Doctrine of the Lord, by Emanuel Swedenborg, , tr. by John F. Potts  at sacred-texts.com
v. That by "spirit," when said of the Lord, is specifically meant the life of His wisdom, which is Divine Truth: I tell you the truth, it is expedient for you that I go away, for if I go not away the Comforter will not come unto you, but if I go away I will send Him unto you (John 16:7). When He, the Spirit of Truth, is come, He will lead you into all truth. He shall not speak from Himself but whatsoever He shall hear, that shall He speak (John 16:13). He shall glorify Me, for He shall receive of Mine, and shall declare it unto you: all things that the Father hath are Mine; therefore said I that He shall receive of Mine and shall declare it unto you (John 16:14, 15). I will ask the Father, that He may give you another Comforter, the Spirit of Truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth Him not, neither knoweth Him; but ye know Him, for He abideth with you, and shall be in you: I will not leave you orphans, I come to you, and ye shall see Me (John 14:16-19). When the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of Truth, He shall testify of Me (John 15:26). Jesus cried, saying, if anyone thirst let him come unto Me and drink; he that believeth in Me, as the Scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow streams of living water. This He said of the spirit which they that believe in Him should receive. For the Holy Spirit was not yet, because Jesus was not yet glorified (John 7:37-39). Jesus breathed on His disciples, and said, Receive ye the Holy Spirit (John 20:22).  That by the "Comforter," the "Spirit of Truth," and the "Holy Spirit," the Lord meant Himself, is evident from His words-that "the world did not as yet know Him," for they did not as yet know the Lord. And when He said that He "would send it," He added, "I will not leave you orphans, I come to you, and ye shall see Me" (John 14:1-19, 26, 28); and in another place, "Lo I am with you all the days, even to the consummation of the age" (Matt. 28: 20); and when Thomas said, "We know not whither Thou goest," Jesus said, "I am the way and the truth" (John 14:5, 6).  As the "Spirit of Truth" or "Holy Spirit" is the same as the Lord, who is the Truth itself, it is said, "the Holy Spirit was not yet, because Jesus was not yet glorified" (John 7:39); for after His glorification or complete unition with the Father, which was effected by the passion of the cross, the Lord was Divine wisdom and Divine truth itself, thus the Holy Spirit. The reason why the Lord breathed on the disciples and said, "Receive ye the Holy Spirit," was that all the breathing of heaven is from the Lord. For angels as well as men have breathing and beating of the heart; their breathing being according to their reception of wisdom from the Lord, and their beating of the heart or pulse being according to their reception of Divine love from the Lord. That this is so will be seen in its own place.  That "the Holy Spirit" is Divine Truth from the Lord, is further evident from these passages: When they bring you to the synagogues, be not anxious as to what ye shall say; for the Holy Spirit shall teach you in the same hour what ye ought to say (Luke 12:11-12; 21:14; Mark 13:11). Jehovah said, My spirit that is upon thee, and My words which I have put in thy mouth, shall not depart out of thy mouth (Isa. 59:21). There shall go forth a Rod out of the stem of Jesse, and He shall smite the earth with the rod of His mouth, and with the breath [spiritu] of His lips shall He slay the wicked, and truth shall be the girdle of His thighs (Isa. 11:1, 4-5). Now with the mouth He hath commanded, and His spirit hath gathered them (Isa. 34:16). They who worship God must worship in spirit and in truth (John 4:24). It is the spirit that quickeneth, the flesh profiteth nothing; the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit and they are life (John 6:63). John said, I baptize you with water unto repentance; but He that cometh after me shall baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire (Matt. 3:11; Mark 1:8; Luke 3:16). To "baptize with the Holy Spirit and with fire," is to regenerate by means of the Divine truth which is of faith and the Divine good which is of love. When Jesus was baptized, the heavens were opened, and He saw the Holy Spirit descending like a dove (Matt. 3:16; Mark 1:10; Luke 3:21-22; John 1:32-33). A dove is a representative of purification and regeneration by means of Divine truth.  As by "the Holy Spirit," where the Lord is treated of, is meant His Divine life, thus Himself, and, specifically, the life of His wisdom which is called Divine truth, by the "spirit" mentioned in the writings of the prophets which is called also the "Holy Spirit," is meant Divine truth from the Lord. Thus in the following passages: The Spirit said unto the churches (Rev. 2:7, 11, 29; 3:1, 6, 13, 22). The seven lamps of fire burning before the throne are the seven spirits of God (Rev. 4:5). In the midst of the elders a Lamb standing, having seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God sent forth into all the earth (Rev. 5:6). "Lamps of fire," and the Lord's "eyes," signify Divine truths, and "seven" signifies what is holy. The Spirit said, that they may rest from their labors (Rev. 14:13). The Spirit and the bride say, Come (Rev. 22:17). They made their heart adamant, that they should not hear the law or the words which Jehovah hath sent in His Spirit by the hand of the prophets (Zech. 7:12). The spirit of Elijah came upon Elisha (2 Kings 2:15). John went before in the spirit and power of Elijah (Luke 1:17). Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit and prophesied (Luke 1:41). Zacharias, filled with the Holy Spirit, prophesied (Luke 1:67). David said in the Holy Spirit, The Lord said to my Lord, Sit at My right hand (Mark 12:36). The testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy (Rev. 19:10). As, therefore, by the "Holy Spirit" there is meant, specifically, the Lord as to Divine wisdom, and derivatively as to Divine truth, it is evident why it is said of the Holy Spirit that it enlightens, teaches, inspires.52.
vi. Jehovah Himself (that is, the Lord) spoke the Word through the prophets. We read of the prophets that they were in vision, and that Jehovah spoke to them. When they were in vision they were not in the body, but in their spirit, in which state they saw things such as are in heaven. But when Jehovah spoke to them, they were in the body, and heard Him speaking. These two states of the prophets should be carefully distinguished. In their state of vision, the eyes of their spirit were opened, and those of their body shut, and they then seemed to themselves to be carried from place to place, the body remaining in its own place. In this state, at times, were Ezekiel, Zechariah, Daniel, and John when he wrote the Revelation; and it is then said that they were "in vision," or "in the spirit." Thus Ezekiel says: The spirit lifted me up, and brought me into Chaldea to the captivity, in the vision of God, in the Spirit of God; thus went up above me the vision which I saw (Ezek. 11:1, 24). He says too, That the spirit took him up, and he heard behind him an earthquake, and other things (Ezek. 3:12, 14). Also that the spirit lifted him up between the earth and the heaven, and brought him in the visions of God to Jerusalem, and he saw abominations (Ezek. 8:3, etc.). In like manner in the vision of God, or in the spirit, he saw The four living creatures, which were cherubs (Ezek. 1; 10). And also the new earth and the new temple, and an angel measuring them (Ezek. 40-48). That he was then in the visions of God, he says in Ezek. 40:2; and that the spirit took him up, in Ezek. 43:5. The case was the same with Zechariah, in whom at the time there was an angel, When he saw a man riding among the myrtle trees (Zech. 1:8, etc.). When he saw four horns, and afterwards a man who had a measuring line in his hand (Ezek. 1:18; 2:1). When he saw Joshua the high priest (Zech. 3:1, etc.). When he saw a lampstand, and two olive trees (Ezek. 4:2-3). When he saw a flying roll, and an ephah (Ezek. 5:1, 6). And when he saw four chariots going out between two mountains, and horses (Ezek. 6:1, etc.). In a similar state was Daniel, When he saw four beasts coming up out of the sea (Dan. 7:3). And when he saw the combats of the ram and the he-goat (Dan. 8:1, etc.). That he saw these things in visions is stated in 7:1-2, 7, 13; 8:2; 10:1, 7-8. That the angel Gabriel was seen by him in vision, and spoke with him, is stated in 9:21-22. The case was the same with John when he wrote the Revelation, who says, That he was in the spirit on the Lord's day (Rev. 1:10). That he was carried away in the spirit into the wilderness (Rev. 17:3). Into a high mountain in the spirit (Rev. 21:10). That he saw horses in vision (Rev. 9:17). And elsewhere that he saw the things which he described, thus in spirit, or in vision (Rev. 1:12; 4:1; 5:1; 6:1; and in every other chapter).53.
As to the Word itself, however, it is not said in the Prophets that they spoke it from the Holy Spirit, but that they spoke it from Jehovah, from Jehovah of Armies, from the Lord Jehovih; for we read "the Word of Jehovah came unto me," "Jehovah said unto me," and very frequently "Jehovah said," and "the word [dictum] of Jehovah." And, as the Lord is Jehovah, as has been shown above, it follows that all the Word has been spoken by Him. That no one may doubt this to be the case, I will give the references, in Jeremiah only, to the places where these four expressions occur: Jer. 1:4, 7, 11-14, 19; 2:1-5, 9, 19, 22, 29, 31; 3:1, 6, 10, 12, 14, 16; 4:1, 3, 9, 17, 27; 5:11, 14, 18, 22, 29; 6:6, 9, 12, 15-16, 21-22; 7:1, 3, 11, 13, 19-21; 8:1, 3, 12, 13; 9:3, 7, 9, 13, 15, 17, 22, 24-25; 10:1, 2, 18; 11:1, 6, 9, 11, 17, 21-22; 12:14, 17; 13:1, 6, 9, 11-15, 25; 14:1, 10, 14-15; 15:1-3, 6, 11, 19, 20; 16:1, 3, 5, 9, 14, 16; 17:5, 19-21, 24; 18:1, 5-6, 11, 13; 19:1, 3, 6, 12, 15; 20:4; 21:1, 4, 7-8, 11-12; 22:2, 5-6, 11, 16, 18, 24, 29-30; 23:2, 5, 7, 12, 15, 24, 29, 31, 38; 24:3, 5, 8; 25:1, 3, 7-9, 15, 27-29, 32; 26:1-2, 18; 27:1, 2, 4, 8, 11, 16, 19, 21-22; 28:2, 12, 14, 16; 29:4, 8-9, 16, 19-21, 25, 30-32; 30:1-5, 8, 10-12, 17-18; 31:1, 2, 7, 10, 15-17, 23, 27-28, 31-38; 32:1, 6, 14-15, 25-26, 28, 30, 36, 42; 33:1-2, 4, 10-13, 17, 19-20, 23, 25; 34:1-2, 4, 8, 12-13, 17, 22; 35:1, 13, 17-19; 36:1, 6, 27, 29-30; 37:6-7, 9; 38:2-3, 17; 39:15-18; 40:1; 42:7, 9, 15, 18-19; 43:8, 10; 44:1-2, 7, 11, 24-26, 30; 45:1-2, 5; 46:1, 23, 25, 28; 47:1; 48:1, 8, 12, 30, 35, 38, 40, 43-44, 47; 49:2, 5-7, 12-13, 16, 18, 26, 28, 30, 32, 35, 37-39; 50:1, 4, 10, 18, 20-21, 30-31, 33, 35, 40; 51:25, 33, 36, 39, 52, 58. These from Jeremiah only. All the other prophets speak in the same way, and none say that the Holy Spirit has spoken, or that Jehovah has spoken to them by means of the Holy Spirit.54.
From all this then it is evident that JEHOVAH (who is THE LORD FROM ETERNITY) spoke through the prophets; and that where the HOLY SPIRIT is mentioned, it is the Lord Himself. It follows that GOD IS ONE IN BOTH PERSON AND ESSENCE, AND THAT THIS GOD IS THE LORD.55.
THE DOCTRINE OF THE ATHANASIAN CREED AGREES WITH THE TRUTH, PROVIDED THAT BY A TRINITY OF PERSONS IS UNDERSTOOD A TRINITY OF PERSON, AND THAT THIS TRINITY IS IN THE LORD. The recognition by Christians of three Divine Persons, and thus as it were of three Gods, has arisen from there being in the Lord a Trine, one of which is called the Father, the second the Son, and the third the Holy Spirit. This Trine is also referred to in the Word under distinct names just as we refer by distinct names to soul, to body, and to that which proceeds from them, which, however, taken together, form a one. In the sense of the letter the Word is of such a nature that things which form a one it distinguishes from each other as if they did not form a one. This is why Jehovah (who is the Lord from eternity) is sometimes called "Jehovah," sometimes "Jehovah of Armies," sometimes " God," sometimes "the Lord;" and at the same time He is called "Creator," "Savior," "Redeemer," and "Former," and even "Shaddai;" and His Human which He assumed in this world, "Jesus," "Christ," "Messiah," "Son of God," "Son of man;" and, in the Word of the Old Testament, "God," "Holy One of Israel," "Jehovah's Anointed," "King," "Prince," "Counselor," "Angel," "David."  In consequence of this feature of the Word in the sense of the letter (that it speaks of as many those who really form a one) Christians, who at first were simple folk, and understood everything in accordance with the literal import of the words discriminated the Divinity into three Persons. On account of their simplicity this was permitted, but in such a manner that they should believe the Son to be Infinite, Uncreate, Almighty, God, and Lord, altogether equal to the Father; and that they should also believe that these are not two, or three; but one in essence, majesty, and glory, and therefore in Divinity.  They who believe this in simplicity in accordance with doctrine, and do not confirm themselves in the idea of three Gods, but of the three make a one, after death are taught by the Lord by means of angels that He Himself is that one God, and that Trine. And this teaching is received by all who come into heaven for no one can be admitted into heaven who thinks of three Gods, however much he may say One; for the life of the whole heaven, and the wisdom of all the angels, are founded upon the acknowledgment and consequent confession of one God, and upon the faith that this one God is also Man, and that He is the Lord, who is at once both God and Man.  From all this it is evident that it was of Divine permission that Christians at first received the doctrine of three Persons, provided that they at the same time received the idea that the Lord is God, Infinite, Almighty, and Jehovah. For unless they had received this too, it would have been all over with the church, because the church is the church from the Lord; and the eternal life of all is from the Lord, and from no other.  That the church is the church from the Lord is evident from this alone, that the whole Word from beginning to end treats solely of the Lord, as was shown above; and that we must believe in Him, and that they who do not believe in Him have not eternal life, but that the anger of God abideth on them (John 3:36).  Now as every one sees in himself that if God is one, He is one in both Person and Essence (for no one thinks differently, or can think differently, while thinking that God is one), I will here cite the whole of the Creed which takes its name from Athanasius, and will afterwards show that all things said therein are true, provided that instead of a trinity of Persons there is understood a trinity of Person.56.
The Creed is as follows: Whosoever will be saved, before all things it is necessary that he hold the Catholic (other authorities say, Christian) Faith; which faith, except every one do keep whole and undefiled, without doubt he shall perish everlastingly. And the Catholic (others say, Christian) Faith is this: That we worship one God in Trinity, and the Trinity in Unity, neither confounding the persons, nor dividing the substance (others say, essence). For there is one person of the Father, another of the Son, and another of the Holy Spirit; but the Godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, is all one, the glory equal, the majesty coeternal. Such as the Father is, such is the Son, and such is the Holy Spirit. The Father uncreate, the Son uncreate, and the Holy Spirit uncreate. The Father incomprehensible (infinitus), the Son incomprehensible (infinitus), and the Holy Spirit incomprehensible (infinitus). The Father eternal, the Son eternal, and the Holy Spirit eternal: and yet there are not three eternals, but One Eternal: as also there are not three incomprehensibles (infiniti), nor three uncreates but one uncreate, and one incomprehensible (infinitus). So likewise the Father is almighty, the Son almighty, and the Holy Spirit almighty and yet there are not three Almighties, but One Almighty. So the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God and yet there are not three gods, but One God. So likewise the Father is Lord, the Son Lord, and the Holy Spirit Lord; and yet not three lords, but One Lord. For like as we are compelled by the Christian verity to acknowledge every person by himself to be God and Lord, so are we forbidden by the Catholic Religion to say there be three gods or three lords (others say, still we cannot, according to the Christian faith, mention three gods or three lords). The Father is made of none, neither created, nor begotten (natus): the Son is of the Father alone, not made, nor created, but begotten (natus): the Holy Spirit is of the Father and of the Son, neither made, nor created, nor begotten (natus), but proceeding. So there is one Father, not three Fathers; one Son, not three Sons; one Holy Spirit, not three Holy Spirits. And in this Trinity none is afore or after another none is greater or less than another; but the whole three persons are coeternal together, and coequal. So that in all things, as is aforesaid, the Unity in Trinity and the Trinity in Unity is to be worshiped (others say, three persons in one Godhead, and one God in three persons, is to be worshiped). He therefore that will be saved, must thus think of the Trinity. Furthermore, it is necessary to everlasting salvation that he also believe rightly the incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ (others say, that he firmly believes that our Lord is very Man). For the right faith is that we believe and confess that our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is God and Man; God of the substance (or essence; others, nature) of the Father, begotten before the worlds; and Man of the substance (others say, nature) of his mother, born in the world; perfect God, and perfect Man, of a reasonable soul and human flesh (corpore) subsisting; equal to the Father as touching his Godhead, and inferior to the Father as touching his manhood. Who although he be God and Man, yet he is not two, but one Christ; one, not by conversion of the Godhead into flesh (corpus) but by taking of the manhood into God (others say, He is one, yet not that the Godhead was transmuted into manhood, but the Godhead took up the Manhood to itself); one altogether, not by confusion (others say, commingling) of substance, but by unity of person (others say, He is altogether one, not that the two natures are commixed, but he is one person). For as the reasonable soul and flesh (corpus) is one man, so God and man is one Christ, Who suffered for our salvation, descended into hell, rose again the third day from the dead. He ascended into heaven, He sitteth on the right hand of the Father, God Almighty, from whence He shall come to judge the quick and the dead. At whose coming all men shall rise again with their bodies, and shall give account for their own works. And they that have done good shall go into life everlasting, and they that have done evil into everlasting fire.57.
That all things of the Creed are true in so far as its verbal expressions are concerned, provided that instead of a Trinity of Persons there is understood a Trinity of Person, will be seen if we transcribe it again, with this latter trinity substituted in it. A Trinity of Person is this: THAT THE LORD'S DIVINE IS THE FATHER, THE DIVINE HUMAN THE SON, AND THE PROCEEDING DIVINE THE HOLY SPIRIT. When this trinity is understood, the man can both think of and say One God; but who fails to see that otherwise he cannot but think of three Gods? Athanasius himself saw this, and this is why there were inserted these words: As we are compelled by the Christian verity to acknowledge every person by himself to be God and Lord; so are we forbidden by the Catholic religion (or, by the Christian faith) to say (or name) three gods or three lords. This amounts to saying, Although it is allowable, by the Christian verity, to acknowledge, or think of, three Gods and Lords, yet it is not allowable, by the Christian faith, to say or name more than one God and one Lord. And yet it is acknowledgment and thought which conjoin man with the Lord and heaven, and not mere speech. Besides, no one can comprehend how the Divine, which is one, can be divided into three Persons, each of whom is God, for the Divine is not divisible. And to make the three one through the essence or substance does not take away the idea of three Gods, but merely conveys an idea of their unanimity.58.
That insofar as its verbal expressions are concerned, all things of this Creed are true, provided that instead of a Trinity of Persons there is understood a Trinity of Person, is evident from the same when rewritten in this form: Whosoever will be saved, it is necessary that he hold this Christian Faith; and the Christian Faith is, that we worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity, not confounding the Trine of Person, nor dividing the Essence. The Trine of one Person is what is called the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The Divinity of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit is one and the same, the glory and majesty equal. Such as the Father is, such is the Son, and such is the Holy Spirit. The Father is uncreate, the Son uncreate, and the Holy Spirit uncreate. The Father is infinite, the Son infinite, and the Holy Spirit infinite. And yet there are not three infinities, nor three uncreates, but one Uncreate, and one Infinite. So likewise the Father is Almighty, the Son Almighty, and the Holy Spirit Almighty; and yet there are not three almighties, but one Almighty. So the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God; and yet there are not three gods, but one God. So likewise the Father is Lord, the Son is Lord, and the Holy Spirit is Lord; and yet there are not three lords, but one Lord. For as by the Christian verity we acknowledge a trine in one Person, who is God and Lord, so by the Christian faith we can say one God and one Lord. The Father is made of none, neither created, nor born the Son is of the Father alone, not made, nor created, but born the Holy Spirit is of the Father and of the Son, not made, nor created, nor born, but proceeding. So there is one Father, not three Fathers; one Son, not three Sons one Holy Spirit, not three Holy Spirits. And in this Trinity none is greatest or least, but they are altogether equal. So that in all things, as is aforesaid, the Unity in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity, is to be worshiped.59.
So far in the Creed as to the Trinity and Unity of God. The Creed then treats of the Lord's assumption of the Human in the world, called the Incarnation. Everything said in the Creed on this point also is true, provided we make a clear distinction between the human from the mother in which the Lord was when in a state of humiliation or emptying out [exinanitio] [see Isa. 52:12], as when He suffered temptations and the cross; and the Human from the Father, in which He was when in a state of glorification or unition. For in the world the Lord assumed a Human conceived of Jehovah (who is the Lord from eternity), and born of the virgin Mary; so that He had both a Divine and a human, a Divine from His Divine from eternity, and a human from the mother Mary in time; but this latter human He put off, and put on a Human that was Divine. This Human is what is called the Divine Human, and is meant in the Word by the "Son of God." When therefore the things first said in the Creed about the Incarnation are understood of the maternal human (in which the Lord was when in a state of humiliation), and the things that follow, of the Divine Human (in which He was when in a state of glorification), all things there are in agreement. With the maternal human (in which the Lord was when in a state of humiliation) agree the following statements, that come first in the Creed: That Jesus Christ was God and Man, God of the Substance of the Father, and Man of the substance of the mother, born in the world; perfect God and perfect Man, of a rational soul and human body consisting; equal to the Father as touching the Godhead, but inferior to the Father as touching the manhood. That this manhood was not converted into the Godhead, nor commixed therewith; it being put off, and the Divine Human assumed in its place. With the Divine Human (in which He was when in a state of glorification, and is now to eternity) agree the following words in the Creed: Although our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, be God and Man, yet he is not two, but one Christ yea, he is altogether one, for he is one person for as the reasonable soul and body are one man, so God and Man are one Christ.60.
That in the Lord, God and Man (as is said in the Creed) are not two, but one Person, yea, altogether one, as soul and body are one, is clear from many things said by the Lord Himself, as that the Father and He are one; that all things of the Father are His, and all His the Father's; that He is in the Father, and the Father in Him; that all things are given into His hand; that He has all power; that He is the God of heaven and earth; that whosoever believes in Him has eternal life; and further from its being said of Him that He was taken up into heaven as to both the Divine and the Human, and that, with respect to both, He sits on the right hand of God, which means that He is Almighty: not to repeat many passages of the Word treating of His Divine Human which are copiously quoted above, and all of which bear witness that God is ONE IN BOTH PERSON AND ESSENCE; THAT THE TRINITY IS IN HIM; AND THAT THIS GOD IS THE LORD.61.
The reason why these truths relative to the Lord are now for the first time made publicly known, is that it has been foretold in the Revelation (chapters 21. and 22.) that a New Church, in which this doctrine will hold the chief place, is to be instituted by the Lord at the end of the former church. It is this Church which is meant by the "New Jerusalem," and no one can come into it who does not acknowledge the Lord as the God of heaven and earth. This I can declare-that the universal heaven acknowledges the Lord alone; and that no one who does not acknowledge Him is admitted into heaven; for heaven is heaven from the Lord. It is precisely this acknowledgment from love and faith which causes all there to be in the Lord and the Lord in them, as the Lord Himself teaches in John: In that day ye shall know that I am in My Father, and ye in Me, and I in you (14:20). Abide in Me, and I in you. I am the vine, ye are the branches he that abideth in Me and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit, for without Me ye can do nothing; if any one abide not in Me, he is cast forth (15:4-6; 17:22, 23). The reason why this has not been previously seen from the Word, is that if it had been previously seen it would not have been received, because the Last Judgment had not been effected. Before that event the power of hell prevailed over the power of heaven, and as man is in the midst between the two, it is evident that the devil (which is hell) would have plucked it out of men's hearts, and would also have profaned it. But this state of power on the part of hell was completely broken by the Last Judgment, which has now been executed. Since that Judgment-thus now-every man who craves to be enlightened and wise can be so. (On this subject see the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 589-596, 597-603; and also Last Judgment, n. 65-72, 73-74.)62.
In the Revelation, after a description of the state of the Christian Church as it would be at its end, and as it now is, 62-1 and after those of that church who are signified by the false prophet, the dragon, the harlot, and the beasts, are said to have been cast into hell, it is added: I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the former heaven and the former earth were passed away. And I John saw the Holy City New Jerusalem coming down from God out of heaven. And I heard a great voice out of heaven, saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell with them, and they shall be His people, and God Himself shall be with them, their God. And He that sat upon the throne said, Behold, I make all things new. And He said unto me, Write, for these words are true and faithful (Rev. 21:1-3, 5). By the "new heaven," and by the "new earth," which John saw, after the former heaven and the former earth had passed away, is not meant a new starry and atmospheric heaven such as appears before the eyes of men, nor a new earth such as that on which men dwell; but there is meant a newness of the church in the spiritual world, and a newness of the church in the natural world. As a newness of the church in both worlds, spiritual and natural, was effected by the Lord when He was in this world, a like prediction had been made in the Prophets, namely, that a new heaven and a new earth would then come into existence (as in Isa. 65:17; 66:22, and elsewhere), which cannot possibly mean a heaven visible to the eyes, and an earth habitable by men. By the term spiritual world is meant the world where angels and spirits dwell, and by the term natural world is meant the world where men dwell. That a newness of the church in the spiritual world has been recently effected, and that a newness of the church in the natural world will be effected, has been partly shown in the little work on the Last Judgment, and will be shown more fully in the Continuation of that work.63.
By the "Holy City Jerusalem" is meant this New Church as to doctrine, and therefore it was seen coming down from God out of heaven, for the doctrine of genuine truth comes to us from the Lord through heaven, and from no other source. As the Church in respect to doctrine is meant by the City New Jerusalem, it is said: Prepared as a bride adorned for her Husband (Rev. 21:2); and afterwards, There came unto me one of the seven angels, and talked with me, saying, Come hither, I will show thee the bride, the Lamb's wife and he carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and showed me that great city, the Holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God (Rev. 21:9-10). That by "bride" and "wife" is meant the church, when the Lord is meant by "bridegroom" and "husband," is well known. The church is a "bride" when she is desirous to receive the Lord; and a "wife," when she does receive Him. That the Lord is meant by "her Husband" is evident; for it is said, "the bride the Lamb's wife."64.
The reason why "Jerusalem" means the church as to doctrine, is that there and at no other place in the land of Canaan were the temple and altar, the offering of sacrifices, and therefore the Divine worship; and for this reason the three yearly feasts were celebrated there, to which every male in the whole country was commanded to go. This is why "Jerusalem" signifies the church in respect to worship, and therefore as to doctrine-for worship is prescribed in doctrine, and is performed according to it. An additional reason is that the Lord was present in Jerusalem, and taught in its temple, and afterwards glorified His Human there. Besides, "city" in the spiritual sense of the Word signifies doctrine, and therefore "holy city" signifies the doctrine of Divine truth from the Lord. 64-1  That by "Jerusalem" is meant the church as to doctrine, is further evident from other passages in the Word, as from these: For Zion's sake I will not hold my peace, and for Jerusalem's sake I will not rest, until the righteousness thereof go forth as brightness, and the salvation thereof as a lamp that burneth. Then shall the nations see thy righteousness, and all kings thy glory and thou shalt be called by a new name, which the mouth of Jehovah shall name; and thou shalt be a crown of ornament in the hand of Jehovah, and a kingdom's diadem in the hand of thy God for Jehovah shall delight in thee, and thy land shall be married. Behold, thy salvation cometh; behold, His reward is with Him and they shall call them the holy people, the redeemed of Jehovah and thou shalt be called, A city sought out, not forsaken (Isa. 62:1-4, 11, 12). This whole chapter treats of the Lord's advent, and of a New Church to be set up by Him. This New Church is here meant by "Jerusalem called by a new name which the mouth of Jehovah shall name," and which shall be "a crown of ornament in the hand of Jehovah, and a kingdom's diadem in the hand of God," and in which Jehovah shall "delight," and which shall be called "a city sought out, not forsaken." These words cannot possibly mean the Jerusalem in which were the Jews at the time of the Lord's coming into the world, for that city was of a wholly contrary character, and might rather be called Sodom, as indeed it is called in Rev. 11:8; Isa. 3:9; Jer. 23:14; Ezek. 16:46, 48.  Again in Isaiah: Behold, I create a new heaven and a new earth, and the former shall not be remembered: be ye glad and rejoice to eternities in that which I create for behold I create Jerusalem a rejoicing, and her people a gladness, that I may rejoice over Jerusalem, and be glad over My people. Then shall the wolf and the lamb feed together; they shall not do harm in all the mountain of My holiness (65:17-19, 25). This chapter also treats of the Lord's advent, and of a church to be set up anew by Him. This church was not set up anew among those who were in Jerusalem, but among those outside of it, so that it is this church which is meant by the Jerusalem that should be to the Lord a rejoicing, and whose people should be to Him a gladness, and where also the wolf and the lamb should feed together, and where they should do no harm. Here, too, it is said, just as in the Revelation, that the Lord will "create a new heaven and a new earth," the meaning being similar; and it is added that He will "create Jerusalem."  In another place in Isaiah: Awake! awake! put on thy strength, O Zion; put on thy beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, the holy city, for henceforth there shall no more come into thee the uncircumcised and the unclean. Shake thyself from the dust, arise, and sit down, O Jerusalem. My people shall know [cognoscet] My name in that day, for I am He that doth speak, behold it is I. Jehovah hath comforted His people; He hath redeemed Jerusalem (52:1, 2, 6, 9). This chapter also treats of the Lord's advent, and of the church to be set up anew by Him; so that by the Jerusalem into which the uncircumcised and the unclean should no more come, and which the Lord should redeem, is meant the church; and by "Jerusalem the holy city," the church as to doctrine from the Lord.  In Zephaniah: Shout, O daughter of Zion; be glad with all the heart, O daughter of Jerusalem; the King of Israel is in the midst of thee; fear evil no longer: He will be glad over thee with joy, He will rest in thy love, He will exult over thee with a shout: I will make you a name and a praise to all the people of the earth (3:14-17, 20). Here in like manner it treats of the Lord and of a church from Him, over which "the King of Israel" (who is the Lord) will be glad with joy, will exult with a shout, and in whose love He will rest, and whose members He will make a name and a praise to all people of the earth.  In Isaiah: Thus saith Jehovah thy Redeemer, and thy Former, saying to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be inhabited; and to the cities of Judah, Ye shall be built (44:24, 26). In Daniel: Know [Scito] and perceive that from the going forth of the word even to the restoring and the building up of Jerusalem, even to Messiah the Prince, shall be seven weeks (9:25). It is evident that here also "Jerusalem" means the church, because this was indeed restored and built by the Lord, but not the Jerusalem that was the residence of the Jews.  "Jerusalem" means a church from the Lord in the following passages also. In Zechariah: Thus saith Jehovah, I will return to Zion, and I will dwell in the midst of Jerusalem whence Jerusalem shall be called the city of truth; and the mountain of Jehovah Zebaoth, the mountain of holiness (8:3, 20-23). In Joel: Then shall ye know that I am Jehovah your God, dwelling in Zion, the mountain of holiness; and Jerusalem shall be holiness: and it shall come to pass in that day that the mountains shall drop new wine, and the hills shall flow with milk, and Jerusalem shall abide from generation to generation (3:17-20). In Isaiah: In that day shall the shoot of Jehovah be for ornament and glory and it shall come to pass that he that is left in Zion, and he that remaineth in Jerusalem shall be called holy; even every one that is written for life in Jerusalem (4:2, 3). In Micah: In the latter days it shall come to pass that the mountain of the house of Jehovah shall be established in the head of the mountains; for doctrine shall go forth out of Zion, and the word of Jehovah from Jerusalem: unto thee shall come the former kingdom, the kingdom of the daughter of Jerusalem (4:1, 2, 8). In Jeremiah: At that time they shall call Jerusalem the throne of Jehovah and all nations shall be gathered to the name of Jehovah to Jerusalem; neither shall they walk any more after the confirmation of their evil heart (3:17). In Isaiah: Look upon Zion the city of our set feast; thine eyes shall see Jerusalem a quiet habitation, a tabernacle that shall not be scattered not one of the stakes thereof shall ever be removed, neither shall any of the cords thereof be plucked away (33:20). Besides other passages, as Isa. 24:23; 37:32; 66:10-14; Zech. 12:3, 6, 8, 9, 10; 14:8, 11, 12, 21; Mal. 3:1, 4; Ps. 122:1-7; 137:5, 6.  That in these passages "Jerusalem" means the church which was to be set up anew by the Lord, and which actually was set up anew by Him, and not the Jerusalem in the land of Canaan that was inhabited by the Jews, is evident from those passages in the Word where it is said of the latter Jerusalem that it should utterly perish and be destroyed; as Jer. 5:1; 6:6, 7; 7:17, 20, etc.; 8:5-7, etc.; 9:10, 11, 13, etc.; 13:9, 10, 14; 14:16; Lam. 1:8, 9, 15, 17; Ezek. 4:1 to end; 5:9 to end; 12:18, 19; 15:6-8; 16:1 to end; 23:1-49; Matt. 23:33, 37, 39; Luke 19:41-44; 21:20-22; 23:28-30; and in many other places.65.
In the Revelation occur the words, A NEW HEAVEN AND A NEW EARTH; and afterwards, BEHOLD I MAKE ALL THINGS NEW, which mean nothing else than that in the church now to be set up anew by the Lord THE DOCTRINE WILL BE NEW. This doctrine did not exist in the former church, the reason of which is that if it had, it would not have been received, because the Last Judgment had not then been executed, and previous to that Judgment the power of hell prevailed over the power of heaven, so that if the doctrine had been given before, even from the Lord's mouth, it would not have remained with men; nor does it at this day remain except with those who approach the Lord alone, and acknowledge Him as the God of heaven and earth. (See above, at n. 61.) This same doctrine had indeed been given in the Word; but as not long after its setting up anew the church was turned into Babylon, and afterwards, with others, into Philistia, that doctrine could not be seen from the Word, for the church sees the Word from the principles of its religion and from its doctrine, and in no other way. The new things contained in the present little work are, in general, as follows: i. God is one in Person and Essence, and this God is the Lord. ii. All Holy Scripture treats of Him alone. iii. He came into the world to subdue the hells, and to glorify His Human; and He accomplished both by admitting temptations into Himself, and did so fully by the last of them which was the passion of the cross. Thereby He became the Redeemer and Savior; and thereby merit and righteousness are His alone. iv. The statement that He "fulfilled all things of the law" means that He fulfilled all things of the Word. v. By the passion of the cross He did not take away sins, but bore them as the Prophet, that is to say, He suffered that there should be represented, in Himself, the church in respect to its maltreatment of the Word. vi. The imputation of His merit is not anything at all unless thereby is meant the forgiveness of sins after repentance. These things are contained in this little work. In those which follow it, which are to be Concerning the Holy Scripture, Concerning the Doctrine of Life, Concerning Faith, and Concerning the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom, still other new things will be seen.
62-1 That is, in 1763. [Tr.]
64-1 That by "city" in the Word is signified the doctrine of the church and of religion, may be seen in the Arcana Coelestia (n. 402, 2449, 2943, 3216, 4492, 4493). That by the gate of a city is signified the doctrine by means of which there is entrance into the church (n. 2943, 4477, 4478). That on this account the elders sat in the gate of the city, and judged, ibid. That "to go out of the gate" is to fall back from doctrine (n. 4492, 4493). That in heaven cities and palaces are presented representatively when angels and spirits are conversing about doctrinal matters (n. 3216).