Apocalypse Explained, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1757-9], tr. by John Whitehead , at sacred-texts.com
And ointment and frankincense signifies profaned worship from spiritual love. This is evident from the signification of "ointment," as being the good of spiritual love (of which presently); also from the signification of "frankincense," as being the truth of spiritual good (see n. 491). "Ointment and frankincense" signify spiritual love because the incense offerings were made with these; and the incense offerings signified spiritual love because of the fragrant smoke that went up from the holy fire in the censers. Spiritual love is love towards the neighbor, which makes one with the love of uses. There are two loves of heaven, and thus of the church, from which the Lord is worshipped; celestial love, which is love to the Lord, and spiritual love, which is love towards the neighbor; the former is signified by "cinnamon and perfumes," the other by "ointment and frankincense." Moreover, all worship is from love; the worship that is not from one or the other of these loves is no worship, but only an external act in which there is inwardly nothing of the church. That the incense offerings signified worship from spiritual love may be seen (n. 324, 491-492, 494, 567). Ointment means a compound of aromatics that was used in the incense offerings, as can be seen from these words in Moses: Take unto thee sweet spices, stacte, and onycha, and galbanum, sweet spices with pure frankincense. And thou shalt make it an incense; an ointment, the work of the perfumer, salted, pure, holy; and thou shalt beat some of it very small, and put it before the testimony in the Tent of meeting where I shall meet with thee; it shall be unto you the holy of holies (Exod. 30:34-37). Here all these things are called "the ointment of the perfumer." (The particulars are explained in Arcana Coelestia n. 10289-10308.) (Continuation respecting the Athanasian Faith)  There is infernal freedom and there is heavenly freedom. Infernal freedom is that into which man is born from his parents, and heavenly freedom is that into which man is reformed by the Lord. From infernal freedom man has the will of evil, the love of evil, and the life of evil; while from heavenly freedom he has the will of good, the love of good, and the life of good; for as has been said before, a man's will, love and life, make one with his freedom. These two kinds of freedom are opposites of each other, but the opposition is not evident except so far as man is in one and not in the other. But a man cannot come out of infernal freedom into heavenly freedom unless he compels himself. To compel oneself is to resist evil and to fight against it as if from oneself, but still to implore the Lord for help. Thus a man fights from the freedom that is inwardly in him from the Lord against the freedom that is outwardly in him from hell. While he is in the combat it seems to him that it is not freedom from which he fights, but a kind of compulsion, because it is against that freedom into which he was born; and yet it is freedom, since otherwise he would not fight as if of himself.  But this inward freedom from which he fights, which seems like compulsion, is afterwards felt as freedom, for it becomes like what is involuntary, spontaneous, and as it were innate, comparatively like one's compelling his hand to write, to work, to play a musical instrument, or to contend in games, for after a while the hands and arms do these things as if of themselves or spontaneously; for man is then in good because he is then removed from evil and is led by the Lord. When a man has compelled himself to act in opposition to infernal freedom he sees and perceives that infernal freedom is servitude and that heavenly freedom is freedom itself, because it is from the Lord. The essence of the matter is this, that so far as a man compels himself by resisting evils, so far the infernal societies with which he acts as one are removed from him, and he is introduced by the Lord into heavenly societies, with which he acts as one. On the other hand, if a man does not compel himself to resist evils he remains in them. That this is so I have learned through much experience in the spiritual world, and further, that evil does not withdraw in consequence of any compulsion that comes from punishments, or from fear of them afterwards.1152.
And wine and oil signifies profaned worship from truths and goods that are from a celestial origin. This is evident from the signification of "wine," as being truth (of which presently); also from the signification of "oil," as being good from a celestial origin (see n. 375). "Wine" signifies truth from a celestial origin because it is here joined with "oil" which means good from that origin. For in this verse, as in the former, there are pairs, of which one signifies what belongs to truth, and the other what belongs to good, both from the same origin; and from this it follows that "wine" signifies truth from a celestial origin, because "oil" signifies good from that origin. That "wine" in the Word signifies truth or spiritual good may be seen above (n. 376); for truth from a celestial origin coincides with spiritual good. It is the same with oil; when the oil of holy anointing is meant, "oil" signifies the good of celestial love, but when the oil with which they anointed themselves on festal days is meant, it signifies the good of spiritual love. (Continuation respecting the Athanasian Faith)  It has been said above that it is a law of the Divine providence that man himself should compel himself; but this means that he should compel himself from evil, and does not mean that he should compel himself to good; for it is possible for man to compel himself from evil, but not to compel himself to good that in itself is good. For when a man compels himself to good and has not compelled himself from evil he does good from himself and not from the Lord, for he compels himself to it for the sake of self, or for the sake of the world, or for the sake of recompense, or from fear; and such good is not in itself good, because the man himself or the world or recompense is in it as its end, and not the good itself, thus neither the Lord; and it is love and not fear that makes good to be good. For example, to compel oneself to do good to one's neighbor, to give to the poor, to endow churches, to do what is righteous, thus to compel oneself to charity and truth before compelling oneself from evils and thereby removing them, would be like a palliative treatment by which the disease or ulcer is healed externally; or like an adulterer compelling himself to act chastely, or a proud man to act humbly, or a dishonest man to act honestly in external conduct.  But when a man compels himself from evils he purifies his internal, and when that is purified he does good from freedom without compelling himself to do it; for so far as a man compels himself from evil so far he comes into heavenly freedom, and everything good that is in itself good is from that freedom, and to such good man does not compel himself. The appearance is that compelling oneself from evil and compelling oneself to good necessarily go together, but they do not. I know from the evidence of experience of many who have compelled themselves to do goods, but not from evils; and when such were explored it was found that evils from within clung to the goods, and in consequence their goods were like idols or images made of clay or dung; and it was said that such persons believe that God may be gained over by praise and gifts, even from an impure heart. Nevertheless, before the world a man may compel himself to goods without compelling himself from evil, since in the world he is rewarded for so doing; for in the world the external is regarded and rarely the internal; but before God it is not so.1153.
And fine flour and wheat signifies profaned worship from truths and goods that are from a spiritual origin. This is evident from the signification of "fine flour," as being truth from a spiritual origin (of which presently); also from the signification of "wheat," as being good from a spiritual origin (see n. 374; 375). These also signify worship because the meal offering was composed of them, which was offered with the sacrifices upon the altar the same as the wine and the oil; for the meal offerings were prepared with oil and the drink offerings with wine. And because of the crops of these they had rejoicings in festivals which were instituted to celebrate their harvests. "Fine flour" signifies truth from spiritual good because it is prepared from wheat, which signifies spiritual good, as truth comes from good.  As this truth of the church was signified by "fine flour," it was prescribed what quantity of it should be used in the cakes that were called the meal offerings, which were offered with the sacrifices upon the altar (respecting which see Exod. 29; Lev. 5-7, 23; Num. 18, 28-29); also the quantity of fine flour in the show bread (Lev. 23:17; 24:5); for it was commanded that the meal offering that was to be offered on the altar should be prepared from fine flour, and oil and frankincense poured thereon (Lev. 2:1). Because of this signification of "fine flour," when Abraham talked with the three angels he said to Sarah his wife: Hasten, knead three measures of flour, of fine flour, and make cakes (Gen. 18:6).  "Fine flour" also signifies the truth of good from a spiritual origin in Ezekiel: Thou didst eat fine flour, honey, and oil, whence thou didst become exceeding; beautiful, and didst prosper even to a kingdom. My bread which I gave thee, fine flour, honey, and oil, with which I fed thee, thou didst offer before idols as an odor of rest (Ezek. 16:13, 19). This is said of Jerusalem, which signifies the church as to doctrine, and in that chapter is described what it had been in its beginning and what it became afterwards. "Fine flour and oil" signify truth and good from a spiritual origin, and "honey" good from a natural origin. "Thou didst become exceeding beautiful" signifies to be intelligent and wise; "to prosper even to a kingdom" signifies even to becoming a church, "kingdom" being the church; "to offer these to idols as an odor of rest" signifies the idolatrous worship into which the true worship of the church was afterwards changed.  But "flour" from barley signifies truth from a natural origin, for "barley" signifies natural good, as "wheat" signifies spiritual good. Thus in Isaiah: Take the millstone and grind flour, make thyself bare (Isa. 47:2). This is said of Babylon. "To take a millstone and grind flour" signifies to falsify the truths of the Word, and "to make oneself bare" signifies to adulterate the goods of the Word. In Hosea: They sow the wind and they reap the whirlwind; he hath no standing corn, the blade shall yield no flour; and if perchance it do, strangers shall devour it (Hos. 8:7). Here, too, "flour" signifies truth from a natural origin. (Continuation respecting the Athanasian Faith)  (5) The fifth law of the Divine providence is, That from sense and perception in himself man cannot know how good and truth flow in from the Lord, and how evil and falsity flow in from hell; nor can he see how the Divine providence operates in favor of good against evil; if he did he could not act from freedom according to reason as if from himself. It is sufficient for him to know and acknowledge this from the Word and from the doctrine of the church. This is what is meant by the Lord's words in John: The wind bloweth where it willeth, and thou hearest the voice thereof, but knowest not whence it cometh or whither it goeth; so is everyone that is born of the spirit (John 3:8). Also by these words in Mark: The kingdom of God is like a man that casteth seed upon the earth and then sleepeth and riseth night and day; but the seed springeth up and groweth up when he knows it not, for the earth beareth fruit of herself, first the blade, then the ear, at length the full corn in the ear; and when the fruit is produced, he putteth in the sickle because the harvest is at hand (Mark 4:26, 29).  Man does not perceive the operation of the Divine providence within him, because that would take away his freedom, and thus his ability to think as if of himself, and with it every delight of life; thus man would be like an automaton, in which there is no reciprocal, and by that, conjunction; also he would be a slave and not free. The Divine providence moves so secretly that scarcely a trace of it is seen, although it acts upon the most minute things of man's thought and will, which regard his eternal state, chiefly for the reason that the Lord continually wills to impress His love on man, and through it his wisdom, and thus create him into His image. Consequently the operation of the Lord is into man's love and from that into his understanding, and not the reverse. Love with its affections, which are manifold and innumerable, is perceived by man only by a most general feeling, and thus so slightly that there is scarcely anything of it; and yet that man may be reformed and saved he must be led from one affection of love into another according to their connection from order, a thing that no man and even no angel can at all comprehend.  If a man should learn anything of these arcana, he could not be withheld from leading himself; and in this he would be continually led from heaven into hell, while the Lord's leading is continually from hell towards heaven. For from himself man constantly acts against order, while the Lord acts constantly according to order; for man, from the nature derived from his parents, is in the love of self and the love of the world, and consequently perceives from a feeling of delight everything belonging to those loves as good; nevertheless, those loves as ends must be removed; and this is done by the Lord in infinite ways, that appear like a labyrinth even before the angels of the third heaven.  All this makes clear that man would find no help at all in knowing anything about this from sense or perception, but it would do him harm instead, and would destroy him forever. It is sufficient for man to know truths, and by means of truths to know what is good and what is evil, and to acknowledge the Lord and His Divine auspices in every least thing. Then so far as he knows truths, and by means of them what is good and evil, and does what is good as if from himself, so far the Lord leads him from love into wisdom, conjoining love to wisdom and wisdom to love, and making them to be one, because they are one in Himself. These ways by which the Lord leads man may be compared to the vessels through which the blood in man courses and circulates, also the fibers and their foldings within and without the viscera of the body, especially in the brain, through which the animal spirit flows and gives life.  How all these things flow in and flow through, man knows nothing; and yet he lives if only he knows what he needs to do and does it. But the ways by which the Lord leads man are far more complicated and inexplicable, both those by which the Lord leads man through the societies of hell and away from them, and also those by which he leads him through the societies of heaven and interiorly into them. This, therefore, is what is meant by "the wind bloweth where it willeth, and thou knowest not whence it cometh and whither it goeth" (John 3:8), also by "the seed springeth up and groweth up, the man knoweth not how" (Mark 4:27). Moreover, of what consequence is it for a man to know how seed grows up, provided he knows how to plow and harrow the land, to sow the seed, and when he reaps his harvest to bless God?1154.
Beasts of burden and sheep signifies profaned worship from truths and goods that are from a spiritual-natural origin. This is evident from the signification of "beasts of burden," as being the truths that look to charity (of which presently); also from the signification of "sheep," as being the goods of charity, as can be seen from all the passages in the Word where they are mentioned. (As in the following: Matt. 7:15; 9:36; 10:5, 6, 16; 12:10-12; 15:21-29; 18:12, 13; 25:31-41; 26:31; Mark 6:34; 14:27; John 10:1-18, 26-31; 21:15-17; besides many passages in the prophets.) In these passages sheep signify those who are in the good of charity, therefore in an abstract sense, "sheep" signify the goods of charity. But "beasts of burden" signify the truths that look to the goods of charity, and as asses are especially meant, and these were used for riding and carrying burdens, things pertaining to use and to instruction were signified. As in Isaiah: They carry their wealth upon the shoulder of beasts of burden (Isa. 30:6). Wealth here signifies knowledges. And in Luke: The Samaritan set the man wounded by the robbers on his own beast of burden (Luke 10:34). "To set him on his own beast of burden" signifies to instruct him according to his ability (see n. 375, 376, 444), where this is explained. What "beasts of burden" signify when asses are meant may be seen (n. 31, 140). It is said that "beasts of burden and sheep" signify truths and goods from a spiritual-natural origin, because such goods and truths are meant as are in those who are in the Lord's external church, and thus in the first or lowest heaven. These are natural, and yet they receive the spiritual, and are therefore called spiritual-natural. But here, as elsewhere, profaned worship from such truths and goods is meant. (Continuation respecting the Athanasian Faith)  The operation of the Divine providence, man not knowing it, may be illustrated by two comparisons. It is like a gardener collecting the seeds of shrubs, fruit trees, and flowers of all kinds, and providing himself with spades, rakes, and other tools for working the land, and then fertilizing his garden, digging it, dividing it into beds, putting in the seeds, and smoothing the surface. All these things man must do as if of himself. But it is the Lord who causes the seeds to take root, to spring forth out of the earth, to shoot forth into leaves, and then into blossoms, and finally to yield new seeds for the benefit of the gardener. Again, it is like a man about to build a house, who provides himself with the necessary materials, as timber, rafters, stones, mortar, and other things. But afterwards the Lord builds the house from foundation to roof exactly adapted to the man, though the man does not know it. From this it follows, that unless a man provides the necessary things for a garden or a house, he will have no garden with the benefit of its fruits, and no house and thence no habitation.  So it is with reformation. The things that man must provide himself with are the knowledges of truth and good from the Word, from the doctrine of the church, from the world, and by his own labor. The Lord does everything else while man is ignorant of it. But it is to be known, that all things necessary to planting a garden or building a house, which, as has been said, are the knowledges of truth and good, are nothing but the materials, and have no life in them until man does them or lives according to them as if of himself. When that is done the Lord enters and vivifies and builds, that is, reforms. Such a garden, or such a house is man's understanding, for therein is his wisdom, which derives from love all that it is.1155.
And horses and carriages signifies profaned worship from truths and goods that are from a rational origin. This is evident from the signification of "horses," as being things intellectual (see n. 355, 364, 372, 373, 381, 382, 575, 923), thus also truths that are from a rational origin, for things of the understanding belong to truth and reason. Also from the signification of "carriages" as being goods from a rational origin, because they are drawn by horses, which signify truths from that origin; for carriages are a kind of chariot, and "chariots" signify doctrinals (see n. 355), and when these are drawn by truths, as chariots are by horses, they are goods, for doctrines teach both truths and goods.  "Carriages" have a like signification in Isaiah: Then shall they bring all your brethren out of all nations a present unto Jehovah, upon horses and upon the chariot, and upon covered carriages, and upon mules, and upon swift beasts, to the mountain of My holiness, Jerusalem (Isa. 66:20). "Horses, chariot, covered carriages, mules, and swift beasts" mean in the spiritual sense things of doctrine, and thus of the church, for this treats of a new church to be established by the Lord. For "horses" signify intellectual things, "chariot" doctrine, "covered carriages" doctrinals of good, "mules" things rational, and "swift beasts" things rational as to good; "the brethren" whom they will bring signify all who are in the good of charity, and "Jerusalem the mountain of holiness" signifies the church in which charity reigns. These things profaned are here signified because they belong to Babylon, which signifies the profanation of truth and good. (Continuation respecting the Athanasian Faith and respecting the Lord)  (6) The sixth law of the Divine providence is, That man is not reformed by external means but by internal means; by external means miracles and visions, also fears and punishments are meant. By internal means truths and goods from the Word and from the doctrine of the church, and looking to the Lord, are meant; for these means enter by an internal way, and cast out the evils and falsities that have their seat within; but external means enter by an external way, and do not cast out evils and falsities, but shut them in. Nevertheless, man may be further reformed by external means when he has previously been reformed by internal means. This follows from the above mentioned laws, namely, that man is reformed by means of freedom, and not without freedom, also that to compel oneself is from freedom, but to be compelled is not, and man is compelled by miracles and visions, and also by fears and punishments; but miracles and visions compel the external of his spirit, which consists in thinking and willing; and fears and punishments compel the external of his body, which consists in speaking and doing. This may be compelled, because man nevertheless thinks and wills freely; but the external of his spirit, which consists in thinking and willing, must not be compelled, for thus perishes his internal freedom by which he is reformed.  If man could have been reformed by miracles and visions, all in the whole world would have been reformed. It is therefore a holy law of the Divine providence that internal freedom should in no way be violated; for by that freedom the Lord enters into man, even into the hell where he is, and by it leads him while in hell, and if he is willing to follow, leads him out of hell and leads him into heaven, and nearer and nearer to Himself in heaven. In this and in no other way is man led out of infernal freedom, which regarded in itself is slavery, because it is from hell, and is led into heavenly freedom, which is freedom itself, becoming by degrees more free, and at length most free, because it is from the Lord who wills that man should not be in the least compelled. This is the way of man's reformation, but this way is closed by miracles and visions.  Nor is the freedom of man's spirit ever violated, to the end that his evils, both hereditary and actual, may be removed; which can be done only when man compels himself, as has been said above. These evils are removed by the Lord by means of the affection of truth inspired in man from which he has intelligence, and by means of the affection of good through which he has love. So far as a man is in these affections, so far he compels himself to resist evils and falsities. And this way of reformation is closed by miracles and visions, for they persuade and compel belief, and thus send the thoughts bound as it were to prison; and when freedom has thus been taken away there can be no ability from the interior to remove evils, for nothing of evil is removed except from the interior. Thus evils remain shut in, and from their infernal freedom, which they love, they continually act against those truths and goods that miracles and visions have repressed, and at length dissipate them, calling miracles the interior operations of nature and visions the deliriums of fantasy, and truths and goods fallacies and mockeries; for such is the action of the evils that are shut in upon the externals that shut them in. And yet superficial thought may lead a man to believe that miracles and visions, although they persuade, do not take away freedom of thinking; but with those not reformed they do take it away, while with the reformed they do not take it away, for with such they do not shut evils in, but with those not reformed they do.1156.
And slaves and souls of men signifies profaned worship from truths and goods that are from a natural origin. This is evident from the signification of "slaves," as being truths known, which are from the natural man (of which presently); also from the signification of "souls of men," as being the goods corresponding to these truths, which are in general affections of knowing, for "souls of men" here mean those sold for servants, thus things serviceable. These are also called "souls of men" in Ezekiel: Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, were thy merchants, they traded for thy merchandise with the soul of man and with vessels of brass (Ezek. 27:13). This is said of Tyre, which signifies the knowledges of truth and good; and "the soul of man" means servants that are sold, thus slaves; and because it is also said "with vessels of brass," "the soul of man" signifies in the spiritual sense serviceable knowledges, "vessels of brass" the same. A man who is sold is also called "soul" in Moses: If anyone hath stolen a soul of his brethren, and hath made gain of him by selling him, he shall be killed (Deut. 24:7). A "slave" signifies truth known, because the knowledges of the natural man wait upon and serve the rational man in thinking, and this is why knowledges are signified in the Word by ministries, household servants, services, and slaves, and here by "souls of men." Here as above is meant worship from truths and goods profaned by Babylon. (Continuation respecting the Athanasian Faith)  All who wish for miracles and visions are like: The sons of Israel, who, when they had seen so many prodigies in Egypt at the Sea Suph and on Mount Sinai, still within a month turned away from the worship of Jehovah and worshiped a golden calf (Exod. 32). They are also like: The rich man in hell who said to Abraham that his brethren would repent if one from the dead were sent to them; to whom Abraham replied, They have Moses and the prophets, let them hear them; if they hear not Moses and the prophets neither will they be persuaded if one rose from the dead (Luke 16:29, 31). And they are like: Thomas, who said he would not believe unless he saw; to whom the Lord said, Blessed are those who believe and do not see (John 20:25, 29). "Those who believe and do not see" are those who do not desire signs, but truths from the Word, that is, Moses and the prophets, and who believe them. Such are internal men and become spiritual; but the former are external and remain sensual, and when they see miracles, and believe only because of the miracles, in their belief are not unlike a lovely woman who within is infected with a deadly disease of which she soon dies, or they are like an apple with a fair skin but rotten at the core, or like filberts in which a worm lies concealed. Moreover, it is known that no one can be compelled to love or to believe, and that love and faith must be inwardly rooted in man. Consequently it is not possible for anyone to be led to love God and to believe in Him by means of miracles and visions, because these compel. For when one does not believe from the miracles in the Word, how can he believe from miracles that are not in the Word?1157.
Verse 14. And the fruits of the desire of thy soul have departed from thee, and all fat and splendid things have departed from thee, and thou shalt find them no more. 14. "And the fruits of the desire of thy soul have departed from thee" signifies that the gladnesses and joys they expected from worship and life according to the traditions of the Babylonish religion are turned into weeping and mourning (n. 1158); "and all fat and splendid things have departed from thee" signifies that all things good and true, and thus satisfying and grand, which they were persuaded they would secure through that religious persuasion, are turned into the opposite (n. 1159); "and thou shalt find them no more" signifies that they have been destroyed forever (n. 1160).1158.
Verse 14. And the fruits of the desire of thy soul have departed from thee, signifies that the gladnesses and joys they expected from worship and life according to the traditions of the Babylonish nation are turned into weeping and mourning. This is evident from the signification of "the fruits of the desire of the soul," as being the gladnesses and joys they hoped for from worship and life according to the traditions of the Babylonish religion. This is the signification of these words, because the things enumerated in verses 12 and 13 signify all things of the doctrine and worship of that religious persuasion from which those who believe in a life after death expect gladnesses and joys; therefore these are "the fruits of the desire of their souls." Also from the signification of "have departed from thee," as being that these have been dissipated, and have been turned into weeping and mourning, because into the torments of hell. Those gladnesses and joys which they expect are merely external, thus corporeal and worldly, for such do not know what internal gladnesses and joys are, because they have no truths from the Word, thus no truths from the Lord, but only from him whom they call His vicar, from whom falsities can come forth but no truths, because they have dominion for their end. Therefore that the people may be kept under the yoke of that dominion, such things from self and the world as delight the body are offered them. (Continuation respecting the Athanasian Faith)  (7) The seventh law of the Divine providence is, That man is let into the truths of faith and into the goods of love by the Lord only so far as he can be kept in them until the end of life; for it is better that he should continue to be evil than that he should be good and afterwards evil, for he thus becomes profane. The permission of evil is from this cause. To every man of sound reason the Lord can give the affection of truth and faith therefrom and the affection of good and love therefrom by withholding him from evil loves, which belong to his own [proprium] ; for so far as man is withheld from these he is in the understanding of truth and in the will of good. I have seen the very devils brought back to such a state; and while they were in it they talked about truths from understanding and faith, and did good from will and love. They were brought into this state because they had denied that they were unable to understand truths and do good. But as soon as withholding from their own loves had relaxed, and they had returned into the lusts of their loves, in place of faith in truth they had faith in falsity, and in place of love of good they had love of evil. This has often been witnessed, and in the presence of many. From this it is clear that everyone is capable of being reformed, and that being reformed is nothing else than being removed from evil loves. How man is removed from those loves has been told above. The Lord does not thus withhold man from evils for the reason that those who come into the affection of truth and thence into faith, and into the affection of good and thence into love, and do not continue in these affections to the end of life, but fall back into the loves from which they had abstained, profane holy things.  There are many kinds of profanation, but this kind is the most grievous of all. The lot of such after death is terrible. They are not in hell but beneath hell; and there they neither think nor will, but merely see and act. They see things that are not, and do not see the things that are. They act as if they were doing everything, and yet they do nothing. They are nothing but deliriums of fantasy. And as they neither think nor will, they are no longer men, for the human is thinking and willing. Consequently they are not called "he" nor "she," but in the neuter gender "it" or "that." When seen in any heavenly light they appear like skeletons covered over with a black skin. Such is the condition of those that have been reformed and do not remain so. Why their lot is so horrible shall be told. By their reformation a communication is established between them and heaven, whereby goods and truths flow in; and by these the interiors of their minds are opened, and evils are removed to the sides. If they remain in this state till death they are happy, but if they do not they become unhappy, for the evils that have been removed then flow back and mingle themselves with the truths and goods; thus hell is so mixed with heaven in them that the two cannot be separated; for if anything has once been impressed on the mind of man by love it can never be rooted out; since, therefore, after death the goods cannot be separated from the evils nor the truths from the falsities, the mind is wholly overthrown, and such spirits no longer have any thought or will, but what remains is like a shell when the kernel is removed, or like the skin with the skeleton when the flesh is gone, for this is all that is left of the man. Let it be known, therefore, that the danger is not in passing from evil to good, but the danger is in passing from good to evil.1159.
And all fat and splendid things are departed from thee, signifies that all things good and true and satisfying and grand, which they were persuaded they would secure through that religious persuasion, are turned into opposites. This is evident from the signification of "fat things," as being what is good and thus satisfying (of which presently); also from the signification of "splendid things," as being what is true and thus grand. This is the signification of "splendid things," because splendor is from light, and the light of heaven is the Divine truth or the Divine wisdom, from which all things in the heavens shine with a splendor such as does not exist in the world; it may be compared with the splendor of a diamond turned to the sun, although the splendor seen in heaven exceeds this beyond measure, as the light of heaven exceeds the light of the world, with a difference so great that while it may be illustrated by comparisons it cannot be described. From that light all things magnificent in the heavens exist, which consist principally of forms corresponding to wisdom, which are such as can in no way be pictured in the world, and consequently cannot be described, for in them art itself is in its art, and knowledge in its wisdom, consequently they are of ineffable beauty. From all this it is clear why "splendid things" signify what is true and thus grand.  "Fat things" signify what is good and thus satisfying, because the fat is the best part of flesh and because it resembles oil, which signifies the good of love. That "fatness" signifies good and things pertaining to good, thus satisfactions and joys, can be seen from the following passages in the Word. In Isaiah: In hearkening hearken unto Me, and eat ye that which is good, that your soul may be delighted in fatness (Isa. 55:2). "To eat that which is good" signifies to appropriate good to oneself; therefore "to be delighted in fatness" signifies to be in a state of satisfaction and blessedness. In Jeremiah: I will fill the soul of the priests with fatness, and My people shall be satisfied with good (Jer. 31:14). Here, too, "fatness" signifies satisfaction and blessedness from the good of love. In David: With fat and fatness my soul shall be satisfied, and my mouth will praise Thee with lips of songs (Ps. 63:5). "To have the soul satisfied with fat and fatness" signifies to be filled with the good of love and consequent joy; "to praise with lips of songs" signifies to worship by truths that gladden the mind. In the same: They shall be filled with the fatness of Thy house, and Thou shalt make them drink of the river of Thy pleasures (Ps. 36:8). The "fatness" with which the house shall be filled signifies the good of love and consequent satisfaction, "house" being the things of the mind; "the river of pleasures" that he will make them to drink of signifies intelligence and consequent happiness.  In Isaiah: In this mountain shall Jehovah of Hosts make to all peoples a feast of fat things, a feast of lees, of fat things of marrows, and of lees well refined (Isa. 25:6). This is said of the state of those who will acknowledge and worship the Lord. That "mountain" signifies a new church from these, "a feast of fat things, of fat things of marrows," signifies both natural and spiritual good with joy of heart, and "lees, and lees well refined" signify truths from that good with happiness from them. In the same: Jehovah shall give the rain of thy seed with which thou shalt sow the land, and bread of the produce of the land, and it shall be fat and plenteous (Isa. 30:23). "Rain of seed" signifies the multiplication of truth, and "bread of produce" signifies fructification of good; "fat and plenteous" signifies good and truth with all satisfaction and happiness. In David: They shall still have increase in old age, they shall be fat and green, to proclaim that Jehovah is upright (Ps. 92:14-15). "To be fat and green" signifies to be in the goods and truths of doctrine. In the same: Jehovah shall remember all thy offerings and shall make fat thy burnt-offering (Ps. 20:3). "Offerings and burnt-offering" signify worship, and to "make fat" signifies worship from the good of love. "Fatness" has the same signification in Ezek. 34:3; Gen. 27:39; and elsewhere. As "fat and fatness" signified the good of love, and all worship which is truly worship must be from the good of love, therefore: It was appointed that all the fat and fatness in the sacrifices should be burnt on the altar (Exod. 29:13, 22; Lev. 1:8; 3:3-16; 4:8-35; 7:3-4, 30-31; 17:6; Num. 18:17-18). For "sacrifices and burnt-offerings" signified worship.  As the Jewish and Israelitish nation was only in external worship, and not also in internal worship, and in consequence was in no good of love and in no good of charity and faith: It was forbidden them to eat the fat and blood, and it was declared that they would be cut off if they should eat them (Lev. 3:17; 7:23, 25). But to those who are in internal worship and from that in external worship, such as those must be who will be of the Lord's New Church, it is said: That they shall eat fat till they be full, and drink blood till they be drunken (Ezek. 39:19); "fat" here signifying all the good of heaven and of the church, and "blood" all their truth. In the contrary sense those who are "fat" signify those who are nauseated at good, or who at least despise and reject it (Deut. 32:15; Jer. 5:28; 50:11; Ps. 17:10; 20:4; 68:31; 119:70; and elsewhere). (Continuation)  But such is not the lot of those who are permanently evil. All who are permanently evil are in hell according to the loves of their life; and there they think and speak from thought, although they speak falsities, and they will and from will do, although they do evils. Moreover, to one another they appear like men, although in the light of heaven they have monstrous forms. From this it can be seen why it is according to a law of order relating to reformation, which is called a law of Divine providence, that man is not let into the truths of faith and the goods of love except so far as he can be withheld from evils and held in goods even to the end of life, and that it is better for a man to be permanently evil than that he be good and afterwards evil, for thus he becomes profane. It is for this reason that the Lord, who provides all things and foresees all things, hides the operations of His providence, even to the extent that man scarcely knows whether there be any providence whatever, and man is permitted to attribute what he does to prudence, and what happens to him to fortune, and even to ascribe many things to nature, rather than that he should, through conspicuous and clear indications of the Divine providence and presence, plunge unseasonably into sanctities in which he will not continue. The Lord also permits like things by other laws of His providence, namely, by these, that man should have freedom, and that he should do whatever he does according to reason, thus wholly as if of himself, for it is better for a man to ascribe the workings of the Divine providence to prudence and fortune than to acknowledge them and still live as a devil. From this it is clear that the laws of permission, which are many, proceed from the laws of providence.1160.
And thou shalt find them no more, signifies that they are destroyed forever. This is evident from the signification of "not finding them" (that is, things fat and splendid, which signify things good and thus satisfying and things true and thus grand), as being that they have been destroyed forever, for things found no more are destroyed forever. (Continuation)  One kind of profanation described above is meant by these words in Matthew: When the unclean spirit goeth out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest and finding it not. Then he saith, I will return to the house whence I went forth. When he cometh he findeth it empty, swept, and garnished. Then he goeth away, and taketh to himself seven other spirits worse than himself, and entering in they dwell there; and the latter things of that man become worse than the first (Matt. 12:43-45). This describes the conversion of a man by the departure of the unclean spirit from him; and his return to evils and the consequent profanation is described by the unclean spirit returning with seven spirits worse than himself.  Likewise by these words in John: Jesus said to him who was healed at the pool of Bethesda, Behold thou art made whole, sin no more, lest a worse thing befall thee (John 5:14). Also by these words in the same: He hath blinded their eyes and hardened their heart, lest they should see with their eyes and understand with their heart, and should convert themselves and I should heal them (John 12:40). "Lest they should convert themselves and be healed" signifies lest they should become profane. Thus would it have been with the Jews (Matt. 12:45); and this is why they were forbidden to eat fat and blood (Lev. 3:17; 7:23, 25), for this signified their profanation of what is holy in consequence of their being such. Moreover, the Lord by his Divine providence guards with the greatest care against this kind of profanation; and lest this exist, He separates the holy things with man from those that are not holy, and stores up the holy things in the interiors of his mind, and raises them up to Himself; while the things not holy He stores up in the exteriors, and turns them to the world. Thus holy things can be separated from the unholy, and thus man can be saved. But this cannot be done when goods and evils are mixed together. That those who continue in faith and love even unto death will have the crown of life, the Lord teaches in Revelation (2:10, 26).1161.
Verses 15-16. The merchants of these things who became rich by her shall stand afar off for fear of her torment, weeping and mourning; and saying, "Woe, woe, that great city, arrayed in fine linen and purple and scarlet, and inwrought with gold, precious stone, and pearls. [English version, verse 17.] For in one hour were devastated so great riches." 15. "The merchants of these things who were made rich by her" signifies all those who gained from that religious persuasion honors and riches, and thus the good things of opulence and eminence, which are satisfying and grand (n. 1162); "shall stand afar off for fear of her torment" signifies from dread of infernal punishments while they were in externals (n. 1163); "weeping and mourning" signifies grief of soul and heart (n. 1164). 16. "And saying, Woe, woe, that great city," signifies lamentation over their doctrine and religious persuasion (n. 1165) ; "arrayed in fine linen and purple and scarlet" signifies the appearance in externals of being from celestial and spiritual truth and good (n. 1166); "and inwrought with gold and precious stone and pearls" signifies the appearance in externals of being from spiritual and natural truth and good (n. 1167). "For in one hour were devastated so great riches" signifies the destruction of all things that they had gained, and of all things by which they had hoped to make gains (n. 1168).1162.
Verse 15. The merchants of these things who became rich by her signifies all those who gained from that religious persuasion honor and wealth, and thus the good things of opulence and eminence, which are satisfying and grand. This is evident from the signification of "merchants," as being those who acquire such things as are signified in the Word by "riches," for it is said, "The merchants of these things." (That "merchants" have this signification see above, n. 1138.) Also from the signification of "becoming rich," as being to gain such things and to make gain by them. The good things of eminence and opulence which are signified by "things fat and splendid" are here meant, and these are external things that are satisfying and grand separated from internal things, thus the goods of the world separated from the goods of heaven; for those who are of Babylon do not know what internal satisfactions are, because they do not read the Word and look to the Lord, but they know only what external satisfactions are, and with these only are they delighted. They are not receptive of internal satisfactions. The answers of those who were invited to the great supper have a similar signification: One of whom said that he had bought a field, to which he must go, another that he had bought oxen which he must prove, and a third that he had married a wife (Luke 14:18-20). All these things mean the goods of the world, or external goods withdrawn from internal goods. There is a like signification in the Lord's words in Matthew: That they were eating and drinking, contracting matrimony and giving in nuptials, and knew not until the flood came and took them all away (Matt. 24:38-39). This was said by the Lord of the Last Judgment; and "to eat and drink, to contract matrimony and give in nuptials," has the same signification as "things fat and splendid" in this verse, namely, external satisfactions and pleasantnesses, which are called pleasures of the body and of the world, and not also of the soul and of heaven. All this makes clear that all the kinds of merchandise enumerated in this chapter mean external goods and satisfactions that are not at the same time internal, and thus that those who are in these are meant by "the merchants who became rich" by these means. (Continuation)  (8) The eighth law of the Divine providence is that the Lord is continually withdrawing man from evils so far as man is willing from freedom to be withdrawn; that so far as man can be withdrawn from evils the Lord leads him to good and thus to heaven; but so far as man cannot be withdrawn from evils the Lord cannot lead him to good and thus to heaven; for so far as man has been withdrawn from evils so far he does good from the Lord, and that good is good in itself; but so far as he has not been withdrawn from evils, so far he does good from himself, and that good has evil within it. By the speech of his lips and the actions of his body man is in the natural world; but by the thoughts of his understanding and the affections of his will he is in the spiritual world. By the spiritual world heaven and hell are meant, both divided into innumerable societies, according to all the varieties of affections and consequent thoughts arranged in a most complete order. In the midst of these societies is man, so bound to them as not to have the least ability to think or will except in connection with them, and so connected that if he were to be torn away from them or they from him he would fall down dead, life remaining only in his inmost, whereby he is a man and not a beast, and whereby he lives to eternity. Man does not know that in regard to his life he is in such inseparable fellowship. This he does not know, because he has no discourse with spirits. For so long a time has man known nothing about that state; but lest this should remain hidden to eternity, it has been revealed. This much must be said before this law of the Divine providence can be understood.1163.
And stood afar off for fear of her torment signifies from dread of infernal punishments while they were in externals, as is evident from the explanation above (n. 1113), where similar words occur. (Continuation) Man is from birth in the midst of infernal societies, and extends himself into them precisely as he extends the evil affections of his will. All evil affections of the will are from the loves of self and the world; and for the reason that those loves turn all things of the mind downwards and outwards, that is, towards hell, which is beneath and outside of themselves, thus turning them away from the Lord, and away from heaven. Moreover, the interiors of all things of the human mind, and with them the interiors of all things of the spirit, are capable of being turned either downwards or upwards. They are turned downwards when man loves himself above all things; and they are turned upwards when he loves the Lord above all things. This is an actual turning. Man from himself turns them downwards, while the Lord from Himself turns them upwards. The ruling love is what turns. Thoughts do not turn the interiors of the mind except so far as they are derived from the will. That all this is true man does not know; and yet he ought to know it in order that he may understand how he is led out of hell and led into heaven by the Lord.1164.
Weeping and mourning signifies grief of soul and heart. This is evident from the signification of "weeping," as being grief of soul, and from the signification of "mourning," as being grief of heart. Grief of soul and grief of heart differ as truth and good differ, for in the Word "soul" is predicated of truth, which is of faith, and "heart" of good, which is of love; so the expression occurs in the Word, "from the soul and heart." They differ also as will and understanding in man differ, and also as the respiration of the lungs and the motion of the heart differ. And as there is in the Word a marriage like the marriage of truth and good, or of faith and love, or of understanding and will, so it is here with "weeping and mourning," that is, "weeping" is from grief of soul, and "mourning" from grief of heart. (Continuation)  That a man may be led out of hell and led into heaven by the Lord, he must himself resist hell, that is, evils, as if from himself. If he does not resist as if from himself, he remains in hell and hell in him, nor is he separated from it to eternity. This follows from the laws of the Divine providence that are stated above and that have been explained. Moreover, experience will teach that this is true. Evils are removed from man either by punishments, or by temptations, and consequent turning away, or by the affections of truth and good. With those not reformed evils are removed by punishments; with those about to be reformed they are removed by temptations and consequent turning away; and with the regenerate by the affections of truth and good. The experience is this: When an unreformed or evil person endures punishments, as takes place in hell, he is kept in the punishments until it is perceived that of himself he does not will the evils; not until then is he set free. Thus is he compelled of himself to put away evils. If he is not punished even to that intention and will he continues in his evil. Yet even then the evil is not rooted out, because he has not compelled himself. The evil remains within, and returns when the fear ceases. With those about to be reformed evils are removed by temptations, which are not punishments but combats. Such persons are not compelled to resist evils, but they compel themselves and pray to the Lord, and thus are delivered from the evils which they have resisted. Such afterwards refrain from evils, not from any fear of punishment but from an aversion to evil; and at length this aversion to evil is their resistance. But with the regenerate there are no temptations or combats, but the affections of truth and good that keep evils far away from them; for they are wholly separated from hell, which is the source of evils, and are conjoined to the Lord.  To be separated and removed from evils is the same thing as to be separated and removed from infernal societies. The Lord has the power to separate and remove from infernal societies, that is, from evils, and the power to transfer to heavenly societies, that is, to goods, anyone He may wish; but such a change can continue only for a few hours, after which the evils return. I have frequently seen this done; and seen that the evil continued evil as before. In the whole spiritual world there is not an instance of anyone's having been removed from evils in any other way than by combat or resistance as if from himself, or of anyone doing this except of the Lord alone.1165.
Verse 16. And saying, Woe, woe, that great city, signifies lamentation over their doctrine and religious persuasion, as is evident from the explanation of like words above (n. 1134). "Woe, woe," signifies lamentation when it is said, "Woe that city," but it signifies cursing when it is said, "Woe to that city." (Continuation) Let experience testify further on this subject. The quality of all who come from the earth into the spiritual world is known from their ability or inability to resist evils as if from themselves. Those who are able to do this are saved, while those who are not able are not saved. The reason is that man is not able to resist evils from himself, but only from the Lord; for it is the Lord who resists evils in man and gives man to feel and perceive as if he does it from himself. Therefore those in the world who have acknowledged the Lord, and have acknowledged that all good and truth are from Him, and that nothing is from man, and thus that power over evils is from the Lord, and not from themselves, such resist evils as if from themselves. But those who have not acknowledged this in the world are unable to resist evils as if from themselves, for such are in evils and in the delight of evils from love; and to resist the delight of love is the same as resisting themselves, their own nature, and their own life. An experiment was made whether such were able to resist evils when the punishments of hell were described to them, and even when those punishments were seen and were felt; but it was in vain; for they hardened their minds, saying, Let this be so, and let it come, but so long as I am here let me be in the pleasures and joys of my heart. The present I know; what is to come I give no thought to; no more evil will come to me than to very many others. Such when their time is fulfilled are cast into hell; and there they are compelled by punishments to refrain from doing evil; but punishments do not take away the will, intention, and consequent thought of evil; they merely take away the acts. All this makes clear that the power to resist evils is not from man, but is from the Lord with those who acknowledge Him, and that the Lord causes it to appear as if done by man.1166.
Arrayed in fine linen and purple and scarlet signifies the appearance in externals of being from celestial and spiritual truth and good. This is evident from the signification of "fine linen," as being truth from a celestial origin (see n. 1143); also from the signification of "purple," as being good from a celestial origin (see n. 1042); also from the signification of "scarlet," as being good from a spiritual origin (see n. 1144); also from the signification of "to be arrayed in them," as being to appear in externals. This makes clear that "to be arrayed in fine linen and purple and scarlet" signifies the appearance in externals of being from celestial and spiritual truth and good, and yet regarded interiorly, these are evils and falsities from an infernal origin. What the celestial is and what the spiritual is has frequently been told before. (Continuation.)  The Lord alone resists the evils with man by Himself and not through any angels of heaven, because to resist evils with man is a work of Divine omnipotence, Divine omniscience, and Divine providence. It is a work of Divine omnipotence, because to resist one evil is to resist many, and even to resist the hells. For every evil is joined with innumerable other evils, and they cling together like the hells with each other; for as evils make one so do the hells, and as the hells make one so do evils, and no one but the Lord is able to resist the hells so united. It is a work of Divine omniscience, because the Lord alone knows what man is and what his evils are, and what their connection is with other evils, thus in what order they must be removed that man may be inwardly or radically cured. It is a work of Divine providence, that nothing may be done contrary to the laws of order, and that what is done may promote man's eternal good; for Divine omnipotence, Divine omniscience, and Divine providence have respect in every least particular to what is eternal.  All this makes clear that no angel is able to resist the evils with man, but the Lord only. The Lord carries on this work in man both immediately from himself, and mediately through heaven, and yet in such a way that no angel knows anything about it. For heaven in the whole complex is the Lord, because it is His Divine proceeding; consequently when He is working through heaven He is working from Himself. It is said mediately because the Divine operation flows through the heavens, and yet it takes nothing from the own [proprium] of any angel there, but only from what is its own with them. The appearance is the same as when a man does any act; to produce it he moves innumerable motor fibers scattered through his whole body, but of this action no single fiber knows anything. Such are angels in the Divine Body which is called heaven.1167.
And inwrought with gold and precious stone and pearls signifies the appearance in externals of being from spiritual and natural truth and good, as is evident from what has been explained above (n. 1043, 1044), where like words occur. (Continuation) The law of the Divine providence, that so far as a man can be withdrawn from evils he does good from the Lord that is good in itself, but so far as he cannot be withdrawn from evils, he does good from himself, and such good has evil in it, may be illustrated by the commandments of the Decalogue. Take for example the commandment not to steal. Those who resist as if from themselves the lust of stealing and thus the lust of gaining wealth dishonestly and unjustly, saying in their hearts that this must not be done because it is contrary to the Divine law, thus contrary to God, and is in itself infernal, thus in itself evil, such after some brief combats are withdrawn from that evil, and are led by the Lord into the good that is called integrity, and into the good that is called justice; and then they begin to think about these goods, and to look upon them from them, to look upon integrity from integrity, and upon justice from justice; and afterwards as they shun and turn away from the evil of this lust, they love the goods, and do them from love and not from compulsion. Such goods are from the Lord, because they are goods that are good in themselves. It is otherwise when the lust of gaining wealth dishonestly and unjustly remains with man; then he cannot act honestly from honesty or justly from justice, thus not from the Lord, but only from self. For he acts honestly and justly only that he may be believed to be honest and just with a view to securing greater gain and honor; these ends are in his goods, and from the end is the whole quality of the good. Such good has evil in it, since its quality is from the end to make gains dishonestly and unjustly. Everyone can see that such good cannot become good in itself until the evil has been removed. It is the same with all the other commandments of the Decalogue.1168.
[English version, ver. 17.] For in one hour were devastated so great riches signifies the loss of all that they had gained, and of all things by which they hoped to make gains. This is evident from the signification of "were devastated in one hour," as being total destruction (see n. 1136), and so the loss of all things; also from the signification of "riches," as being gains, which are honors and wealth, thus things they have gained, also the evils and falsities of their doctrine and religious persuasion, which are the things by which they hoped to make gains. "Riches" have the same signification as the "merchandise" enumerated in verses 12-14. (Continuation)  So far as man is removed from evils he is removed from hell, for evils and hell are one; and so far as he is removed from these he enters into goods and is conjoined with heaven, for goods and heaven are one. Man thus becomes another man; his freedom, his good, his mind, and his understanding and will, are turned about, for he becomes an angel of heaven. His freedom, which before had been a freedom to think and will evil, becomes a freedom to think and will good, which in itself is essential freedom. Until a man is in this freedom he does not know what freedom is, for from the freedom of evil he felt the freedom of good to be slavery; but now from the freedom of good he feels the freedom of evil to be slavery, as it is in itself. The good that man had before done, since it was from the freedom of evil, could not be good in itself, for it had in it the love of self or of the world. Good can have no other, origin than love; therefore such as the love is such is the good; yet even when the love is evil its delight is felt as good, although it is evil. But after this change the good that man does is good in itself, because it is from the Lord who is good itself, as has been said above.  The mind of man, before it was conjoined to heaven was turned backwards, because it had not been led out of hell. When it is in a state of reformation, it looks from truth to good, thus from left to right, which is contrary to order. But when the mind has been conjoined to heaven it is turned forwards and lifted up to the Lord and looks from right to left, that is, from good to truth, which is according to order. Thus a turning is brought about. It is the same with the understanding and will, since the understanding is a recipient of truth, and the will a recipient of good. Before man has been led out of hell the understanding and will do not act as one; for man then sees and acknowledges from the understanding many things that he does not will, because he does not love them. But when man has been conjoined to heaven the understanding and will act as one, for the understanding then becomes the will's understanding; for when the turning has been effected whatever a man wills he loves, and whatever he wills from love he thinks. Thus when a man has been removed from evils by resistance and combat against them as if from himself, he comes into the love of truth and good; and then everything that he wills and consequently does he also thinks and consequently speaks.1169.
Verse 17. And every pilot, and all that are employed on ships, and sailors, and as many as work at sea, stood afar off. 17. "And every pilot, and all that are employed on ships, and sailors, and as many as work at sea," signifies all that have believed themselves to be in wisdom, in intelligence, and in knowledge, and have confirmed the falsities of that doctrine and religious persuasion by reasonings from the natural man (n. 1170); "stood afar off" signifies not now in these things as before because of fear (n. 1171).1170.
Verse 17. And every pilot, and all that are employed on ships, and sailors, and as many as work at sea, signifies all that have believed themselves to be in wisdom, intelligence, and knowledge, and have confirmed the falsities of that doctrine and religious persuasion by reasonings from the natural man. This is evident from the signification of "ships" as being the knowledges of truth and good, also doctrinals in both senses (see n. 514); and as wisdom, intelligence and knowledge are from the knowledges of truth and good, so a "pilot or ship master" signifies those who are in wisdom. "Those employed on ships" signify those who are in intelligence; and "sailors" signify those who are in knowledge. Wisdom, intelligence, and knowledge are mentioned, because they follow in that order with those who from knowledges become wise. Wisdom is in the third degree, intelligence in the second, and knowledge in the first or ultimate, and this is why they are mentioned in that order in the Word, as in Moses: I have filled Bezaleel with the spirit of God, in wisdom, in intelligence, and in knowledge (Exod. 31:3; 35:31). The above is evident also from the signification of "working at sea," as being to confirm by reasonings from the natural man, and here to confirm the falsities of that doctrine and religious persuasion, for "the sea" signifies the natural man, and "working" there signifies to reason, and by reasonings to confirm. Strictly, "to work at sea" signifies to acquire the things by which they may make gain, also to sell such things, and thus to make gain. But as gains were described above by "merchants and their merchandise," here "working at sea" has another signification, namely, to confirm by reasonings. That "pilots or ship masters" signify those who are wise can be seen in Ezekiel: The wise men of Zidon and Arvad were thy pilots. The elders of Gebal and the wise men thereof were thy caulkers (Ezek. 27:8, 9). But these things may be seen explained above (n. 514). (Continuation)  There are two faculties of life in man, one called the understanding and the other the will. These faculties are entirely distinct from each other; but they were created to make one, and when they make one they are called one mind; but with man they are at first divided, and afterwards united. They are distinct just as light and heat are. For the understanding is from the light of heaven which in its essence is the Divine truth or the Divine wisdom; and while man is in the world the understanding in him sees, thinks, reasons, and concludes from that light. Yet man is ignorant of this fact, since he knows nothing about that light or its origin. The will is from the heat of heaven, which in its essence is the Divine good or the Divine love; and while man is in the world the will in him loves from that heat, and has from it all its pleasure and delight. Of this fact also man is ignorant, since he knows nothing about that heat or its origin. Since, then, the understanding sees from the light of heaven, it is evidently the subject and receptacle of that light, and thus the subject and receptacle of truth and of wisdom therefrom. And since the will loves from the heat of heaven, it is evidently the subject and receptacle of that heat, and thus the subject and receptacle of good, that is, of love. From all this it can be clearly seen that these two faculties of man's life are distinct, as light and heat are, also as truth and good are, and as wisdom and love are.  That these two faculties are at first divided in man, is plainly perceptible from the fact that man is capable of understanding truth, and good from truth, and of accepting it as good, even though he does not will it and from willing do it; for he understands what is true and thus what is good when he hears and reads about it, and understands so fully as to be able afterwards to teach it by preaching and writing. But when alone and thinking from his spirit he can apprehend that he does not will the truth, and even that he wills to act contrary to it, and does act contrary to it when not restrained by fears. Such are those who are able to speak intelligently, and yet live otherwise. This is "seeing one law in the spirit, and another in the flesh," "spirit" being the understanding, and "flesh" the will. This division between the understanding and the will is perceived especially by those who wish to be reformed, and but little by others.  This division is possible because the understanding with man has not been destroyed, but the will has been destroyed. For the understanding is comparatively like the light of the world by which man is able to see with equal clearness in the winter season and summer season; while the will is comparatively like the heat of the world, which may be absent from the light or be present in the light. It is absent in the winter season and present in the summer season. But the fact is this, that nothing except the will destroys the understanding, as nothing except the absence of heat destroys the germinations of the earth. The understanding is destroyed by the will in those who are in evils of life when the two act as one, and not when they do not act as one. They act as one when man thinks by himself from his love, but they do not act as one when he is with others. When he is with others he conceals and thus sets aside his will's own love; and when this is set aside the understanding is raised up into higher light.  This shall be shown by experience. I have occasionally heard spirits talking with one another and also with myself so wisely that an angel could scarcely have talked more wisely; and I was in consequence led to believe that they would soon be raised up into heaven; but after a while I saw them with the evil in hell, at which I wondered. But I was then permitted to hear them talking in a wholly different way, not in favor of truths as before, but against them, because they were now in the love of their own will and likewise of their own understanding, while before they were not in that love. It has also been granted me to see how what is man's own [proprium] is distinguished from what is not his own; for this may be seen in the light of heaven. What is man's own has its seat within, and what is not his own has its seat without; and the latter veils and conceals the former, and the former does not appear until this veil is taken away, as takes place with all after death. I have noticed also that many were amazed at what they saw and heard; but these were such as judge of the state of a man's soul from his conversation and writings, and not also from his acts which are from his own will. All this makes clear that these two faculties of life in man are at first divided.  Something shall now be said about their union. They are united in those who are reformed, which is effected by combat against the evils of the will. When these evils have been removed the will of good acts as one with the understanding of truth. From this it follows that such as the will is such is the understanding, or, what is the same, such as the love is such is the wisdom. The wisdom is such as the love is because the love belonging to the will is the esse of man's life, and the wisdom belonging to the understanding is the existere of life therefrom; therefore the love, which belongs to the will, forms itself in the understanding, and the form it there takes on is what is called wisdom; for as love and wisdom have one essence it is clear that wisdom is the form of love, or love in form. When these faculties have thus been united by reformation the will's love increases daily, and it increases by spiritual nourishment in the understanding; for it has there its affection for truth and good, which is like an appetite that hungers and desires. From all this it is clear that it is the will that must be reformed, and as it is reformed the understanding sees, that is, grows wise; for as has been said, the will has been destroyed, but the understanding has not. The will and the understanding also make one with those who are not reformed, that is, in the evil, if not in the world yet after death; for after death man is not permitted to think from his understanding except in accordance with the love of his will. To this everyone is finally brought; and when he is brought to this condition the evil love of the will has its own form in the understanding, and as this form is from the falsities of evil it is insanity.1171.
Stood afar off signifies not now in these things as before because of fear. This is evident from the signification of "standing afar off," as being to be in externals (see n. 1133), so here because of fear, not to be in that delusive wisdom, intelligence, and knowledge by which they had before confirmed the evils and falsities of their doctrine and religious persuasion; for fear causes man to withdraw from these things when he sees the punishments and torments of those who are in them. (Continuation) Let the following be added to what has been said. (1) Before reformation the light of the understanding is like the light of the moon, clear according to the knowledges of truth and good; but after reformation it is like the light of the sun, clear according to the application of the knowledges of truth and good to the uses of life. (2) The reason that the understanding has not been destroyed is that man may know truths, and from truths see the evils of his will, and seeing them he may resist them as if from himself, and thus be reformed. (3) And yet man is not reformed from his understanding, but by means of the recognition of truths by the understanding and its seeing evils by them; for the operation of the Lord's Divine providence is into the love of man's will, and from that into the understanding, and not the reverse. (4) The love of the will gives intelligence according to its quality. Natural love from spiritual love gives intelligence in civil and moral matters; but spiritual love in natural love gives intelligence in spiritual matters; but merely natural love and the conceit that comes from it does not give intelligence in spiritual matters, but gives the ability to confirm whatever it pleases, and after confirmation so infatuates the understanding that it sees falsity as truth, and evil as good. Nevertheless, this love does not take away the ability to understand truths in their light; when it is present it takes it away, but not when it is absent. (5) When the will has been reformed, and the wisdom belonging to the understanding has come to be of the love belonging to the will, that is, when wisdom comes to be the love of truth and good in its form, man is like a garden in spring time, when heat is united to light and gives a soul to the germinations. Spiritual germinations are such productions of wisdom from love; and in every such production there is a soul from that love, while its clothing is from wisdom; thus the will is like a father and the understanding like a mother. (6) Such is man's life, not only the life of his mind, but also the life of his body, since the life of the mind acts as one with the life of the body by correspondences. For the life of the will or love corresponds to the life of the heart, and the life of the understanding or wisdom corresponds to the life of the lungs; and these are the two fountains of the life of the body. Man does not know that this is so; nevertheless it is for this reason that an evil person cannot live in heaven, or a good person in hell. For either of these becomes as it were dead when he is not among those with whom the life of his will and thus the life of his understanding acts as one. When he is among such his heart beats freely, and his lungs respire freely; but not when he is among others.1172.
Verses 18-19. And they cried out when they saw the smoke of her burning, saying, What is like this great city? And they cast dust upon their heads, and cried out, weeping and mourning, saying, Woe, woe, that great city, wherein all that had ships in the sea were made rich by her costliness, for in one hour they were devastated. 18. "And they cried out when they saw the smoke of her burning" signifies grief of mind because of direful falsities, when they saw the punishment on account of those direful falsities that flowed from their lives (n. 1173); "saying, What is like this great city," signifies astonishment that that doctrine and religious persuasion were thus destroyed (n. 1174). 19. "And they cast dust upon their heads and cried out, weeping and mourning," signifies confession that by a life according to that religious persuasion and its doctrine they were condemned (n. 1175); "saying, Woe, woe, that great city, wherein all that had ships in the sea were made rich by her costliness," signifies lamentation over the doctrine and religious persuasion by which all who confirmed them by reasonings from the natural man had made gains (n. 1176); "for in one hour they were devastated" signifies over the loss and destruction of all things (n. 1177).1173.
Verse 18. And they cried out when they saw the smoke of her burning signifies grief of mind when they saw the punishment on account of the direful falsities that flowed from their loves. This is evident from the signification of "crying out," as being grief of mind (see n. 393, 424, 459); also from the signification of "smoke," as being infernal falsity flowing from the evils of earthly and bodily loves (see n. 539, 889, 1131); also from the signification of "burning," as being the condemnation and punishment of the evils flowing from their loves (see n. 1083, 1126). From all this it is clear that "they cried out as they saw the smoke of her burning," signifies grief of mind when they saw the punishment on account of the direful falsities that flowed from their loves. (Continuation)  (9) The ninth law of the Divine providence is that the Lord does not teach man truths either from Himself or through the angels immediately; but He teaches mediately by means of the Word, preaching, reading, conversation, and communication with others, and thus by thoughts within oneself about these things. Man is thus enlightened in the measure of his affection of truth from use. Otherwise man could not act as if from himself. This follows as a consequence from the laws of the Divine providence before explained, namely, that man must be in freedom, and must do what he does from reason; that he must think as if from himself from his understanding, and must do good as if from himself from his will; also that he must not be compelled to believe anything or do anything by miracles or by visions. These laws are unchangeable, because they are laws of the Divine wisdom and also of the Divine love; and yet they would be disturbed if man should be taught immediately, either by influx or by speech.  Moreover, the Lord flows into the interiors of man's mind and through these into its exteriors, also into the affection of his will and through that into the thought of his understanding, but not the reverse. To flow into the interiors of man's mind and through these into its exteriors is to take root and from the root produce; for the root is in the interiors and production in the exteriors; and to flow into the affection of the will and through that into the thought of the understanding is first to inspire a soul, and through that to form all other things; for the affection of the will is like a soul whereby the thoughts of the understanding are formed. Furthermore, this is influx from what is internal into what is external, and such influx is possible. About what flows into the interiors of his mind, or about what flows into the affection of his will, man knows nothing; but he would know about that which flowed into the exteriors of his mind, or into the thought of his understanding, and this would be to produce something without a root, or to form something without a soul. Everyone can see that this would be contrary to Divine order, consequently that it would be to destroy and not to build up. By all this the truth of this law of the Divine providence is made clear.1174.
Saying, What is like this great city, signifies astonishment that that doctrine and religious persuasion were destroyed. This is evident from the signification of "great city," which is Babylon, as being its doctrine and religious persuasion; for "city" signifies doctrine, and "Babylon" its religious persuasion (as above, n. 1134); astonishment that they were destroyed is signified by their "crying out and saying, What is like it," and this follows from seeing the smoke of her burning. (Continuation)  But how the Lord flows in and man is thus led can be known from no other source than the spiritual world, where man is as to his spirit, that is, as to his affections and the thoughts therefrom, for these constitute man's spirit; and the spirit from its affection, and not the body, is what thinks. The affections of man, from which are his thoughts, have extension into societies in the spiritual world on every side, into more or fewer of them according to the amount and quality of the affection. Man as to his spirit is within these societies, and to them he is attached as it were with extended cords, which determine the space where he can walk. As he passes from one affection into another, so he passes from one society into another, and the society he is in, and the place where he is in the society, is the center from which the affection and its thought extends to other societies as circumferences, and these are thus in unbroken connection with the affection at the center, and from that affection man then thinks and speaks. Man acquires this sphere, which is the sphere of his affections and thoughts therefrom, while he is in the world; from hell if he is evil, from heaven if he is good. Of this man is ignorant, because he does not know that such things exist. Through these societies man, that is, man's mind, although bound walks free; but he is led by the Lord, and he takes no step into which and from which the Lord does not lead; and yet the Lord grants continually that man shall have no other thought than that he goes of himself in full liberty; and he is permitted to persuade himself of this because it is according to a law of the Divine providence that man shall go whithersoever his affection wills. If his affection is evil he is conveyed through infernal societies; and if he does not look to the Lord he is carried into these societies more interiorly and deeply. And yet the Lord leads him as if by the hand, permitting and withholding as far as man is willing to follow in freedom. But if man looks to the Lord he is led forth from these societies gradually, according to the order and connection in which they stand, which order and connection no one knows but the Lord only, and thus he is brought by continual steps out of hell up towards heaven and into heaven.  This the Lord does without the man's knowing it, because if man knew it he would disturb the continuity of that process by leading himself. It is enough for man to learn truths from the Word, and by means of truths to know what good is, and from truths and goods what evils and falsities are, in order that he may be affected by truths and goods, and not be affected by falsities and evils. Before he knows goods and truths he may have a knowledge of evils and falsities, but he is not able to see them and perceive them. In this and in no other way can man be led from one affection into another in freedom and as if of himself. This is done by leading according to the affection of truth and good when man acknowledges the Lord's Divine providence in every particular; and it is done by permission according to an affection for evil and falsity when man does not acknowledge such a providence. So, too, man becomes capable of receiving intelligence corresponding to affection; and this he receives so far as from truths he fights against evils as if of himself. This must be revealed, because it is not known that the Divine providence is continual, and enters into the most minute things of man's life, and because it is not known how this can be.1175.
Verse 19. And they cast dust upon their heads and cried out weeping, and mourning, signifies grief and confession that by a life according to that religious persuasion and its doctrine they were condemned. This is evident from the signification of "to cast dust upon the head," as being to mourn because they were condemned (it follows as a consequence that it was on account of life according to that religious persuasion and its doctrine); also from the signification of "to cry out weeping and mourning," as being grief that they were condemned by such a life, "to cry out" having reference to doctrine, and "to weep and mourn" signifying grief of soul and heart (as above, n. 1164). "To cast dust upon the heads" means mourning on account of condemnation, because "dust" signifies what is condemned, and "head" the man himself. "Dust" signifies what is condemned, because the hells are beneath and the heavens are above, and from the hells falsity from evil unceasingly breathes forth, consequently the dust over them signifies what is condemned (see also above, n. 742). Because of this signification of "dust" it was a custom in the representative churches to cast dust upon their heads when they had done evil and had repented of it, thus giving proof of their repentance.  That this was so can be seen from the following passages. In Ezekiel: They shall cry bitterly and shall cast up dust upon their heads, they shall roll themselves in ashes (Ezek. 27:30). "To cast up dust upon their heads" signifies mourning because of condemnation, and "to roll themselves in ashes" signifies still deeper mourning, for "ashes" signify what is condemned, because the fire from which they come signifies infernal love. In Lamentations: The elders of the daughter of Zion sit upon the earth, they keep silence, they have cast up dust upon their heads; the virgins of Jerusalem hang down their heads to the earth (Lam. 2:10). By such things grief and mourning because of evils and falsities of which they repented, and thus confession that they were condemned, were represented. "Daughter of Zion" signifies the church, and "virgins of Jerusalem" signify truths of doctrine; "to sit upon the earth and keep silence" signifies grief of mind; "to cast dust upon the head" signifies confession that they were condemned, and "to hang down the head to the earth" signifies confession that they were in hell. In Job: The friends of Job rent everyone his mantle, and sprinkled dust upon their heads toward heaven (Job 2:12). "To sprinkle dust upon the head towards heaven" signifies mourning on account of Job, who seemed to be condemned. Mourning on account of condemnation of evil is signified by "dust upon the head," and "rending the mantle" signifies mourning on account of condemnation of falsity. The same is signified by: Rolling themselves in the dust (Micah 1:10). That repentance was thus represented is evident in Job: I repent upon dust and upon ashes (Job 42:6). Because "dust" signifies condemnation, it was said to the serpent: Upon the belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life (Gen. 3:14). The "serpent" signifies infernal evil with those who pervert the truths of the Word, and thereby deceive artfully and craftily. So in Isaiah: Dust shall be the serpent's bread (Isa. 65:25). From all this it is clear that "dust" signifies what is condemned, and that "to cast dust upon the head" is a testification of condemnation. (Continuation)  All this having been premised it shall now be told what affection is, and afterwards why man is led by the Lord by means of affections and not by means of thoughts, and lastly that man can be saved in no other way. What affection is. The same is meant by affection as by love. But love is like a fountain and affections are like the streams therefrom, thus affections are continuations of love. Love as a fountain is in the will of man; affections, which are streams from it, flow by continuity into the understanding, and there by means of light from truths produce thoughts, just as the influences of heat in a garden produce germinations by means of rays of light. Moreover, love in its origin is the heat of heaven, and truths in their origin are the rays of light of heaven, and thoughts are germinations from their marriage. From such a marriage are all the societies of heaven, which are innumerable, which in their essence are affections; for they are from the heat that is love and from the wisdom that is light from the Lord as a sun. Therefore these societies, as heat in them is united to light, and light is united to heat, are affections of good and truth. From this are the thoughts of all in these societies. This makes clear that the societies of heaven are not thoughts but affections, consequently to be led by means of these societies is to be led by means of affections, that is, to be led by means of affections is to be led by means of societies; and for this reason in what now follows the term affections will be used in place of societies.  Why man is led by the Lord by means of affections and not by means of thoughts shall now be told. When man is led by the Lord by means of affections he can be led according to all the laws of His Divine providence, but not if he should be led by means of thoughts. Affections do not become evident to man, but thoughts do; also affections produce thoughts, but thoughts do not produce affections; there is an appearance that they do, but it is a fallacy. And when affections produce thoughts they produce all things of man, because these constitute his life. Moreover, this is known in the world. If you hold a man in his affection you hold him bound, and lead him wherever you please, and a single reason is then stronger than a thousand. But if you do not hold man in his affection reasons are of no avail, for his affection, when not in harmony with them, either perverts them or rejects them or extinguishes them. It would be similar if the Lord should lead man by means of thoughts immediately, and not by means of affections. Again, when a man is led by the Lord by means of affections, it seems to him as if he thought freely as if of himself, and spoke freely and acted freely as if of himself. And this is why the Lord does not teach man immediately, but mediately by means of the Word, and by means of doctrines and preachings from the Word, and by means of conversations and interaction with others; for from these things man thinks freely as if of himself.  In no other way can man be saved. This follows both from what has been said about the laws of the Divine providence and also from this, that thoughts do not produce affections in man. For if man knew all things of the Word, and all things of doctrine, even to the arcana of wisdom that the angels possess, and thought and spoke about them, so long as his affections were lusts of evil he could not be brought out of hell by the Lord. Evidently, then, if man were to be taught from heaven by an influx into his thoughts it would be like casting seed upon the way, or into water, or into snow, or into fire.1176.
Saying, Woe, woe, that great city, wherein all that had ships in the sea were made rich by reason of her costliness, signifies lamentation over the doctrine and religious persuasion by which all who confirmed them by reasonings from the natural man made gains. This is evident from the signification of "Woe, Woe," as being lamentation (see n. 1165); from the signification of "the great city," as being the doctrine and religious persuasion (see n. 1134); from the signification of "to be made rich by her costliness," as being to make gains by these means; also from the signification of "having ships in the sea," as being to confirm these by reasonings from the natural man. "Those who have ships in the sea" have the same signification as "pilot, all employed on ships, sailors, and they that work at sea," in the seventeenth verse; and these signify all who believe themselves to be in wisdom, intelligence, and knowledge, and who have confirmed the falsities of that doctrine and religious persuasion by reasonings from the natural man, as may be seen above (n. 1170). (Continuation)  Because the Divine providence acts into the affections that belong to man's love and thus to his will, leading him in and from his affection into another that is near and related to it by means of his freedom, and so imperceptibly that man has no knowledge of how it acts, and in fact hardly knows that there is a Divine providence; for this reason many deny providence, and confirm themselves against it. This is done in consequence of the various things that happen and arise, as that the arts and deceits of the wicked are successful, that impiety prevails, that there is a hell, that the understanding is blinded to spiritual things, and that this gives rise to so many heresies, each one of which, starting from a single head, flows out into assemblies and nations and becomes permanent, like popery, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Melancthonism, Moravianism, Arianism, Socinianism, Quakerism, Enthusiasm, and even Judaism, and with these naturalism and atheism; and outside of Europe extending through many kingdoms, Mohammedanism, and also paganism, in which are various kinds of worship, and in some cases no worship at all.  All who do not think on these subjects from the Divine truth say in their heart that there is no Divine providence; and those who are perplexed about it assert that there is a Divine providence, but that it is only universal. When either of these hear that there is a Divine providence in every least particular of man's life they either give no heed to it or do give heed to it; those who give no heed to it, casting the truth behind them and turning away, and those who do give heed to it turning away like the others, and yet they turn back their faces, merely to see whether there is anything in it; and when they see they say to themselves, This is mere affirmation. Some of these latter do affirm the truth with the lips, but not with the heart. Since, then, it is important that the blindness arising from ignorance, or the thick darkness arising from absence of light, should be dissipated, it is permitted to see (1) That the Lord teaches no one immediately, but mediately through those things in man that are from the hearing and sight. (2) And yet the Lord provides that man may be reformed and saved by those things that he adopts as his religion. (3) And for every nation the Lord provides a universal means of salvation.1177.
For in one hour they were devastated signifies over the loss and destruction of all things, that is, lamentation over them, as is evident from the explanations above (n. 1136, 1168), where like words occur. (Continuation) (1) That the Lord teaches no one immediately, but mediately through those things in man that are from the hearing and sight. This follows from what has been said above; to which it must be added that immediate revelation is not granted to man except that which has been given in the Word, such as it is in the prophecies and gospels and histories; which is such that everyone may be taught according to the affections of his love and the consequent thoughts of his understanding, those who are not in good of life receiving very little, but those who are in good of life receiving much, for these are taught through enlightenment by the Lord.  The enlightenment is as follows: Light conjoined with heat flows in through heaven from the Lord. This heat, which is the Divine love, affects the will, from which man has the affection of good; and this light, which is the Divine wisdom, affects the understanding, from which man has the thought of truth. From these two fountains, which are the will and understanding, all things of man's love and all things of his knowledge are affected; but only those things that pertain to the subject are called up and presented to view. In this way is enlightenment effected by the Lord by means of the Word, in which everything, from the spiritual that is in it, communicates with heaven, and the Lord flows in through heaven into that which is at the time under man's view; and the influx in everyone is continual and universal even to the minutest particulars. It is comparatively like the heat and light from the sun of the world, which operate upon each and every thing of the earth and give life according to the quality of the seed and the reception. What, then, must be the effect of the heat and light from the Divine sun, from which all things live? To be enlightened by the Lord through heaven is to be enlightened by the Holy Spirit, for the Holy Spirit is the Divine that proceeds from the Lord as a sun, from which is heaven. From this it is clear that the Lord teaches the man of the church mediately by means of the Word according to the love of his will that comes from his life, and according to the light of his understanding that he gains by means of knowledge; and that this cannot be otherwise, because this is the Divine order of influx.  And this is why the Christian religion has been divided into churches, and into heresies in general and in particular within the churches. Neither can those who are outside the Christian world, and who do not have the Word, be taught in any other way, for they are taught through the religious principle that they have instead of the Word, which is in part from the Word. The religious principle with the Mohammedans was in some respects taken from the Word of both Testaments. Others have a religious principle derived from the ancient Word that was afterwards lost. With some it was from the Ancient Church that extended over a great part of the continent of Asia, which, like our church at the present day, was divided into many, all of them having that ancient Word. From these the religious principles of many nations were derived, although in process of time these became in many cases more or less idolatrous.  Those whose worship is from that origin are taught by the Lord mediately by means of their religious principle the same as Christians are by the Word; and this is done, as has been said, by the Lord through heaven, and thus by a stirring up of their will and also of their understanding. But enlightenment by means of those religious principles is not like enlightenment by means of the Word. It is like enlightenment at evening when the moon is shining more or less brightly, while enlightenment by means of the Word is like enlightenment in the daytime from morning to noon, when the sun is shining more or less brightly. Thus it is that the Lord's church which, as to its light, which is Divine wisdom, extends through the entire globe, is like the day from noon to evening, and even to night; while as to its heat, which is Divine love, it is like the year from spring to autumn, and even to winter.1178.
Verse 20. Exult over her, O heaven, and ye holy apostles and prophets, for God hath judged your judgment upon her. 20. "Exult over her, O heaven, and ye holy apostles and prophets," signifies joy of heart in heaven and in the church with those who are in wisdom and intelligence from the Word (n. 1179); "for God hath judged your judgment upon her" signifies on account of the rejection of these (n. 1180).1179.
Verse 20. Exult over her, O heaven, and ye holy apostles and prophets, signifies joy of heart in heaven and in the church with those who are in wisdom and intelligence from the Word. This is evident from the signification of "exulting," as being joy of heart; also from the signification of "heaven," as being not only heaven but also the church, since the church is the Lord's heaven upon the earth; also from the signification of "apostles," as being those who teach from the Word (see n. 100, 333), therefore those who are in wisdom; also from the signification of "prophets," as being those who are in the doctrine of truth from the Word, and in an abstract sense doctrines themselves (see n. 624), therefore those who are in intelligence; for those who are in doctrine from the Word are called "intelligent," while those who teach the Word are called "wise." From all this it is clear that "Exult over her, O heaven, and ye holy apostles and prophets," signifies joy of heart in heaven and in the church with those who are in wisdom and intelligence. This now follows because before the Last Judgment, or before the Babylonians were cast into hell and the world of spirits was thus delivered from them, the light by which the angels have wisdom and intelligence was intercepted. That light was intercepted and the angels thereby somewhat obscured because of the conjunction of the Babylonians with the angels of the lowest heaven; but it was otherwise when they had been cast down. (On this see what is related from things seen and heard in the work on The Last Judgment.) (Continuation)  (2)And yet the Lord provides that man may be reformed and saved by those things that he adopts as his religion. In the entire globe where there is any religion, since there must be conjunction, there are two that constitute it, namely, God and man; and there are two things that constitute conjunction, namely, the good of love and the truth of faith; the good of love is from the Lord immediately, the truth of faith is also from God, but mediately. The good of love is that through which God leads man, and the truth of faith is that through which man is led. This is the same as what has been said above. The truth of faith appears to man to be his own, because it is from those things that he acquires as if from himself. Therefore God conjoins Himself to man through the good of love, and man conjoins himself to God as if of himself through the truth of faith. Because the conjunction is such the Lord compares Himself to a bridegroom and husband, and the church to a bride and wife. The Lord flows in continually with an abundance of the good of love, but He cannot be conjoined to man in the fullness of the truth of faith, but only in that which is with man, and this varies; it can be given in greater fullness with those who are where the Word is, and in less fullness with those who are where there is no Word; and yet the fullness varies in both in proportion to their knowledge and their life according to it, and consequently it may be greater with those who have not the Word than with those who have it.  The conjunction of God with man and of man with God is taught in the two tables that were written with the finger of God, and called "the tables of the covenant," "of the testimony," and "of the law." In one table is God, in the other man. All nations that have any religion have these tables; from the first table they know that God must be acknowledged, regarded as holy, and worshiped; from the other table they know that they must not steal, either openly or secretly by crafty devices; that they must not commit adultery; that they must not kill either by the hand or by hatred; that they must not bear false witness in a court of justice or before the world; and also that they must not will these things. From his table man knows the evils that must be shunned, and just so far as he knows them and shuns them as if from himself, God conjoins the man to Himself and enables him from His table to acknowledge Him, to regard Him as holy, and to worship Him, and also enables him not to will evils, and so far as he does not will evils to know truths in abundance. Thus these two tables are conjoined with man, and God's table is placed above man's table, and they are put as one table into the ark, over which is the mercy-seat, which is the Lord, and over the mercy-seat the two cherubim which are the Word and what is from the Word, in which the Lord speaks with man as he spoke with Moses and Aaron between the cherubim.  Since, then, there is conjunction of the Lord with man and of man with the Lord by these means, evidently everyone who knows them and lives according to them, not merely from the civil and moral law, but also from the Divine law, will be saved; thus everyone in his own religion, whether Christian or Mohammedan or Gentile. And what is more, a man who from religion lives these truths, even if in the world he knows nothing about the Lord, nor anything else from the Word, yet he is in such a state as to his spirit that he wishes to become wise; consequently after death he is instructed by the angels and acknowledges the Lord and receives truths according to his affection and becomes an angel. Every such person is like a man who dies an infant, for he is led by the Lord and is educated by the angels. Those who from ignorance and from having been born in such a place have known nothing of worship, are after death instructed like little children, and according to their civil and moral life receive the means of salvation. I have seen such, and at first they did not appear like men; but afterwards I saw them as men, and heard them speaking sanely from the commandments of the Decalogue. To instruct such is the inmost angelic joy. From all this it is now clear that the Lord provides that every man can be saved.1180.
For God hath judged your judgment upon her, signifies on account of their rejection of these, as is evident from the signification of "judging a judgment" as being to recompense according to deeds, thus to cast into hell those meant by "Babylon," consequently to cast them out of the places where they had been before. (Continuation) (3) For every nation the Lord provides a universal means of salvation. From what has been said above it is clear that in whatever religion a man may live he can be saved; for he knows the evils and the falsities from evils that must be shunned, and having shunned them he knows the goods that must be done and the truths that must be believed. The goods he does and the truths he believes before he has shunned evils are not in themselves goods and truths, because they are from man and not from the Lord. Before that they are not goods and truths in themselves because in the man they then have no life. A man who knows all goods and all truths, as many as can be known, but does not shun evils, knows nothing. His goods and truths are swallowed up or cast out by the evils, so that he becomes foolish, not in the world but afterwards; while the man who knows few goods and few truths, but shuns evils, knows those goods and truths and learns many more and becomes wise, if not in the world yet afterwards. Since, then, everyone in every religion knows the evils and falsities from evils that must be shunned, and having shunned them knows the goods that must be done and the truths that must be believed, it is clear that this is provided by the Lord as the universal means of salvation with every nation that has any religion.  With Christians this means exists in all fullness; it also exists, though not in fullness, with Mohammedans and Gentiles. The remaining things, by which they are distinguished, are either ceremonials which are of little consequence, or are goods that may be done or not done, or truths that may be believed or not believed, and yet man be saved. What these things amount to man can see when evils are removed. A Christian sees this from the Word, a Mohammedan from the Koran, and a Gentile from his religious principle. A Christian sees from the Word that God is one, that the Lord is the Savior of the world, that all good that is good in itself, and all truth that is true in itself, is from God, and nothing of it from man; that there must be Baptism and the Holy Supper, that there is a heaven and that there is a hell, that there is a life after death, and that he who does good comes into heaven, and he who does evil into hell. These things he believes from truth and does from good when he is not in evil. Other things that are not in accord with these and with the Decalogue he may pass by. A Mohammedan sees from the Koran that God is one, that the Lord is the Son of God, and that all good is from God, that there is a heaven and that there is a hell, that there is a life after death, and that the evils forbidden in the commandments of the Decalogue must be shunned. If he does these latter things he also believes the former and is saved. A Gentile sees from his religious principle that there is a God, that He must be regarded as holy and be worshiped, that good is from Him, that there is a heaven and that there is a hell, that there is a life after death, that the evils forbidden in the Decalogue must be shunned. If he does these things and believes them he is saved. And as many Gentiles perceive God to be Man, and as God-Man is the Lord, so after death when they are instructed by angels they acknowledge the Lord, and afterwards receive truths from the Lord that they had not before known. They are not condemned because of their not having the ordinances of Baptism and the Holy Supper; the Holy Supper and Baptism are for those only who are in possession of the Word, and to whom the Lord is known from the Word; for they are symbols of that church, and are attestations and certifications that those who believe and live according to the Lord's commandments in the Word are saved.1181.
Verse 21. And one strong angel took up a stone like a great millstone and cast into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall Babylon, that great city, be cast down, and shall be found no more. 21. "And one strong angel took up a stone like a great millstone and cast into the sea," signifies all confirmations of their doctrine from the Word cast with them into hell (n. 1182); "saying, Thus with violence shall Babylon, that great city, be cast down, and shall be found no more," signifies the total destruction of that doctrine and religious persuasion, and that they shall not rise again (n. 1183).1182.
Verse 21. And one strong angel took up a stone like a great millstone and cast into the sea, signifies confirmations of their doctrine from the Word cast with them into hell. This is evident from the signification of "strong angel," as being the Divine truth in its power (see n. 130, 200, 302, 593, 800); also from the signification of a "millstone," as being the confirmation of truth from the Word, and also the confirmation of falsity from the Word (of which presently); also from the signification of "casting into the sea," as being into hell with them; that the "sea" signifies hell, may be seen (n. 537, 538). A "millstone" signifies confirmation from the Word in both senses, because "wheat" signifies good, and "fine flour" its truth, therefore "a millstone," by which wheat is ground into fine flour, or barley into meal, signifies the production of truth from good, or the production of falsity from evil, so, too, the confirmation of truth or of falsity from the Word; as can be seen from the following passages. In Jeremiah: I will take away from them the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the voice of the millstones and the light of the lamp (Jer. 25:10). Here, too, the joy of heaven and of the church is described, and "the voice of joy" signifies exultation of heart from the good of love, and "the voice of gladness" signifies glorification of soul from the truths of faith, for in the Word "joy" is predicated of good, and "gladness" of truth. "The voice of millstones" has a similar signification as "the voice of joy;" and "the light of the lamp" has a similar signification as "gladness," namely, from the truth of faith. "The voice of millstones" signifies joy of heart from the good of love, because a millstone grinds wheat into fine flour, and "wheat" signifies the good of love, and "fine flour" truth from that good.  Like things are said in this chapter of Revelation, namely: The voice of a millstone shall not be heard in thee anymore, and the light of a lamp shall not shine in thee anymore, and the voice of bridegroom and the voice of bride shall not be heard in thee anymore (Rev. 18:22-23). These words will be explained presently. In Isaiah: Take the millstone and grind meal, make bare the thigh passing through the rivers (Isa. 47:2). This is said of Babylon and Chaldea; and "to take the millstone and grind meal," signifies to bring forth falsities from evil, and to confirm them by means of the Word; and "to make bare the thigh passing through the rivers," signifies to adulterate goods by means of reasonings. In Lamentations: The young men they led away to grind, and the boys stumbled under the wood (Lam. 5:13). "To lead away the young men to grind," signifies to compel those who are capable of understanding truths to falsify truths; "the boys stumble under the wood," signifies to compel those who are capable of willing goods to adulterate goods, "to grind" being to falsify truths or to confirm falsities by means of the Word, "wood" being good. In Moses: Thou shalt not take the mill or the upper millstone for a pledge, for He receiveth the soul for a pledge (Deut. 24:6). This was among their laws, all of which corresponded to spiritual things. "Not to take a mill or millstone for a pledge" signified in the spiritual sense that the ability from good to understand truths must not be taken away from anyone, thus that no one must be deprived of goods and truths. Because this is the signification it is said, "for he receiveth the soul for a pledge," which signifies that thus one would spiritually perish. In the same: They shall die even to the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill (Exod. 11:5). "The firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill" signifies the chief things of faith of the natural man, that have been falsified.  In Matthew: In the end of the age two women shall be grinding, one shall be taken and the other shall be left (Matt. 24:40, 41). "The end of the age" is the last time of the church; "the two women grinding" mean those who confirm themselves in truths and those who confirm themselves in falsities from the Word; those who confirm themselves in truths are meant by the one that shall be taken, and those who confirm themselves in falsities by the one that shall be left. In the Gospels: Jesus said, Whoso shall cause one of these little ones that believe in Me to stumble, it is profitable for him that an ass-millstone be hanged about his neck, and that he be sunk in the depths of the sea (Matt. 18:6; Mark 9:42; Luke 17:2). "To cause one of the little ones that believe in Jesus to stumble," signifies to pervert those who acknowledge the Lord; "it is profitable that an ass-millstone be hanged about the neck," signifies that it would be better for him not to know any good and truth, but only evil and falsity; this is meant by "ass millstone," and "to be hanged about the neck" means cutting one off from knowing good and truth; "to be sunk in the depths of the sea," signifies to be cast down to hell. This is profitable because to know goods and truths and to pervert them is to profane. What is meant by: Moses burnt the calf and ground it even to powder, and sprinkled it upon the face of the waters, and made the sons of Israel to drink of it (Exod. 32:20; Deut. 9:21), may be seen explained in the Arcana Coelestia (n. 10462-10466). (Continuation)  Something shall now be said about the speech of spirits with man. Many believe that man can be taught by the Lord by means of spirits speaking with him; but those who believe this and are willing to believe it do not know that it is attended with danger to their souls. So long as man is living in the world, as to his spirit he is in the midst of spirits, although spirits do not know that they are with man, nor does man know that he is with spirits; and for the reason that as to the affections of the will they are immediately conjoined, while as to the thoughts of the understanding they are mediately conjoined. For man thinks naturally, but spirits think spiritually; and natural and spiritual thought make one only by correspondences; and in a oneness by correspondences neither one of the two knows anything about the other. But as soon as spirits begin to speak with man they come out of their spiritual state into man's natural state, and they then know that they are with man and they conjoin themselves with the thoughts of his affection and speak with him from those thoughts. They can enter into no other state of man, for all conjunction is by like affection and thought therefrom, while unlike separates. For this reason the speaking spirit must be in the same principles as the man is, whether they be true or false; and these he stirs up, and through his affection conjoined to man's affection he strongly confirms them. This makes clear that none but like spirits speak with man, or manifestly operate into him, for manifest operation coincides with speech. Consequently only enthusiastic spirits speak with enthusiasts; only Quaker spirits operate upon Quakers, and only Moravian spirits upon Moravians. The same is true of Arians, Socinians, and other heretics.  All spirits that speak with man were once men in the world, and were then of like character. This has been granted me to know by repeated experience. And what is absurd, when a man believes that the Holy Spirit is speaking with him or operating upon him the spirit also believes himself to be the Holy Spirit. This is common with enthusiastic spirits. All this shows the danger in which a man is who speaks with spirits, or who manifestly perceives their operation. Man does not know what the quality of his affection is, whether it be good or evil, or with what others it is conjoined; and if he is in the pride of self-intelligence the spirit within him favors every thought from that source; and the same is true when one favors certain principles enkindled by such a fire with those who are not in truths from genuine affection. Whenever a spirit from like affection favors man's thoughts or principles, one leads the other as the blind lead the blind until both fall into the pit. The Pythonists formerly were of this character, also the magi in Egypt and in Babylon, who were called wise because they talked with spirits, and because they clearly perceived the operation of spirits in themselves. But by this the worship of God was changed into the worship of demons, and the church perished. For this reason such interaction was forbidden to the sons of Israel under penalty of death.1183.
Saying, Thus with violence shall Babylon, that great city, be cast down, and shall be found no more, signifies the total destruction of that doctrine, and that these shall not rise again. This is evident from the signification of "to be cast down with violence," as being total destruction; also from the signification of "Babylon that great city," as being that religious persuasion and its doctrine (of which frequently above); also from the signification of "found no more," as being not to rise again. (Continuation) It is otherwise with those whom the Lord leads. He leads those who love truths, and who will them from Himself. Such are enlightened when they read the Word; for the Lord is in the Word, and speaks with everyone according to his apprehension. When such hear the speech of spirits, as they sometimes do, they are not taught but led, and this with such precaution that the man is left to himself; for every man, as has been said before, is led by the Lord by means of affections, and from these he thinks as if from himself in freedom; if this were not so man would be incapable of reformation, nor could he be enlightened. But men are enlightened variously, each according to the quality of his affection and consequent intelligence. Those who are in the spiritual affection of truth are raised up into the light of heaven, even so as to be able to perceive the enlightenment.  This it has been given me to see, and from it to perceive clearly what comes from the Lord and what from angels. What has come from the Lord has been written; what has come from the angels has not. Moreover, it has been granted me to talk with angels as man with man, also to see the things that are in the heavens and that are in the hells; and for the reason that the end of the present church has come, and the beginning of a new one, which will be the New Jerusalem, is at hand; and to that it must be revealed that the Lord rules the universe, both heaven and the world; that there is a heaven and a hell, and what these are; that men live even as men after death, those who have been led by the Lord in heaven, but those who have been led by self in hell; that the Word is the Divine itself of the Lord on the earth; also that the Last Judgment is accomplished, that man may not expect it forever in this world; as well as many other things belonging to the light that is now arising after darkness.1184.
Verses 22-23. And the voice of harpers and musicians and pipers and trumpeters shall not be heard in thee any more; and no craftsman of whatsoever craft shall be found in thee any more; and the voice of a millstone shall not be heard in thee any more. And the light of a lamp shall not shine in thee any more; and the voice of bridegroom and of bride shall not be heard in thee any more; because thy merchants were the great men of the earth, because by thy sorcery have all nations been seduced. 22. "And the voice of harpers and musicians and pipers and trumpeters shall not be heard in thee any more," signifies no more any interior or exterior joys (n. 1185); "and no craftsman of whatsoever craft shall be found in thee any more," signifies no more any wisdom, intelligence, or knowledge (n. 1186); "and the voice of a millstone shall not be heard in thee any more," signifies no more any understanding of truth from the will of good (n. 1187). 23. "And the light of a lamp shall not shine in thee any more," signifies nothing of the truth of heaven and of the church (n. 1188); "and the voice of bridegroom and of bride shall not be heard in thee any more," signifies no joy from the conjunction of good and truth (n. 1189); "because thy merchants were the great men of the earth," signifies those who are in dominion and in its love and delight, and who have gained the chief honors of the world and the riches of the world (n. 1190); "because by thy sorcery have all nations been seduced," signifies that by their wicked arts and persuasions they compelled all the well disposed to believe and to do those things from which they have gained dominion and wealth (n. 1191).1185.
Verse 22. And the voice of harpers and musicians and pipers and trumpeters shall not be heard in thee any more, signifies no more any interior or exterior joys. This is evident from the signification of the "voice or sound" of various instruments of music, as being joys from internal and external affections. They signify affections because of their harmony, for musical sounds express affections and produce them with joy. Stringed instruments signify spiritual things, and wind instruments celestial things, and that they correspond to affections may be seen (n. 323, 326). But what "the voice of the harp, the voice of the pipe, and the voice of the trumpet" signify in particular, can be seen only from the affections, which are of two kinds, spiritual and celestial; spiritual affections are from truths and celestial from goods; but they are of three degrees, inmost, middle, and ultimate; the inmost are such as are in the inmost heaven, the middle such as are in the middle heaven, and the ultimate such as are in the lowest heaven. (Continuation)  (10) The tenth law of the Divine providence is that man has led himself to eminence and riches by his own prudence, when these lead astray, for by the Divine providence man is led only to such things as do not lead astray and as are serviceable to eternal life; for all things of the Divine providence with man look to what is eternal, since the life which is God, from which man is man, is eternal. There are two things that especially influence the minds of men, eminence and riches; eminence relates to the love of glory and of honors, riches to the love of money and possessions. These especially influence men's minds because they belong to the natural man; consequently those who are merely natural have no other idea than that eminence and riches are real blessings that are from God, when in fact they may be curses, as may be clearly inferred from this, that they are the portion both of good men and of evil men. I have seen the eminent and the rich in the heavens and I have seen them in the hells; therefore, as has been said, when eminence and riches do not lead astray they are from God, but when they do they are from hell.  In the world man does not distinguish between their being from God or from hell, because the natural man separated from the spiritual cannot perceive this distinction; but the distinction can be seen in the natural man that is from the spiritual, and yet with difficulty, because the natural man is taught from infancy to counterfeit the spiritual man; and in consequence when he performs uses to the church, to the country, to society and his fellow citizens, thus to the neighbor, he not only professes but also is able to persuade himself that he has done it for the sake of the church, the country, society, and his fellow citizens, and yet he may have done it for the sake of self and the world as ends. Man is in such blindness because he has not put away evils from himself by any combat; for so long as evils remain man can see nothing from the spiritual in his natural; he is like one in a dream who believes himself to be awake, or like a bird of night that sees the darkness as light. Such is the natural man when the gate of heavenly light is closed. Heavenly light is the spiritual that enlightens the natural man. Since, then, it is of the greatest importance to know whether eminence and riches, or the love of glory and honor, and the love of money and of possessions, are ends or are means, ends and means shall first be defined, for if these are ends they are curses, but if they are not ends, but means, they are blessings.1186.
And no craftsman of whatsoever craft shall be found in thee any more, signifies no more wisdom, intelligence, or knowledge. This is evident from the signification of "craftsman of whatsoever craft," as being everything belonging to the understanding, consequently wisdom, intelligence, and knowledge, for these belong to the understanding, the inmost of which is wisdom, the middle intelligence, and the lowest is knowledge. This is the signification of "craftsman of whatsoever craft," because these are endowments of the understanding, and its endowments are signified by "crafts." As these are signified by "crafts," so in the Word where the construction of the tabernacle is treated of, also the garments of Aaron, which were of gold, blue, purple, scarlet double-dyed, and fine twined linen, it is said that they were to be the work of the "craftsman," elsewhere "a work of a contriver" (Exod. 26:1, 31; 28:6; 39:8; and elsewhere). The things of which these were made, and which are here mentioned, signify things of wisdom, intelligence, and knowledge; therefore of Bezaleel and Oholiab, who were the craftsmen, and who made these things, it is said: They were filled with wisdom, intelligence, and knowledge (Exod. 31:3 seq.; 36:1-2 seq.).  That "craftsman" signifies intelligence from what is one's own [proprium] is evident in Hosea: They make them a molten image of their silver, and idols in their intelligence, all of it the work of the craftsmen (Hos. 13:2). "Molten image" and "idol" signify worship according to doctrine that is from self-intelligence; "silver" signifies the falsity from which such doctrine comes; therefore it is said "that in their intelligence they make them an idol, all of it the work of craftsmen." So in Isaiah: The craftsman melteth a graven image, and the goldsmith spreadeth it over with gold, and casteth chains of silver; he seeketh a wise craftsman (Isa. 40:19-20). And in Jeremiah: Silver spread into plates is brought from Tarshish, and gold from Uphaz, the work of the craftsman and of the hands of the founder, hyacinthine and garments, all of it the work of the wise (Jer. 10:3, 9). Here and in many passages elsewhere self-intelligence is described by "idols," and "sculptured and molten images" (see n. 587, 827). (Continuation)  End, mediate causes, and effect, are called also the chief end, intermediate ends, and the final end. Intermediate and final ends are called ends, because the chief end produces them, is everything in them, is their esse and is their soul. The chief end is the will's love in man, the intermediate ends are subordinate loves, and the final end is the love of the will existing as it were in its effigy. As the chief end is the love of the will it follows that intermediate ends, being subordinate loves, are foreseen, provided, and produced through the understanding, and that the final end is the use foreseen, provided, and produced by the love of the will through the understanding, for everything that love produces is a use. This must be premised in order that what has just been said may be perceived, namely, that eminence and riches may be blessings or that they may be curses.1187.
And the voice of the millstone shall not be heard in thee any more signifies no more any understanding of truth from the will of good. This is evident from the signification of "millstone," as being the production of truth from good (see n. 1182); thus also the understanding of truth from the will of good, since the understanding is the recipient of truth, and the will the recipient of good. (Continuation) Now as the end, which is the love of man's will, provides or acquires for itself through the understanding the means through which the final end may exist, to which the first end advances through the means, and this is the end coming into existence, which is the use, it follows that the end loves the means when they promote that use, and does not love them when they do not promote it, but then rejects them, and through the understanding provides or acquires for itself other means. This makes clear the quality of a man whose chief end is the love of eminence, or the love of glory and honor, or whose chief end is the love of wealth, or love of money or possessions, namely, that he regards all means as servants that are serviceable to him for his final end, which is love coming into existence, and this love is use to himself.  Take, for example, a priest whose chief end is love of money or possessions, his means are the ministerial office, the Word, doctrine, learning, preaching from these, and instruction of men of the church and their reformation and salvation by means of these. These means are valued by him according to the end and for the sake of the end, and yet they are not loved, although with some they appear to be loved; for wealth is what is loved, since this is the first and the final end, and that end, as has been said, is everything in the means. Such assert, indeed, that their desire is that men of their church be taught, reformed, and saved; but as wealth is the end from which this is said, it is not said from their love, but only as means of acquiring reputation and gain for the sake of the end.  The same is true of a priest whose chief end is a love of eminence over others, as will be seen if gain or honor is separated from the means. It is wholly different when instruction, reformation, and salvation of souls is the chief end, and wealth and eminence are the means; for a priest is then a wholly different man, for he is a spiritual man, while the former is a natural man. With a spiritual priest wealth and eminence are blessings, but with a natural priest wealth and eminence are curses. This has been made evident by much experience in the spiritual world. Many have been seen and heard there who asserted that they had taught, had written, and had reformed men; but when the end or love of their will was disclosed, it was clear that they had done all things for the sake of self and the world, and nothing for the sake of God and the neighbor, and that they even cursed God and did evil to the neighbor. Such are meant in Matt. 7:22-23; and in Luke 13:26-27.1188.
Verse 23. And the light of a lamp shall not shine in thee any more signifies nothing of the truth of heaven and the church. This is evident from the signification of "light," as being the Divine truth (see above, n. 955, 1067, 1159); also from the signification of "lamp" or "lampstand," as being heaven and the church (see n. 62); also from the signification of "not shining any more," as being not to exist. (Continuation) Take as another example a king, a prince, a magistrate, a governor, or an official, whose chief end is the love of rule, and whose means are all things belonging to their dominion, administration, and function. The uses they perform do not have the good of the kingdom, commonwealth, country, societies, and fellow- citizens, as their end, but delight in ruling, consequently self. The uses themselves are not to them uses, but minister to their pride. They perform uses for the sake of appearances and of distinction; they do not love them, but they commend and yet make light of them, just as a master does his servants. I have seen such after death, and have been amazed. They were devils among the burning; for when the love of rule is the chief end it is the very fire of hell.  I have also seen others whose chief end was not love of rule, but love of God and the neighbor, which is the love of uses; these were angels to whom dominion in the heavens was granted. From all this again it is clear that eminence may be a blessing or may be a curse, and that eminence as a blessing is from the Lord, and eminence as a curse is from the devil. What the love of rule is when it is the chief end, anyone who is wise can see from the kingdom that is meant in the Word by "Babylon," that set its throne in the heavens above the Lord by claiming to itself all His authority; consequently it abrogated the Divine means of worship, which are from the Lord through the Word, and in their place instituted demoniacal means of worship, which are adorations of living and dead men, also of sepulchers, carcasses, and bones. That kingdom is described by "Lucifer" in Isaiah (14:4-24). But only those that have exercised that dominion from the love of it are Lucifers, not the rest.1189.
And the voice of bridegroom and of bride shall not be heard in thee any more signifies no joy from the conjunction of good and truth. This is evident from the signification of "bridegroom," as being in the highest sense the Lord; also from the signification of "bride," as being in that sense the church; and as the Lord flows into man from the Divine good of the Divine love, and is conjoined to the man of the church in the Divine truth, so "bridegroom and bride" mean the conjunction of the Lord with the church, and also the conjunction of good with truth. Because all spiritual joy is from that conjunction, it follows that "the voice of the bridegroom and bride" signifies the joy therefrom. Moreover, the angels have all their wisdom and intelligence, and thus all their joy and happiness from that conjunction and according to it. As this is the signification of "the voice of bridegroom and bride," heavenly joy is described in other places in the Word by "bridegroom and bride." As in Jeremiah: I will take away from them the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the voice of the millstone and the voice of the lamp (Jer. 25:10). In the same: Behold I cause to cease out of this place the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride (Jer. 16:9). In the same: I will cause to cease out of the cities of Judah, and out of the streets of Jerusalem, the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride (Jer. 7:34). In Joel: Let the bridegroom go forth out of His chamber, and the bride out of her closet (Joel 2:16). In Jeremiah: Yet again shall be heard in this place the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, of them that say, Confess ye Jehovah of Hosts (Jer. 33:10-11). In these passages, "the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride" signify joy and gladness from the conjunction of the Lord with the church, and thus from the conjunction of good and truth, for the state of the church is here treated of; and the terms "joy and gladness" are also used, "joy" from good and "gladness" from truth.  So in Isaiah: I will rejoice in Jehovah, my soul shall exult in my God, as the bridegroom putteth on a miter, and as the bride adorneth herself with her jewels (Isa. 61:10). "To put on the miter" means to put on wisdom, and "to adorn herself with jewels" means with the knowledges of truth. In the same: As the joy of the bridegroom over the bride, so shall thy God rejoice over thee (Isa. 62:5). That the Lord is meant in the highest sense by the "bridegroom," and the church by the "bride,"' is evident in the Gospels: When the disciples of John asked about fasting, Jesus said as long as the bridegroom is with them the sons of the nuptials cannot fast; but the days will come when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them; then shall they fast (Matt. 9:15; Mark 2:19, 20; Luke 5:34-35). Here the Lord calls Himself the "bridegroom" and the men of the church He calls "sons of the nuptials;" "to fast" signifies to mourn on account of the lack of truth and good. In Matthew: The kingdom of the heavens is likened to ten virgins, who took their lamps and went forth to meet the bridegroom (Matt. 25:1-2 seq.). Here the "bridegroom" means the Lord, and "virgins" mean the church, and "lamps" signify the truths of faith. In John: He that hath the bride is the bridegroom, but the friend of the bridegroom, who standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth with joy because of the bridegroom's voice (John 3:29). John the Baptist said this of the Lord, who is meant by the "bridegroom," and the church is meant by the "bride." That the church is meant by the "bride" is evident from these passages in Revelation: I saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband (21:2). The "New Jerusalem" means the New Church. Again: Come, I will show thee the bride, the wife of the Lamb; and he showed me the city Jerusalem (Rev. 21:9-10). And again: The Spirit and the bride say, Come; and he that heareth, let him say, Come (Rev. 22:17). "The Spirit and the bride" signify the church as to good and truth. (Continuation)  As the love of rule and the love of riches prevail universally in the Christian world, and these loves at this day are so deeply rooted that it is not known that they in any wise lead astray, it is important that their quality should be set forth. They lead every man astray who does not shun evils because they are sins; for he who does not thus shun evils does not fear God, and therefore remains natural. And as the love of ruling and the love of riches are the natural man's own loves, he does not see with any interior acknowledgment what the quality of those loves are in him. This he does not see unless he is reformed, and he can be reformed only by combat against evils. It is believed that he can be reformed by faith; but there can be no faith of God in man until he fights against evils. When man has thus been reformed light flows in from the Lord through heaven and gives him the affection of seeing and the ability to see what those loves are, and whether they rule or serve in him, thus whether they are in the first place in him and make as it were the head, or are in the second place and make as it were the feet. If they rule and are in the first place they lead astray and become curses; but if they serve and are in the second place they do not lead astray but become blessings.  I can assert that all in whom the love of rule is in the first place are inwardly devils. This love is known from its delight, for it exceeds every other delight of the life of man. It is continually exhaled from hell, and the exhalation appears like the fire of a great furnace, kindling the hearts of men whom the Lord does not protect from it. The Lord protects all who are reformed. Nevertheless, the former although in hell, are led by the Lord but only by means of external bonds, which are fears on account of the penalties of the law and the loss of reputation, honor, gain, and consequently pleasures. He leads them also by means of worldly rewards. He cannot lead them out of hell because the love of rule does not admit of internal bonds, which are the fear of God and affections of good and truth, by means of which the Lord leads all who will follow Him to heaven and in heaven.1190.
For thy merchants were the great men of the earth signifies those who are in dominion and in its love and delight, and who have gained the chief honors of the world and the riches of the world. This is evident from the signification of "merchants," as being those who acquire the knowledges of good and truth and communicate them; and in the contrary sense, as here, those who acquire such things as are serviceable for dominion, from which they gain both the honors and the riches of the world (see n. 840, 1104); also from the signification of "the great men of the earth," as being those who transfer to themselves and exercise that dominion, which is dominion over the church and over heaven, and even over the Lord Himself. Such are meant in this chapter, but not those who are under their dominion. These indeed venerate and adore them, but they do this from a faith induced by authority, and thus from obedience, and this faith and obedience are from ignorance. These have no share in dominion, therefore the things said in this chapter of Babylon as the harlot are not said of these. (Continuation)  Something shall now be said about man's being led by the Divine providence to such things as do not lead astray, but are serviceable to eternal life. These things also have reference to eminence and wealth. It is made clear that this is so by what I have seen in the heavens. The heavens are divided into societies, and those who are eminent and rich are to be found in every society. The eminent there are in such glory, and the rich in such abundance, that the glory and abundance of the world are almost nothing in comparison. But all the eminent there are wise, and all the rich abound in knowledge; thus eminence there is wisdom and wealth there is knowledge. Such eminence and wealth can be acquired in this world, both by those who are eminent and rich and by those who are not, for they are acquired here by all who love wisdom and knowledge. To love wisdom is to love uses that are true uses, and to love knowledge is to love the cognitions of good and truth for the sake of such uses. When uses are loved more than self and the world, and the cognitions of good and truth are loved for the sake of uses, uses have the first place and eminence and wealth the second place; and this is the case with all who are eminent and rich in the heavens. They look upon the eminence they have from wisdom, and the wealth they have from knowledge, just as a man looks upon his garments.1191.
Because by thy sorcery have all nations been seduced signifies that by their wicked arts and persuasions they have compelled all the well disposed of that church to believe and to do those things from which they have gained dominion and wealth. This is evident from the signification of "sorcery," as being arts and persuasions, (of which presently); also from the signification of "nations" as being those who are in good, thus the well disposed (see n. 175, 331, 625, 1077); also from the signification of "to be seduced," as meaning to be deceived by such arts and persuasions into believing and doing those things from which they have gained dominion and wealth. "Sorcery" has nearly the same signification in the Word as "enchantment," and "enchantment" signifies such persuasion as causes a man to have no other perception than that a thing is so. Certain spirits possess a power of persuasion that closes up as it were the understanding of another, and suffocates the ability to perceive; and as the well-disposed men in the Babylonish nation are compelled and persuaded to believe and to do whatever the monks say, it is here said that "they have been seduced by their sorcery." "Sorcery" here has the same signification as "enchantment" in Isaiah (47:9, 12), where Babylon is treated of; also in David (Psalm 58:4, 5). Enchantment is also mentioned among the arts associated with magic, that were forbidden to the sons of Israel (Deut. 18:10-11). (Continuation)  The eminence and wealth of the angels of heaven shall also be described. In the societies of heaven there are higher and lower governors, all arranged by the Lord and subordinated according to their wisdom and intelligence. Their chief, who excels the rest in wisdom, dwells in the midst in a palace so magnificent that nothing in the whole world can be compared with it. Its architecture is so wonderful that I can truthfully assert that not a hundredth part of it can be described by natural language, for art itself is there in its art. Within the palace are rooms and bed-chambers, in which all the furniture and decorations are resplendent with gold and various precious stones in such forms as no artist in the world can imitate either in painting or sculpture. And what is wonderful, the particulars, even to the minutest particulars, are for use; and everyone who enters sees their use, perceiving it by a breathing forth, as it were, of the uses through their images. But no wise person who enters keeps his eyes fixed very long on the images, but his mind attends to the uses, since these delight his wisdom. Round about the palace are colonnades, pleasure gardens, and smaller palaces, each in the form of its own beauty a heavenly delight. Besides these magnificent objects there are attendant guards, all clad in shining garments, and many other things. The subordinate governors enjoy similar luxuries, which are magnificent and splendid according to the degrees of their wisdom, and their wisdom is according to the degrees of their love of uses. And not only do the rulers have such things, but also the inhabitants, all of whom love uses and perform them by various employments.  But few of these things can be described; those that cannot be described are innumerable, for as they are in their origin spiritual they do not fall into the ideas of the natural man, and consequently not into the expressions of His language, except into these, that when wisdom builds for itself a habitation, and makes it comformable to itself, everything that lies inmostly concealed in any science or in any art flows together and accomplishes the purpose. These things have been written to make known that all things in the heavens also have reference to eminence and wealth, but that eminence there pertains to wisdom and wealth to knowledge, and that such are the things to which man is led by the Lord through His Divine providence.1192.
Verse 24. And in her was found the blood of prophets and of saints, and of all that had been slain on the earth. 24. "And in her was found the blood of prophets and of saints" signifies violence offered by them to every truth and thus to every good of the Word (n. 1193); "and of all that had been slain on the earth" signifies all the falsities and evils by which those who were of the church had perished (n. 1194).1193.
Verse 24. And in her was found the blood of prophets and of saints signifies violence offered by them to every truth and thus to every good of the Word. This is evident from the signification of "blood," as being the Divine truth, and in the contrary sense violence offered to the Divine truth (see n. 329, 476, 748); also from the signification of "prophets," as being those who are in truths of doctrine from the Word, and in an abstract sense truths of doctrine (see n. 624, 999); also from the signification of "saints," as being those who are in Divine truths from the Word, and in an abstract sense Divine truths in the Word (see n. 204, 325, 973); also from the signification of "found in her," as being that violence was offered to these from the doctrine and religious persuasion meant by Babylon. From all this it is clear that "the blood of prophets and of saints found in her" signifies the violence offered by them to every truth and thus to every good of doctrine from the Word. (Continuation)  Something shall now be said about the uses through which men and angels have wisdom. To love uses is nothing else than to love the neighbor, for use in the spiritual sense is the neighbor. This can be seen from the fact that everyone loves another not because of his face and body, but from his will and understanding; he loves one who has a good will and a good understanding, and does not love one with a good will and a bad understanding, or with a good understanding and a bad will. And as a man is loved or not loved for these reasons, it follows that the neighbor is that from which everyone is a man, and that is his spiritual. Place ten men before your eyes that you may choose one of them to be your associate in any duty or business; will you first find out about them and choose the one who comes nearest to your use? Therefore he is your neighbor, and is loved more than the others. Or become acquainted with ten maidens with the purpose of choosing one of them for your wife; do you not at first ascertain the character of each one, and if she consents betroth to you the one that you love? That one is more your neighbor than the others. If you should say to yourself, "Every man is my neighbor, and is therefore to be loved without distinction," a devil-man and an angel-man or a harlot and a virgin might be equally loved. Use is the neighbor, because every man is valued and loved not for his will and understanding alone, but for the uses he performs or is able to perform from these. Therefore a man of use is a man according to his use; and a man not of use is a man not a man, for of such a man it is said that he is not useful for anything; and although in this world he may be tolerated in a community so long as he lives from what is his own, after death when he becomes a spirit he is cast out into a desert.  Man, therefore, is such as his use is. But uses are manifold; in general they are heavenly or infernal. Heavenly uses are those that are serviceable more or less, or more nearly or remotely, to the church, to the country, to society, and to a fellow-citizen, for the sake of these as ends; but infernal uses are those that are serviceable only to the man himself and those dependent on him; and if serviceable to the church, to the country, to society, or to a fellow citizen, it is not for the sake of these as ends, but for the sake of self as the end. And yet everyone ought from love, though not from self-love, to provide the necessaries and requisites of life for himself and those dependent on him.  When man loves uses by doing them in the first place, and loves the world and self in the second place, the former constitutes his spiritual and the latter his natural; and the spiritual rules, and the natural serves. This makes evident what the spiritual is, and what the natural is. This is the meaning of the Lord's words in Matthew: Seek ye first the kingdom of the heavens 1193-1 and its justice, and all things shall be added unto you (Matt. 6:33). "The kingdom of the heavens" means the Lord and His church, and "justice" means spiritual, moral, and civil good; and every good that is done from the love of these is a use. Then "all things shall be added," because when use is in the first place, the Lord, from whom is all good, is in the first place and rules, and gives whatever contributes to eternal life and happiness; for, as has been said, all things of the Lord's Divine providence pertaining to man look to what is eternal. "All things that shall be added" refer to food and raiment, because food means everything internal that nourishes the soul, and raiment everything external that like the body clothes it. Everything internal has reference to love and wisdom, and everything external to wealth and eminence. All this makes clear what is meant by loving uses for the sake of uses, and what the uses are from which man has wisdom, from which and according to which wisdom everyone has eminence and wealth in heaven.1194.
And of all that had been slain on the earth signifies all the falsities and evils by which those who were of the church had perished. This is evident from the signification of the "slain," as being those who had perished by falsities and evils (see n. 315, 366); "to slay" being to deprive others of their truths and goods by falsities and evils (see n. 547, 572, 589); also from the signification of the "earth," as being the church (of which frequently); therefore "the blood of all that had been slain upon the earth" signifies violence offered to every truth and good by falsities and evils, by which those who were of the church perished. (Continuation) As man was created to perform uses, and this is to love the neighbor, so all who come into heaven, however many there are, must do uses. All the delight and blessedness of these is according to uses and to the love of uses. Heavenly joy is from no other source. He who believes that such joy is possible in idleness is much deceived. No idle person is tolerated even in hell. Those who are there are in workhouses and under a judge who imposes tasks on the prisoners that they must do daily. To those who do not do them neither food nor clothing is given, but they stand hungry and naked; thus are they compelled to work there. The difference is that in hell uses are done from fear, but in heaven from love; and fear does not give joy, but love does. Nevertheless it is proper to vary occupations in different ways in company with others, and these serve as recreations, which are also uses. It has been granted me to see many things in heaven, many things in the world, and many things in the human body, and to consider at the same time their uses; and it has been revealed that every particular thing in them, both great and small, was created from use, in use, and for use; and that the part in which the ultimate that is for use ceases is separated as harmful and is cast out as condemned. Revelation 19 After these things I heard as it were a voice of a great multitude in heaven, saying, Alleluia, salvation and glory and honor and power unto the Lord our God; 2. For true and just are His judgments; for He hath judged the great harlot that corrupted the earth with her whoredom, and He hath avenged the blood of His servants at her hand. 3. And a second time they said, Alleluia; and her smoke shall go up unto the ages of the ages. 4. And the twenty-four elders and the four animals fell down and adored God who sitteth on the throne, saying, Amen, Alleluia. 5. And a voice came forth from the throne, saying, Praise our God, all ye His servants, and ye that fear Him, both the small and the great. 6. And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as it were the voice of many waters, and as it were the voice of mighty thunders, saying, Alleluia, for the Lord God, the Almighty, reigneth. 7. Let us rejoice and exult, and let us give the glory unto Him, for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and His wife hath made herself ready. 8. And it hath been given to her that she should be clothed in fine linen, clean and bright, for the fine linen is the just deeds of the saints. 9. And he said unto me, Write, Blessed are they that have been called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb. And he said unto me, These are the true words of God. 10. And I fell down before his feet to adore him; and he said unto me, See thou do it not; I am thy fellow servant and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus; adore God, for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy. 11. And I saw the heaven opened, and behold a white horse, and He that sat upon him is called faithful and true, and in justice He doth judge and make war. 12. And His eyes are like a flame of fire, and upon His head are many diadems, having a name written that no one knoweth except Himself. 13. And He was clothed in a garment dyed with blood; and His name is called the Word of God. 14. And the armies that are in heaven followed Him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen white and clean. 15. And out of His mouth went forth a sharp sword, that with it He may smite the nations; and he shall tend them with a rod of iron; and He treadeth the wine-press of the wine of the fury and anger of God Almighty. 16. And He hath on His garment and on His thigh a name written, King of kings and Lord of lords. 17. And I saw an angel standing in the sun; and he cried with a great voice, saying to all the birds that fly in the midst of heaven, Come and be gathered together unto the supper of the great God. 18. That ye may, eat the flesh of kings and the flesh of commanders of thousands, and the flesh of the mighty, and the flesh of horses and of those that sit on them, and the flesh of all, free and bond, and small and great. 19. And I saw the beast and the kings of the earth and their armies gathered together to make war with Him that sat upon the horse and with His army. 20. And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that did signs before him, with which he seduced those that had received the mark of the beast and that adored his image; these two were cast alive into the lake of fire that burneth with brimstone. 21. And the rest were slain by the sword that proceeded out of the mouth of Him that sat upon the horse; and all the birds were filled with their flesh. EXPLANATION CONTENTS OF THE SEVERAL VERSES. GLORIFICATION OF THE LORD BY THOSE WHO ARE IN THE LOWER HEAVENS BECAUSE OF THEIR DELIVERANCE FROM BABYLON (verses 1, 2): THAT THEY MAY BE FOREVER DELIVERED FROM HER (verse 3). GLORIFICATION OF THE LORD BY THE HIGHER HEAVENS FOR THE SAME REASON (verse 4). ANNOUNCEMENT BY THE LORD OUT OF HEAVEN THAT THEY WORSHIP HIM (verse 5); AND SHOULD REJOICE THAT THE NEW CHURCH IS APPEARING (verses 6, 7). WHAT THAT CHURCH IS (verse 8). ANNOUNCEMENT BY THE ANGELS TO THOSE WHO ARE ON THE EARTH RESPECTING THE NEW CHURCH (verses 9, 10). THE COMING OF THE LORD IN THE WORD, AND THE OPENING OF THE WORD (verses 11-16). THE CALLING OF ALL TO THAT CHURCH (verses 17, 18). RESISTANCE BY THOSE WHO ARE IN FAITH SEPARATE, AND THE REMOVAL AND CONDEMNATION OF SUCH (verses 19-21).1195.
Verses 1-3. After these things I heard as it were a voice of a great multitude in heaven saying, Alleluia, salvation and glory and honor and power unto the Lord our God. For true and just are His judgments, for He hath judged the great harlot that corrupted the earth with her whoredom, and He hath avenged the blood of His servants at her hand. And a second time they said, Alleluia, and her smoke shall go up unto the ages of the ages. (1) "After these things I heard as it were a voice of a great multitude in heaven" signifies the joy and gladness of the angels of the higher heavens because of the condemnation and casting out of those signified by "Babylon" and by "the beasts of the dragon," and because of the light of Divine truth that will consequently arise for the sake of the New Church that is to be established by the Lord (n. 1196); "Saying, Alleluia," signifies glorification of the Lord (n. 1197); "salvation and glory and honor and power unto the Lord our God" signifies because eternal life is from the Lord through the Divine truth and the Divine good from His Divine omnipotence (n. 1198). (2) "For true and just are His judgments" signifies that the laws of the Divine providence and the works of the Lord are of the Divine wisdom and the Divine love (n. 1199); "for He hath judged the great harlot" signifies judgment upon those who have transferred to themselves dominion over the church and over heaven (n. 1200); "that corrupted the earth with her whoredom" signifies by whom all the truths of the church have been falsified, and all its goods adulterated (n. 1201); "and He hath avenged the blood of His servants at her hand" signifies the deliverance of those that are in Divine truths from the Lord by the casting out of the Babylonians (n. 1202). (3) "And a second time they said, Alleluia," signifies the joy and gladness of the angels of the lower heavens (n. 1203); "and her smoke shall go up unto the ages of the ages" signifies that the falsity of evil that pertains to such is forever condemned to hell (n. 1204).1196.
Verse 1. After these things I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude in heaven signifies the joy and gladness of the angels of the higher heavens because of the condemnation and casting out of those signified by "Babylon" and by "the beasts of the dragon," and because of the light of Divine truth that will consequently arise for the sake of the New Church that is to be established by the Lord. This is evidently the signification of "the voice of a great multitude in heaven," for these are the subjects treated of in this and the following chapters; the condemnation and casting out of those meant by "Babylon" are treated of in verses 2-3; the condemnation and casting out of "the beasts of the dragon" in verses 19-21; joy because of the New Church to be established by the Lord in verses 7-9, 17-18; and the light springing therefrom in verses 11-16. (Continuation)  Something shall now be said about the life of animals, and afterwards about the soul of vegetables. The whole world, with each and every thing in it, came into existence and continues to exist from the Lord the Creator of the universe. There are two suns, the sun of the spiritual world and the sun of the natural world. The sun of the spiritual world is the Lord's Divine love, the sun of the natural world is pure fire. From the sun that is the Divine love every work of creation has begun, and by means of the sun that is fire it has been carried to completion.  Everything that proceeds from the sun that is the Divine love is called spiritual, and everything that proceeds from the sun that is fire is called natural. The spiritual from its origin has life in itself, but the natural from its origin has nothing of life in itself. And because from these two fountains of the universe all things that are in both worlds have come into existence and continue to exist, it follows that there is in every created thing in this world a spiritual and a natural, a spiritual as its soul and a natural as its body, or a spiritual as its internal and a natural as its external; or a spiritual as the cause and a natural as the effect. That these two in any particular thing cannot be separated every wise person knows, for if you separate cause from effect or the internal from the external, the effect or the external goes to pieces, as when the soul is separated from the body.  That there is such a conjunction in the particular and even in the most particular things of nature has not yet been known. It has not been known because of the existing ignorance respecting the spiritual world, the sun there, and heat and light there, and because of the insanity of sensual men in ascribing all things to nature, and rarely anything to God except creation in general; and yet not the least thing is possible or can be possible in nature in which there is not a spiritual. That this spiritual is in each and every thing of the three kingdoms of nature, and how it is therein, will be explained in what follows.1197.
Saying, Alleluia, signifies the glorification of the Lord, as is evident from the signification of "Alleluia," as being the glorification of the Lord; for in the original language "Alleluia" means, Praise ye God, and thus, Glorify ye the Lord. It was an expression of joy in confession and worship; as in David: Bless Jehovah, O my soul; Hallelujah (Ps. 104:35). In the same: Blessed be Jehovah, the God of Israel, from everlasting even to everlasting; and let all the people say, Amen, Hallelujah (Ps. 106:48). In the same: Let us bless Jah from this time forth and forevermore; Hallelujah (Ps. 115:18). In the same: Let every soul praise Jah; Hallelujah (Ps. 150:6). And elsewhere (as in Psalm 105:45; Psalm 106:1; Psalm 112:1; Psalm 113:1, 9; Psalm 116:19; Psalm 117:2; Psalm 135:3; Psalm 148:1, 14; Psalm 149:1, 9; Psalm 150:1). (Continuation)  That the spiritual and the natural are thus united in each and every thing of the world, just as there is a soul in each and every thing of the body, or an effecting cause in each and every thing of the effect, or a producing internal in each and every thing of its product, can be illustrated and confirmed by the subjects and objects of the three kingdoms of nature, which are all things of the world. That there is such a union of things spiritual and things natural in each and all of the subjects and objects of the animal kingdom is evident from the many wonderful things that have been observed in that kingdom by learned men and societies, and recorded to be studied by those who investigate causes. It is generally known that animals of all kinds, great and small, both those that walk and creep on the earth and those that fly in the air and swim in the waters, know from something innate and implanted that is called instinct, and also nature, how their species is to be propagated; how the young when born or brought forth are to be reared, and on what food they are to be fed; also they know their proper food from mere sight, smell, or taste, and where to seek and gather it, also they know their own places of habitation and resort, also where their companions and mates are by hearing the sounds they make; also they know from the variations of the sound what they desire. The knowledge of such things, viewed in itself, as well as the affection from which it is derived, is spiritual; but the knowledge and affection are clothed from nature and are produced through nature.  Moreover, in respect to the organs, members, and viscera of the body, and in respect to their uses, animal and man are wholly alike. An animal, like a man, has eyes and thus sight, ears and thus hearing, nostrils and thus smell, a mouth and tongue and thus taste, also the cuticular sense with all its variations in every part of the body. In regard to the interiors of the body they have like viscera, they have two brains, a heart and lungs, a stomach, liver, pancreas, spleen, mesentery, intestines, with the other organs for chyle making, blood making, and purification; also the organs of secretion and the organs of generation; they are also alike in respect to nerves, blood vessels, muscles, skins, cartilages, and bones. The likeness is such that man in respect to these things is an animal. That all these things in man have a correspondence with the societies of heaven has been shown in many places in the Arcana Coelestia; consequently the same is true of animals. From this correspondence it is clear that the spiritual acts into the natural and produces its effects by means of the natural, as the principal cause does by means of its instrumental cause. But these are only general evidences that bear witness to the conjunction in that kingdom.1198.
Salvation and glory and honor and power unto the Lord our God signifies because eternal life is from the Lord through the Divine truth and the Divine good from His Divine omnipotence. This is evident from the signification of "salvation," as being eternal life; also from the signification of "glory and honor," as being the Lord's Divine truth and Divine good (see n. 288, 345); also from the signification of "power," as being, in reference to the Lord, omnipotence; and as the Lord is called in the Word "Jehovah" and "Lord" from the Divine good, and "God" from the Divine truth, and Divine good and truth are signified by "glory and honor," so it is said, "the Lord our God." In the sense of the letter, "salvation, glory, honor, and power," are mentioned separately, but in the spiritual sense they are joined into one meaning, which is, that eternal life is from the Lord through the Divine truth and the Divine good from the Divine omnipotence. The same is true of many other passages of the Word. Sometimes mere names of countries and cities are enumerated, that appear disconnected in the sense of the letter, but in the spiritual sense they combine into one continuous sense. (Continuation)  The particular evidences that furnish like testimony are still more numerous and more striking. With some kinds of animals these are such that a sensual man, whose thoughts are confined to matter, compares the things pertaining to beasts with those pertaining to man, and from foolish intelligence concludes that their states of life are similar, even after death, insisting that if man lives after death, animals do also, or if animals die man also dies. The evidences that so testify and by which the sensual man is deluded are that certain animals seem to have prudence and cunning, connubial love, friendship and seeming charity, probity, and benevolence; in a word, a morality the same as with men. For example, dogs, from a genius innate in them, know how to act as faithful guards as if from their own nature; from the transpiration of their master's affection they know as it were his will; they search him out by perceiving the scent of his footsteps and clothes; they know the different quarters and find their way home, even through pathless regions and dense forests; with other like things; from which the sensual man concludes that a dog has knowledge, intelligence and wisdom. Nor is this to be wondered at when he ascribes all such things, both in the dog and in himself, to nature. But the spiritual man on the other hand sees that there is something spiritual that leads, and that this is joined to the natural.  These particular evidences, again, are that birds know how to build their nests, to lay eggs in them, to brood over them, to hatch their young, and afterwards from a love called storge to provide for them warmth under their wings and food out of their mouths, until they become clothed with feathers and furnished with wings, when they of themselves come into all the knowledge of their parents from the spiritual which is their soul, and from which they provide for themselves. These particular evidences, again, are all things that are contained in eggs. In the egg the rudiment of a new bird lies hidden, encompassed by every element necessary to the formation of the fetus, from its beginnings in the head to the full formation of all things of the body. Is it possible that nature should provide such things? For this is not only bringing forth, it is also creating; and nature does not create. What has nature in common with life except that life may be clothed by nature, and thus put itself forth and appear in form as an animal? Among particular evidences furnishing the same testimony are those seen in worms of vegetables when in undergoing their metamorphosis, they encompass themselves as with a womb that they may be born again, in which they are changed into nymphs and chrysalises, and after the appointed process of time into beautiful butterflies, when they fly forth into the air as into their heaven; and there the female sports with her male companion like one marriage consort with another, and they nourish themselves with fragrant flowers, and lay their eggs, thus providing that their kind may live after them. A spiritual man sees that this emulates the rebirth of man, and is a representative of his resurrection, and thus is spiritual.  Still more striking evidences are seen with bees, which have a government after the form of human governments. They build for themselves little houses of wax according to the rules of art in a series, with commodious passages for transit; they fill the cells with honey collected from flowers; they appoint over themselves a queen to be the common parent of a future race; she dwells above her people in the midst of her guards; and when she is about to bring forth they follow her, with a mixed multitude after them; thus she goes from cell to cell, and lays a little egg in each, and so continually until her matrix is emptied, when she returns to her home; this she does repeatedly. Her guards, which are called drones because they perform no other use than as so many servants to one mistress, and perhaps inspire her with something of amatory desire, and because they do no work, are judged useless; and for this reason, and lest they should seize and consume the gains and work of others, they are brought out and deprived of their wings. Thus the community is purged of its idle members. Moreover, when the new progeny is grown up, they are commanded by a general voice, which is heard as a murmur, to depart and to seek a home and food for themselves. And they go out and collect into a swarm, and institute a like order in a new hive. These and many other things which investigators have discovered and published in books, are not unlike the governments that have been instituted and ordained in kingdoms and commonwealths by human intelligence and wisdom, according to the laws of justice and judgment. Moreover, like men, they know as it were the approach of winter, for which they gather food lest they should die of hunger. Who can deny that such things are from a spiritual origin, or can believe that they can possibly be from any other origin? To me all these things are evidences and proofs of a spiritual influx into natural things, and I have greatly wondered how they could be made evidences and proofs of the operation of nature alone, as they are by certain persons who are deluded by self-intelligence.1199.
Verse 2. For true and just are His judgments, signifies that the laws of the Divine providence, and all the works of the Lord, are of the Divine wisdom and the Divine love. This is evident from the signification of "true and just" as being in reference to the Lord the things that belong to His Divine wisdom, and at the same time the things that belong to His Divine love (of which presently); also from the signification of "judgments," as being in reference to the Lord the laws of His Divine providence (see n. 946); so, too, "judgments" signify works, since all the Lord's works are from His Divine providence, and according to its laws; and for the reason that the Lord, in everything He does, regards what is eternal, and the things that regard what is eternal belong to His Divine providence. "True" means what pertains to His Divine wisdom, and "just" what pertains to His Divine love, because from the Lord as a sun heat and light proceed, and the light is His Divine wisdom and the heat is His Divine love; therefore "light" signifies the Divine truth, from which angels and men have all their intelligence and wisdom, and "heat" signifies the Divine good, from which angels and men have all their love and charity; this light and heat are such also in their essence. (Continuation)  No one can know what is the quality of the life of the beasts of the earth, the birds of heaven, and the fishes of the sea, unless it is known what their soul is and its quality. It is known that every animal has a soul, for they are alive, and life is soul, and this is why they are called in the Word "living souls." That an animal is a soul in its ultimate form, which is corporeal, such as appears before the sight, can be best known from the spiritual world; for in that world, the same as in the natural world, beasts of every kind and birds of every kind, and fishes of every kind, are to be seen and so like in form that they cannot be distinguished from those in our world; but there is this difference, that in the spiritual world they spring evidently from the affections of angels and spirits, so that they are affections made apparent, and consequently they disappear as soon as the angel or spirit departs or his affection ceases. From this it is clear that their soul is nothing else; and that there are given as many genera and species of animals as there are genera and species of affections. It will be seen in what follows that the affections that are represented in the spiritual world by animals are not interior spiritual affections, but are exterior spiritual affections that are called natural; also that there is not a hair or fiber of wool on any beast, or a filament of a quill or feather upon any bird, or a point of a fin or scale on any fish, that is not from the life of their soul, thus that is not from the spiritual clothed by the natural. But something shall first be said about the animals that appear in heaven, in hell, and in the world of spirits which is intermediate between heaven and hell.1200.
For he hath judged the great harlot, signifies judgment upon those that have transferred to themselves dominion over the church and over heaven. This is evident from the signification of "to judge," as being the Last Judgment which was accomplished upon those meant by "Babylon" as "a harlot," who are such as have falsified all the truths and goods of the Word by the dominion over the church and over heaven that they have transferred to themselves; therefore it is said "that corrupted the earth with her whoredom," which signifies that all the truths of the church have been falsified by them, and all its goods adulterated. But by "Babylon" as a harlot only such are meant as exercise that dominion, and thereby falsify and adulterate all things of the Word, and hold the Word itself in little esteem. (Continuation)  As the entire heaven and the entire hell, and the entire world of spirits are divided into societies, and the societies are arranged according to the genera and species of affections, and as the animals there, as has just been said, are affections made apparent, so one kind of animal with its species appears in one society, and another in another, and all kinds of animals with their species in the societies taken together. In the societies of heaven gentle and clean animals appear, in the societies of hell the savage and unclean beasts, and in the world of spirits beasts of an intermediate character. These I have often seen, and from these I have been able to recognize the quality of the angels and spirits there. All in the spiritual world are known from what appears near them and about them, and their affections are known from various things, and also from the animals.  In the heavens I have seen lambs, sheep, and goats, so closely resembling those seen in the world that they do not differ at all. I have also seen in the heavens turtle doves, pigeons, birds of paradise, and many others, beautiful in form and color. I have also seen fishes in the waters, but these in the lowest parts of heaven. In the hells, dogs, wolves, foxes, tigers, swine, mice, and many other kinds of savage and unclean beasts are seen, besides poisonous serpents of many kinds, also ravens, owls, and bats. But in the world of spirits camels, elephants, horses, asses, oxen, deer, lions, leopards, bears, also eagles, kites, magpies, peacocks, and quails, are seen. I have also seen there composite animals, like those seen by the prophets and described in the Word (as in Rev. 13:2, and elsewhere).  As the animals that appear in that world bear such a resemblance to the animals in this world that no difference is discernible, and as the animals in that world derive their existence from the affections of the angels of heaven, or from the lusts of the spirits of hell, it follows that natural affections or lusts are their souls, and when these have been clothed with a body they are animals in form. But what affection or cupidity is the soul of this or that animal, either a beast or a wild beast of the earth, a bird of day or of the night, or a fish of limpid or fetid water, will not be explained here. These are mentioned frequently in the Word, and have a signification there in accordance with their souls. The signification of lambs, sheep, she-goats, rams, kids, he-goats, bullocks, oxen, camels, horses, asses, deer, and various kinds of birds, has been disclosed in the Arcana Coelestia, and may be seen there.
1193-1 Photolithograph has "kingdom of the heavens." Schmidius also has it. The Greek is "Kingdom of God."