven and Hell was given to them, which they likewise accepted and preserved; in like manner, also, the ones on The Last Judgment and on The Earths in the Universe, and likewise those on The White Horse, and, lastly, The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, - in order that they may take thence those things which they consider useful. Tranquillity prevailed there because they were in order. Certain ones attended on Christians, with whom is the Word, and observed that they perceive nothing of truth from good; and they were led to certain Englishmen, and perceived that they do not receive it; a few [do so] from a certain intelligence, but scarcely anyone from perception. Furthermore, I was conducted in spirit to others in Africa; and this region is known to Europeans, and in the maps is called Ethiopia, where a noble race dwell in tents.5947.
INFLUX OF THE WORD INTO HEAVEN, AND COMMUNICATION WITH THE GENTILES [gentibus]. Africans who dwelt in Abyssinia, belonging to Africa, were with me; and it was stated that there are in that land many psalms composed by a pious man, which are sung in their churches, which psalms were written in a style similar to that of the Word; and as the spirits from that country were unaware that our Word had an influx into heaven, their ears were opened to hear a certain psalm being sung in a church of theirs on earth; and it was granted me to hear also. They sang about the one God, the redeemer of the human race; and those spirits were then touched with affection of heart to sing it in like manner. And presently their ears were closed, so that they might not hear the singing of those from the earth - which still continued; and then the spirits were affected with great joy from the singing. They said that they have such joy sometimes and intelligence also, but were unconscious that it was from that source. It is similar, also, with the Word. I also perceived at that time, by communication, the joy of the angels who are in the Christian heaven; from which it was manifest that there was a communication of the whole of heaven, originating in the Christian Heaven where the Word is; and, thus, that it is the Word from which are wisdom and interior joy. The communication is like the communication of light, and like the communication of all the viscera in the human body from the heart and lungs.5948.
THE LAST JUDGMENT UPON THE REFORMED; ALSO, PIETY. The judgment upon the Reformed lasted a long time, inasmuch as, through the Word, they had communication with the angels of heaven. Therefore, the bringing of them into order continued a long while, - and also because there is communication thence from them with the nations roundabout, for light is diffused thence. All of them who did not possess a delight of some use, since they could not otherwise than permit their thoughts to wander roundabout and be determined to evils, were unable to be in society with others; for the Lord inflows into the delight of every single good use. On this account, all these longed to go forth from the society where they were, and to look about them and communicate with the evil; wherefore, they all went forth from the societies, and, as soon as they were outside their society, they began to hold communication with the evil and to plot various evils. They were, therefore, cast out; and this continued a long time. Amongst them were also very many who have led a life of piety, and hence believed that they ought to be received into heaven in preference to others; but as they have not loved any use, they also were cast out in troops. They were detected by the fact, that, when they inspired into my back, they inflicted a fluctuating pain, and a varying palpitation in the breast, both on the pulse of the heart and that of the lungs. Amongst them were Aulaevill and Rosenstolpe; and the latter, as he had acted unjustly for friendship's sake, and persisted in so doing, inflicted pain in the temple, in the surrounding bones, and also somewhat in the teeth. He was completely natural. Aulaevill was still more so. They who have led a life of piety, and have had for their doctrine that charity is everything, and have, nevertheless, lived without performing uses, merely praying piously, attending church and the like - these produced pain in the right arm, and the right great shoulder-blade; and struggled up higher than others. They were cast out in troops. They were full of indignation that their piety and charity were of no avail. I suffered many things from the latter and from the former; and all of them, according to their delights of the love of self and the world and according to their delights of doing evils, were cast down into lower places, where they at length reject piety. The separation of Papists from the Reformed, also, occupied a long time; and to all and each of them ways were appointed along which they should go to their societies. The main point of all was the arranging in order according to the idea of the Divine, and the arranging of the good according to the idea of the Lord. This was ascertained in various ways. Those who have called themselves "sons of God" and "brothers of the Lord," were driven out, and were taught that it is unbecoming to say and believe thus; but that they may be so called by the Lord, and not say it themselves for they are all servants.5949.
THE RUSSIANS. Czar Peter was seen, and I spoke with him in a dream. He afterwards appeared among the Russians, and then was shown of what quality the Russians are. Since they believe that he has power over their lives and their professions, so that they are not theirs but are his - as they also acknowledge in his presence - I heard them with the Czar, who said that all things of theirs are his, since the country is his. I contended, however, that they are not his, and that their riches are not his, but theirs - also that he has no right over their lives; but that, in proportion as they give of their means, to that extent [are they entitled] to the protection of the kingdom, and no farther; and that their life is from the Lord, and that they are under the law, and the Czar, also, is under it. It was also shown, that, when the Czar wanted to possess all their belongings, they give him even everything: they worship him as their god. Moreover, it was shown that they do not inflict any pain on the right temple and the teeth, as Christians do, which I wondered at. They were on that side, and yet I felt no pain whatever from them. They are free from the love of self, but yet they are thieves; and, in order to obtain money, risk and do everything.5950.
THE PROFANE. The profane have their hells in the west, a great way off, towards the south, deep down there. When they become profane, they are no longer men for they appear, in the light of heaven, as scorched mummies; wherefore, they are not spoken of in the feminine or masculine gender, but in the neuter, that. 5950-1 By degrees, they lose human life and become like specters, and appear to themselves to flit in the air, now as females, now as males, now as infants, in different forms. One female was seen flitting about in this manner; and at such times she has not a vestige of thought, for she is in infernal phantasy, whence she so appears. She was also seen as a man with a blackish face, in the dark. In this manner, likewise, the face of the profane is by degrees darkened.
5906-1 Swedish, nactergal.
5906-2 Swedish, laderlappar.
5912-1 The MS. in these places is undecipherable. -TR.
5921-1 Swedish for leek.
5923-1 This is printed exactly as in the Latin; though why it is so printed, there, we cannot say. -TR.
5932-1 The MS. is undecipherable in this place. -TR.
5950-1 The English word itself occurs in the original here.