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Animals how tutored by the Jugglers--Tricks performed by Bears--Tricks performed by Apes and Monkeys--Bears in Britain--Tricks by Horses in the thirteenth Century--In queen Anne's Reign--Origin of the Exhibitions at Astley's, the Circus, etc.--Dancing Dogs--The Hare beating a Tabor, and learned Pig--A Dancing Cock--The Deserter Bird--Imitations of Animals--Mummings and Masquerades--Mumming to royal Personages--Partial Imitations of Animals--The Horse in the Morris-dance--Counterfeit Voices of Animals--Animals trained for Baiting--Paris Garden--Bull and Bear-baiting patronised by Royalty--How performed--Bears and Bear-wards--Baiting in queen Anne's time--Recent Bull-baiting--Bull-running at Tutbury and Stamford--Sword-play--The Masters of Defence--Pepys on Prize-play--Public Sword-play--Quarter-staff.
ANIMALS HOW TUTORED BY JUGGLER.--One great part of the joculator's profession was the teaching of bears, apes, horses, dogs, and other animals, to imitate the actions of men, to tumble, to dance, and to perform a variety of tricks, contrary to their nature; and sometimes he learned himself to counterfeit the gestures and articulations of the brutes. The plates that illustrate this chapter relate to both these modes of diverting the public, and prove the invention of them to be more ancient than is generally supposed. The tutored bear lying down at the command of his master, represented on the top of plate twenty-five, is taken from a manuscript of the tenth century; and the three dancing bears beneath it are as early as the fourteenth century. I have already had occasion to make mention of these delineations; and the other two require no explanation. 1
On we find a bear standing on its head, and another dancing with a monkey on its back; the original occurs in a book of prayers in the Harleian Collection, 2 written towards the close of the thirteenth century.
I shall only observe, that there is but one among these six drawings in which the animal is depicted with a muzzle to prevent him from biting. The dancing bears have retained their place to the present time, and they frequently perform in the public streets for the amusement of the multitude; but the miserable appearance of their masters plainly indicates the scantiness of the contributions they receive on these occasions.
* BEARS IN BRITAIN.--That bears were found in Britain during the eighth century is known from Archbishop Egbert's Penitential, where it is laid down that "if any one shall hit a deer or other animal with an arrow, and it escapes and is found dead three days afterwards, and if a dog, a wolf, a fox, or a bear or any other wild beast hath begun to feed upon it, no Christian shall touch it." Mr Harting is of opinion that the trained bears exhibited by the Anglo-Saxon gleemen were native animals taken young and tamed. The great Caledonian
forest was so well supplied with bears that it furnished a considerable supply for the barbarous sports of Rome. It is supposed that bears became extinct in Britain before the tenth century. 1
TRICKS PERFORMED BY APES AND MONKEYS.--Thomas Cartwright, in his Admonition to Parliament against the Use of the Common Prayer, published in 1572, says: "If there be a bear or a bull to be baited in the afternoon, or a jackanapes to ride on horseback, the minister hurries the service over in a shameful manner, in order to be present at the show." We are not, however, hereby to conceive, that these amusements were more sought after or encouraged in England than they were abroad. "Our kings," says St Foix, in his History of Paris, "at their coronations, their marriages, and at the baptism of their children, or at the creation of noblemen and knights, kept open court; and the palace was crowded on such occasions with cheats, buffoons, rope-dancers, tale-tellers, jugglers, and pantomimical performers. They call those," says he, "jugglers, who play upon the vielle, and teach apes, bears," and perhaps we may add, dogs, "to dance." 2
Apes and monkeys seem always to have been favourite actors in the joculator's troop of animals. A specimen of the performance of both, as far back as the fourteenth century, is given on plate twenty-six. 3 Leaping or tumbling over a chain or cord held by the juggler, as we here see it depicted, was a trick well received at Bartholomew Fair in the time of Ben Jonson; and in the prologue to a comedy written by him, which bears that title, in 1614, it is said: "He," meaning the author, "has ne’re a sword and buckler man in his fayre; nor a juggler with a well-educated ape to come over the chaine for the king of England, and back again for the prince, and sit still on his haunches for the pope and the king of Spaine." In recent times, and probably in more ancient times also, these facetious mimics of mankind were taught to dance upon the rope, and to perform the part of the balance-masters.
* Evelyn records in his Diary, under date September 13th, 1660, that he saw "in Southwark, at St Margaret's Fair, monkeys and apes dance and do other feats of activity on the high-rope; they were gallantly clad à la monde, went upright, saluted the company, bowing and pulling off their hats; they saluted one another with as good a grace as if instructed by a dancing-master; they turned heels over head with a basket having eggs in it, without breaking any; also with lighted candles in their hands and on their head, without extinguishing them, and with vessels of water without spilling a drop."
In the reign of queen Anne, there was exhibited at Charing Cross, "a wild hairy man," who, we are told, danced upon the tight-rope "with a balance, true to the music"; he also "walked upon the slack-rope" while it was swinging, and drank a glass of ale; he "pulled off his hat, and paid his respects to the company"; and "smoaked tobacco," according to the bill, "as, well as any
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[paragraph continues] Christian." 1 But all these feats were afterwards outdone by a brother monkey, mentioned before, who performed many wonderful tricks at the Haymarket Theatre, both as a rope-dancer and an equilibrist. 2
TRICKS PERFORMED BY HORSES IN THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY.--We are told that, in the thirteenth century, a horse was exhibited by the joculators which danced upon a rope; and oxen were rendered so docile as to ride upon horses, holding trumpets to their mouths as though they were sounding them. 3 If we refer to plate twenty-seven we shall find the representation of several surprising tricks performed by horses, far exceeding those displayed in the present day (1800). At the top is depicted the cruel diversion of baiting a horse with dogs, from a fourteenth century manuscript. 4
* This wretched sport lingered on until the seventeenth century. In Evelyn's Diary, on August 17th, 1667, occurs the following entry: "There was now a very gallant horse baited to death with dogs; but he fought them all, so as the fiercest of them could not fasten on him, till the men run him through with their swords. This wicked and barbarous sport deserved to have been punished in the cruel contrivers to get money, under pretence that the horse had killed a man, which was false. I would not be persuaded to be a spectator."
In the centre of the plate is a horse dancing upon his hind feet to the music of the pipe and tabor; 5 and opposite to him is another horse rearing up and attacking the joculator, who opposes him with a small shield and a cudgel. 6 These mock combats, to which the animals were properly trained, were constantly regulated by some kind of musical instrument. The two performances delineated at the bottom of the plate are more astonishing than those preceding them.
In one instance, the horse is standing upon his hind feet, and beating with his fore feet upon a kind of tabor or drum held by his master; in the other the animal is exhibiting a similar trick with his hind feet, and supports himself upon his fore feet. The original drawings, represented by these engravings, are all of them upwards of four hundred and fifty years old; and at the time in which they were made the joculators were in full possession of the public favour.
Here it is deemed worthy to note, that in the year 1612, at a grand court festival, Mons. Pluvinel, riding-master to Louis XIII. of France, with three other gentlemen, accompanied by six esquires bearing their devices, executed a grand ballette-dance upon managed horses. 7 Something of the same kind is now done (1800) at Astley's and the Circus; but at these places the dancing is performed by the horses moving upon their four feet according to the direction of their riders; and of course it is by no means so surprising as that exhibited by the latter engravings.
TRICKS BY HORSES IN QUEEN ANNE'S REIGN.--Horses are animals exceedingly
susceptible of instruction, and their performances have been extended so far as to bear the appearance of rational discernment. In the Harleian Library 1 is a show-bill, published in the reign of queen Anne, which is thus prefaced: "To be seen, at the Ship upon Great Tower Hill, the finest taught horse in the world." The abilities of the animal are specified as follows: "He fetches and carries like a spaniel dog. If you hide a glove, a handkerchief, a door key, a pewter bason, or so small a thing as a silver two-pence, he will seek about the room till he has found it; and then he will bring it to his master. He will also tell the number of spots on a card, and leap through a hoop; with a variety of other curious performances." And we may, I trust, give full credit to the statement of this advertisement: for a horse equally scientific is to be seen in the present day (1800) at Astley's amphitheatre; this animal is so small, that he and his keeper frequently parade the streets in a hackney coach.
ORIGIN OF HORSE EXHIBITIONS AT ASTLEY'S, THE CIRCUS, ETC.--Riding upon two or three horses at once, with leaping, dancing, and performing various other exertions of agility upon their backs while they are in full speed, is, I believe, a modern species of exhibition, introduced to public notice about forty years back (1760) by a man named Price, who displayed his abilities at Dobney's near Islington; soon afterwards, a competitor by the name of Sampson made his appearance; and he again was succeeded by Astley. The latter established a riding-school near Westminster bridge, and has been a successful candidate for popular favour. These performances originally took place in the open air, and the spectators were exposed to the weather, which frequently proving unfavourable interrupted the show, and sometimes prevented it altogether; to remedy this inconvenience, Astley erected a kind of amphitheatre, completely covered, with a ride in the middle for the displayment of the horsemanship, and a stage in the front, with scenes and other theatrical decorations; to his former divertisements he then added tumbling, dancing, farcical operas, and pantomimes. The success he met with occasioned a rival professor of horsemanship named Hughes, who built another theatre for similar performances not far distant, to which he gave the pompous title of the Royal Circus. Hughes was unfortunate, and died some years back; but the Circus has passed into other hands; and the spectacles exhibited there in the present day (1800) are far more splendid than those of any other of the minor theatres.
DANCING DOGS.--I know no reason why the joculators should not have made the dog one of their principal brute performers; the sagacity of this creature and its docility could not have escaped their notice; and yet the only trick performed by the dog, that occurs in the ancient paintings, is simply that of sitting upon his haunches in an upright position, which he might have been taught to do with very little trouble. Three specimens are given, one on plate twenty-six and two on plate twenty-eight; they are all from the oft-cited Oxford manuscript of 1344.
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Tricks taught to Horses
Neither do I recollect that dogs are included in the list of animals formerly belonging to the juggler's exhibitions, though, no doubt, they ought to have been; for, in Ben Jonson's play of Bartholmew Fayre, first acted in 1614, there is mention made of "dogges that dance the morrice," without any indication of the performance being a novelty.
* Neither Pepys nor Evelyn make any reference to "performing dogs" in their respective diaries; but the performance of a non-professional dog recorded by the former, under September 11th, 1661, is certainly worthy of mention: "To Dr Williams, who did carry me into his garden, where he hath abundance of grapes; and he did show me how a dog that he hath do kill all the cats that come thither to kill his pigeons, and do afterwards bury them; and do it with so much care that they shall be quite covered; that if the tip of the tail hangs out, he will take up the cat again and dig the hole deeper, which is very strange; and he tells me that he do believe he hath killed above too cats."
Dancing dogs, in the present day (1800), make their appearance in the public streets of the metropolis; but their masters meet with very little encouragement, except from the lower classes of the people, and from children; and of course the performance is rarely worthy of notice. At the commencement of the last century, a company of dancing dogs was introduced at Southwark Fair by a puppet-showman named Crawley. He called this exhibition "The Ball of Little Dogs"; and states in his bill, that they came from Lovain: he then tells us, that "they performed by their cunning tricks wonders in the world of dancing"; and adds, "you shall see one of them, named marquis of Gaillerdain, whose dexterity is not to be compared; he dances with madame Poncette his mistress and the rest of their company at the sound of instruments, all of them observing so well the cadence, that they amaze every body." At the close of the bill, he declares that the dogs had danced before queen Anne and most of the nobility of England. But many other "cunning tricks," and greatly superior to those practised by Crawley's company, have been performed by dogs some few years ago, at Sadler's Wells, and afterwards at Astley's, to the great amusement and disport of the polite spectators. One of the dogs at Sadler's Wells acted the part of a lady, and was carried by two other dogs; some of them were seated at a table, and waited on by others; and the whole concluded with the attack and storming of a fort, entirely performed by dogs. 1
THE HARE AND TABOR, AND LEARNED PIG.--It is astonishing what may be effected by constant exertion and continually tormenting even the most timid and untractable animals; for no one would readily believe that a hare could have been sufficiently emboldened to face a large concourse of spectators without expressing its alarm, and beat upon a tambourine in their presence; yet such a performance was put in practice not many years back, and exhibited at Sadler's Wells; and, if I mistake not, in several other places in and about the metropolis.
[paragraph continues] Neither is this whimsical spectacle a recent invention. A hare that beat the tabor is mentioned by Jonson, in his comedy of Bartholmew Fayre, acted at the commencement of the seventeenth century; and a representation of the same feat, taken from a drawing on a manuscript upwards of four hundred years old, is given on plate twenty-two. 1
And here I cannot help mentioning a very ridiculous show of a learned pig, which of late days attracted much of the public notice, and at the polite end of the town. This pig, which indeed was a large unwieldy hog, being taught to pick up letters written upon pieces of cards, and to arrange them at command, gave great satisfaction to all who saw him, and filled his tormenter's pocket with money. One would not have thought that a hog had been an animal capable of learning: the fact, however, is another proof of what may be accomplished by assiduity; for the showman assured a friend of mine, that he had lost three very promising brutes in the course of training, and that the phenomenon then exhibited had often given him reason to despair of success. It was first shown in the vicinity of Pall Mall, in 1789, at five shillings each person; the price was afterwards reduced to half a crown; and finally to one shilling.
A DANCING COCK AND THE DESERTER BIRD.--The joculators did not confine themselves to the tutoring of quadrupeds, but extended their practice to birds also; and a curious specimen of their art appears on plate twenty-six, where a cock is represented dancing on stilts to the music of a pipe and tabor. 2
In the present day (1800), this may probably be considered as a mere effort of the illuminator's fancy, and admit of a doubt whether such a trick was ever displayed in reality; but many are yet living who were witnesses to an exhibition far more surprising, shown at Breslaw's, a celebrated juggler, who performed in Cockspur Street, opposite the Haymarket, about 1775. His prices for admission were five shillings and half a crown. A number of little birds, to the amount, I believe, of twelve or fourteen, being taken from different cages, were placed upon a table in the presence of the spectators; and there they formed themselves into ranks like a company of soldiers: small cones of paper bearing some resemblance to grenadiers' caps were put upon their heads, and diminutive imitations of muskets made with wood, secured under their left wings. Thus equipped, they marched to and fro several times; when a single bird was brought forward, supposed to be a deserter, and set between six of the musketeers, three in a row, who conducted him from the top to the bottom of the table, on the middle of which a small brass cannon charged with a little gunpowder had been previously placed, and the deserter was situated in the front part of the cannon; his guards then divided, three retiring on one side, and three on the other, and he was left standing by himself. Another bird was immediately produced; and, a lighted match being put into one of his claws, he hopped boldly on the other to the tail of the cannon, and, applying the match to the priming, discharged the piece without the least appearance of fear or agitation. The
moment the explosion took place, the deserter fell down, and lay, apparently motionless, like a dead bird; but, at the command of his tutor he rose again; and the cages being brought, the feathered soldiers were stripped of their ornaments, and returned into them in perfect order.
IMITATIONS OF ANIMALS.--Among the performances dependent on imitation, that of assuming the forms of different animals, and counterfeiting their gestures, do not seem to have originated with the jugglers; for this absurd practice, if I mistake not, existed long before these comical artists made their appearance, at least in large companies, and in a professional way. There was a sport common among the ancients, which usually took place on the kalends of January, and probably formed a part of the Saturnalia, or feasts of Saturn. It consisted in mummings and disguisements; for the actors took upon themselves the resemblance of wild beasts, or domestic cattle, and wandered about from one place to another; and he, I presume, stood highest in the estimation of his fellows who best supported the character of the brute he imitated. This whimsical amusement was exceedingly popular, and continued to be practised long after the establishment of Christianity; it was, however, much opposed by the clergy, and particularly by Paulinus, bishop of Nola, in the ninth century, who in one of his sermons tells us, that those concerned in it were wont to clothe themselves with skins of cattle, and put upon them the heads of beasts. 1 What effect his preaching may have had at the time, I know not: the custom, however, was not totally suppressed, but may be readily traced from vestiges remaining of it, to the modern times. Dr Johnson, in his Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland, says a gentleman informed him, that, at new year's eve, in the hall or castle of the laird, where at festivals there is supposed to be a very numerous company, one man dresses himself in a cow-hide, on which other men beat with sticks; he runs with all this noise round the house, which all the company quits in a counterfeited fright; the door is then shut, and no readmission obtained after their pretended terror, but by the repetition of a verse of poetry, which those acquainted with the custom are provided with. 2 The ancient court games, described in a former chapter, are certainly off-shoots from the Saturnalian disfigurements; and from the same stock we may pertinently derive the succeeding masquings and disguisements of the person frequently practised at certain seasons of the year; and hence also came the modern masquerades. Warton says, that certain court theatrical amusements were called mascarades very anciently in France. 3
MUMMINGS AND MASQUERADES.--In the middle ages, mummings were very common. Mumm is said to be derived from the Danish word mumme, or momme in Dutch, and signifies to disguise oneself with a mask: hence a mummer, which is properly defined by Dr Johnson to be a masker, one who performs frolics in a personated dress.
[paragraph continues] From the time of Edward III. mummings or disguisings, accompanied with figurative dances, were in vogue at court, of which there were memorable instances in the years 1377 and 1400. In the mansions of the nobility, on occasions of festivity, it also frequently happened that the whole company appeared in borrowed characters; and, full license of speech being granted to every one, the discourses were not always kept within the bounds of decency. 1 These spectacles were exhibited with great splendour in former times and particularly during the reign of Henry VIII.; they have ceased, however, of late years to attract the notice of the opulent; and the regular masquerades which succeeded them, are not supported at present (1800) with that degree of mirthful spirit which, we are told, abounded at their institution; and probably it is for this reason they are declining so rapidly in the public estimation.
The mummeries practised by the lower classes of the people usually took place at the Christmas holidays; and such persons as could not procure masks rubbed their faces over with soot, or painted them; hence Sebastian Brant, in his Ship of Fools, 2 alluding to this custom, says:--
It appears that many abuses were committed under the sanction of these disguisements; and for this reason an ordinance was established, by which a man was liable to punishment who appeared in the streets of London with "a painted visage." 3 In the third year of the reign of Henry VIII. it was ordained that no persons should appear abroad like mummers, covering their faces with vizors, and in disguised apparel, under pain of imprisonment for three months. The same act enforced the penalty of 20s. against such as kept vizors or masks in their houses for the purpose of mumming.
Bourne, in his Vulgar Antiquities, 4 speaks of a kind of mumming practised in the North about Christmas time, which consisted in "changing of clothes between the men and the women, who, when dressed in each other's habits, go," says he, "from one neighbour's house to another, and partake of their Christmas cheer, and make merry with them in disguise, by dancing and singing and such like merriments."
MUMMING TO ROYAL PERSONAGES.--Persons capable of well supporting assumed characters were frequently introduced at public entertainments, and also in the pageants exhibited on occasions of solemnity; sometimes they were the bearers of presents, and sometimes the speakers of panegyrical orations.
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[paragraph continues] Froissart tells us, that, after the coronation of Isabel of Bavaria, the queen of Charles VI. of France, she had several rich donations brought to her by mummers in different disguisements; one resembling a bear, another an unicorn, others like a company of Moors, and others as Turks or Saracens. 1
When queen Elizabeth was entertained at Kenilworth castle, various spectacles were contrived for her amusement, and some of them produced without any previous notice, to take her as it were by surprise. It happened about nine o'clock one evening, as her majesty returned from hunting, and was riding by torchlight, there came suddenly out of the wood, by the road-side, a man habited like a savage, covered with ivy, holding in one of his hands an oaken plant torn up by the roots, who placed himself before her, and, after holding some discourse with a counterfeit echo, repeated a poetical oration in her praise, which was well received. This man was Thomas Gascoyne the poet; and the verses he spoke on the occasion were his own composition. The circumstance took place on the 10th of July 1575. 2
The savage men, or wodehouses, as they are sometimes called, frequently made their appearance in the public shows; they were sometimes clothed entirely with skins, and sometimes they were decorated with oaken leaves, or covered, as above, with ivy.
PARTIAL IMITATIONS OF ANIMALS.--The jugglers and the minstrels, observing how lightly these ridiculous disguisements were relished by the people in general, turned their talents towards the imitating of different animals, and rendered their exhibitions more pleasing by the addition of their new acquirements. On plate twenty-eight are three specimens of their performances, all taken from the fourteenth century Bodleian MS. that has supplied so many of our illustrations. One of them presents to us the resemblance of a stag, and another that of a goat walking erectly on his hind feet. Neither of these fictitious animals have any fore legs; but to the first the deficiency is supplied by a staff, upon which the actor might recline at pleasure; his face is seen through an aperture on the breast; and, I doubt not, a person was chosen to play this part with a face susceptible of much grimace, which he had an opportunity of setting forth to great advantage, with a certainty of commanding the plaudits of his beholders. It was also possible to heighten the whimsical appearance of this disguise by a motion communicated to the head; a trick the man might easily enough perform, by putting one of his arms into the hollow of his neck; and probably the neck was made pliable for that purpose. In the third delineation we find a boy, with a mask resembling the head of a dog, presenting a scroll of parchment to his master. In the original there are two more boys, who are following disguised in a similar manner, and each of them holding a like scroll of parchment. The wit of this performance, I protest, I cannot discover.
COUNTERFEIT VOICES OF ANIMALS.--I have not been able to ascertain how
far the ancient jugglers exerted their abilities in counterfeiting the articulation of animals; but we may reasonably suppose they would not have neglected so essential a requisite to make their imitations perfect.
In the reign of queen Anne, a man whose name was Clench, a native of Barnet, made his appearance at London. He performed at the corner of Bartholomew Lane, behind the Royal Exchange. His price for admittance was one shilling each person. I have his advertisement before me; 1 which states that he "imitated the horses, the huntsmen, and a pack of hounds, a sham doctor, an old woman, a drunken man, the bells, the flute, the double curtell, and the organ with three voices, by his own natural voice, to the greatest perfection." He then professes himself to "be the only man that could ever attain to so great an art." He had, however, a rival, who is noted in one of the papers of the Spectator, and called the whistling man. His excellency consisted in counterfeiting the notes of all kinds of singing birds. 2 The same performance was exhibited in great perfection by the bird-tutor associated with Breslaw the juggler, mentioned a few pages back. This man assumed the name of Rosignol, 3 and, after he had quitted Breslaw, appeared on the stage at Covent Garden Theatre, where, in addition to his imitation of the birds, he executed a concerto on a fiddle without strings; that is, he made the notes in a wonderful manner with his voice, and represented the bowing by drawing a small truncheon backwards and forwards over a stringless violin. His performance was received with great applause; and the success he met with produced many competitors, but none of them equalled him: it was, however, discovered, that the sounds were produced by an instrument contrived for the purpose, concealed in the mouth; and then the trick lost all its reputation. Six years ago (1794) I heard a poor rustic, a native of St Alban's, imitate, with great exactness, the whole assemblage of animals belonging to a farm-yard; but especially he excelled in counterfeiting the grunting of swine, the squeaking of pigs, and the quarrelling of two dogs.
ANIMALS TRAINED FOR BAITING.--Training of bulls, bears, horses, and other animals, for the purpose of baiting them with dogs, was certainly practised by the jugglers; and this vicious pastime has the sanction of high antiquity. Fitz-Stephen, who lived in the reign of Henry II., tells us that, in the forenoon of every holiday, during the winter season, the young Londoners were amused with boars opposed to each other in battle, or with bulls and full-grown bears baited by dogs. 4 This author makes no mention of horses; and I believe the baiting of these noble and useful animals was never a general practice: it was, however, no doubt, partially performed; and the manner in which it was carried into execution appears on plate twenty-seven. Asses also were treated with the same inhumanity; but probably the poor beasts did not afford sufficient sport in the tormenting, and therefore were seldom brought forward as the objects of this barbarous diversion.
PARIS GARDEN.--There were several places in the vicinity of the metropolis set apart for the baiting of beasts, and especially the district of Saint Saviour's parish in Southwark, called Paris Garden; which place contained two bear-gardens, said to have been the first that were made near London; and in them, according to Stow, were scaffolds for the spectators to stand upon: 1 and this indulgence, we are told, they paid for in the following manner: "Those who go to Paris Garden, the Bell Savage, or Theatre, to behold bear-baiting, enterludes, or fence-play, must not account of any pleasant spectacle, unless first they pay one pennie at the gate, another at the entrie of the scaffold, and a third for quiet standing." 2 One Sunday afternoon in January 1583, the scaffolds being over-charged with spectators, fell down during the performance; and a great number of persons were killed or maimed by the accident. 3
BULL AND BEAR-BAITING PATRONISED BY ROYALTY.--Bull and bear-baiting is not encouraged by persons of rank and opulence in the present day (1800); and when practised, which rarely happens, it is attended only by the lowest and most despicable part of the people; which plainly indicates a general refinement of manners and prevalency of humanity among the moderns; on the contrary, this barbarous pastime was highly relished by the nobility in former ages, and countenanced by persons of the most exalted rank, without exception even of the fair sex.
* The office of Master of the Bears used to be held under the Crown, with a salary of 16d. a day. It was his duty to provide bears and dogs and superintend the baiting whenever required. He had authority to issue commissions to his officials to press into the royal service any bears or dogs that seemed suitable. On October 11th, 1561, a patent was issued to Sir Saunders Duncombe "for the sole practice and profit of the fighting and combating of wild and domestic beasts within the realm of England for the space of fourteen years." Prince Arthur had a bear-ward; when he visited the prior of Durham in 1530 with his troop of bears and apes, he received a gratuity of five shillings. 4
Erasmus, who visited England in the reign of Henry VIII., says, there were "many herds of bears maintained in this country for the purpose of baiting." 5 When queen Mary visited her sister the princess Elizabeth during her confinement at Hatfield House, the next morning, after mass, a grand exhibition of bear-baiting was made for their amusement, with which, it is said, "their highnesses were right well content." 6 Queen Elizabeth, on the 25th of May 1559, soon after her accession to the throne, gave a splendid dinner to the French ambassadors, who afterwards were entertained with the baiting of bulls and bears, and the queen herself stood with the ambassadors looking on the
pastime till six at night. The day following, the same ambassadors went by water to Paris Garden, where they saw another baiting of bulls and of bears; 1 and again, twenty-seven years posterior, queen Elizabeth received the Danish ambassador at Greenwich, who was treated with the sight of a bear and bull-baiting, "tempered," says Holinshed, "with other merry disports"; 2 and, for the diversion of the populace, there was a horse with an ape upon his back; which highly pleased them, so that they expressed "their inward-conceived joy and delight with shrill shouts and variety of gestures." 3
BULL AND BEAR-BAITING, HOW PERFORMED.--The manner in which these sports were exhibited towards the close of the sixteenth century, is thus described by Hentzner, 4 who was present at one of the performances: "There is a place built in the form of a theatre, which serves for baiting of bulls and bears; they are fastened behind, and then worried by great English bull-dogs; but not without risque to the dogs, from the horns of the one and the teeth of the other; and it sometimes happens they are killed on the spot; fresh ones are immediately supplied in the places of those that are wounded or tired. To this entertainment there often follows that of whipping a blinded bear, which is performed by five or six men standing circularly with whips, which they exercise upon him without any mercy, as he cannot escape because of his chain; he defends himself with all his force and skill, throwing down all that come within his reach, and are not active enough to get out of it, and tearing the whips out of their hands, and breaking them." Laneham, speaking of a hear-baiting exhibited before queen Elizabeth in 1575, says: "It was a sport very pleasant to see the bear, with his pink eyes learing after his enemies, approach; the nimbleness and wait of the dog to take his advantage; and the force and experience of the bear again to avoid his assaults: if he were bitten in one place, how he would pinch in another to get free; that if he were taken once, then by what shift with biting, with clawing, with roaring, with tossing, and tumbling, he would work and wind himself from them; and, when he was loose, to shake his ears twice or thrice with the blood and the slaver hanging about his physiognomy." The same writer tells us, that thirteen bears were provided for this occasion, and they were baited with a great sort of ban-dogs. 5 In the foregoing relations, we find no mention made of a ring put into the nose of the bear when he was baited; which certainly was the more modern practice; hence the expression by the duke of Newcastle, in the Humorous Lovers, printed in 1617: "I fear the wedlock ring more than the bear does the ring in his nose."
BEARS AND BEAR-WARDS.--When a bear-baiting was about to take place, the same was publicly made known, and the bear-ward previously paraded the streets with his bear, to excite the curiosity of the populace, and induce them to become spectators of the sport. The animal, on these occasions, was usually
preceded by a minstrel or two, and carried a monkey or baboon upon his back. In the Humorous Lovers, the play just now quoted, "Tom of Lincoln" is mentioned as the name of "a famous bear"; and one of the characters pretending to personate a bear-ward, says: "I'll set up my bills, that the gamesters of London, Horsleydown, Southwark, and Newmarket, may come in and bait him here before the ladies; but first, boy, go fetch me a bagpipe; we will walk the streets in triumph, and give the people notice of our sport."
BAITING IN QUEEN ANNE'S TIME.--The two following advertisements, 1 which were published in the reign of queen Anne, may serve as a specimen of the elegant manner in which these pastimes were announced to the public:
"At the Bear Garden in Hockley in the Hole, near Clerkenwell Green, this present Monday, there is a great match to be fought by two Dogs of Smith-field Bars against two Dogs of Hampstead, at the Reading Bull, for one guinea to be spent; five lets goes out of hand; which goes fairest and farthest in wins all. The famous Bull of fire-works, which pleased the gentry to admiration. Likewise there are two Bear-Dogs to jump three jumps apiece at the Bear, which jumps highest for ten shillings to be spent. Also variety of bull-baiting and bear-baiting; it being a day of general sport by all the old gamesters; and a bull-dog to be drawn up with fire-works. Beginning at three o'clock."
"At William Well's bear-garden in Tuttle-fields, Westminster, this present Monday, there will be a green Bull baited; and twenty Dogs to fight for a collar; and the dog that runs farthest and fairest wins the collar; with other diversions of bull and bear-baiting. Beginning at two of the clock."
* The noise of the bear-gardens, with the shouts and excitement of the spectators, was something prodigious; the term "bear-garden" still applied to a noisy household serves to perpetuate a once popular national pastime.
* RECENT BULL-BAITING.--Bull-baiting lingered with us much longer than bear-baiting, and was a far more universal sport throughout England. Butchers who sold unbaited bull beef were subject in various boroughs to considerable penalties. It used to be supposed that this order was made in consequence of baited beef being more digestible, but the enactments were really intended to promote the continuation of what used to be regarded as a manly sport. After the Restoration this pastime was generally resumed with much zest. Sir Miles Stapleton replaced the ring for bull-baiting and the stone to which it was affixed in the market-place of Bedale, Yorkshire, in 1661. 2
* Bull-baiting was, however, considered more the sport of the populace than of gentlefolk. It was followed up in the Southwark Bear Garden, but it disgusted not only Evelyn, but even Pepys. The latter was present at a Southwark bull-baiting on August 14th, 1666, when the bull tossed one of the dogs "into the very boxes"; Pepys had the sense to write "it is a very rude and nasty pleasure." Evelyn was at the same place on June 16th, 1670, and wrote:
[paragraph continues] "I went with some friends to the Bear Garden, where was cock-fighting, dog-fighting, and bear and bull-baiting, it being a famous day for all these butcherly sports, or rather barbarous cruelties. The bulls did exceeding well, but the Irish wolf- dog exceeded, which was a tall greyhound, a stately creature indeed, who beat a cruel mastiff. One of the bulls tossed a dog full into a lady's lap, as she sate in one of the boxes at a considerable height from the arena. Two poor dogs were killed, and so all ended with the ape on horseback, and I most heartily weary of the rude and dirty pastime, which I had not seen, I think, in twenty years before."
* In bull-baiting a rope about 15 feet long was fastened to the root of the horns, and the other end secured to an iron ring fixed to a stone or stake driven into the ground. The actual ring for bull-baiting still remains in several places in England, such as Hedon, Colchester, and Brading in the Isle of Wight. Several towns, like Birmingham and Dorchester, retain traces of the sport in their street nomenclature. In 1802 a Bill was introduced into Parliament for the suppression of this barbarous custom, but it was resisted, especially by Mr Windham, as part of a conspiracy of the Jacobins and Methodists to render the people grave and serious, and to uproot constitutional government. Notwithstanding the earnestness of Wilberforce and the eloquence of Sheridan, the Bill was defeated by a majority of thirteen. A worse fate befell a like measure introduced in 1829, which was defeated by 73 votes to 28. But after the great Reform Bill became law the protests of decent folk could no longer be set at naught, and bull-baiting was made illegal in 1835. Nevertheless the sport was still continued, after an illicit fashion, in a few places. It is said that there were bull-baitings at Wirksworth in 1840, at Eccles in 1842, and at West Derby in 1853. 1
* BULL-RUNNING AT TUTBURY AND STAMFORD.--The bull-running, as practiced at Tutbury and Stamford, and probably in other parts of England in old days, was a very different pastime, for which more could be said as a sport than the worrying of a chained-up brute. The bull-running at Tutbury was first described with any detail by Dr Plot in 1686. 2 A court of minstrels was established at Tutbury by John of Gaunt who held their festival on August 16, the morrow of the feast of the Assumption. At the conclusion of the festivities a bull was given them at the priory gate by the prior of Tutbury. The poor beast had the tip of its horns sawn off, his ears and tail cut off, the body smeared with soap, and the nostrils filled with pepper. The minstrels rushed after the maddened creature, and if any of those of the county of Stafford could succeed in holding him long enough to cut off a piece of his hair before sunset, he became the property of the king of the minstrels, who had that day been elected to his office by a jury who chose the monarch of the year alternately from the minstrels of Staffordshire and Derbyshire. If, on the other hand, the beast escaped from them untaken, or crossed another river into Derbyshire, he
Click to enlarge
Sword and Buckler
was returned to the prior. This supplying of the bull was a customary tenure due from the prior. After the dissolution of the monasteries, this tenure devolved upon the earls and afterwards the dukes of Devonshire. Dr Plot considered that John of Gaunt had introduced this custom from Spain in imitation of the bull-fights of that nation. But Dr Pegge, in 1765, pointed out the absurdity of this contention. 1 The duke of Devonshire suppressed this riotous custom in 1788.
* From time immemorial the town of Stamford annually celebrated, on November 13th, a bull-running. The animal, provided by the butchers of the town, was turned into the main street, and thence driven by the crowd on to the bridge over the Welland, whence it was usually precipitated into the water. When the bull swam ashore it was again pursued, and the hunt was carried on till both mob and beast were wearied out. Then the animal was killed and its flesh sold at a low rate. There were many local rules connected with the sport, such as there was to be no iron about the clubs or staves carried by the pursuers. Tradition had it that the custom originated in the days of king John, when William, earl of Warren, saw from his castle two bulls fighting in the meadow below. Some butchers striving to part the brutes, one of them ran into the town causing great uproar. The earl on horseback followed the bull, and so enjoyed the sport that he gave the meadow where the fight began to the butchers of Stamford on the condition of their finding a bull to be run on the anniversary for ever. An attempt was made to stop the sport in 1788, but it survived until 1839, when, in spite of a troop of dragoons and a strong force of metropolitan police, the last bull-running, by the successful introduction of a smuggled-in bull, was accomplished amid fierce excitement. In a later year there was a feeble and last attempt to renew the ancient custom. 2
SWORD-PLAY.--The sword-dance, or, more properly, a combat with swords and bucklers, regulated by music, was exhibited by the Saxon gleemen. We have spoken on this subject in a former chapter, and resume it here, because the jugglers of the middle ages were famous for their skill in handling the sword.
The combat, represented on the centre of plate twenty-nine, taken from a thirteenth century manuscript, 3 varies, in several respects, from that on , though both, I presume, are different modifications of the same performance, as well as that on the top of , 4 which is carried into execution without the assistance of a minstrel.
These combats bore some resemblance to those performed by the Roman gladiators; for which reason the jugglers were sometimes called gladiators by the early historians. Mimi, salii, balatrones, emiliani, gladiatores, palestrite--et tota joculatorum copia, are the titles given them by John of Salisbury. 5 It also appears that they instituted schools for teaching the art of defence in
various parts of the kingdom, and especially in the city of London, where the conduct of the masters and their scholars became so outrageous, that it was necessary for the legislature to interfere; and, in the fourteenth year of the reign of Edward I. (1286), an edict was published by royal authority, which prohibited the keeping of such schools, and the public exercise of swords and bucklers.
It is said that many robberies and murders were committed by these gladiators; hence the appellation of swash buckler, a term of reproach, "from swashing," says Fuller, "and making a noise on the buckler, and ruffian, which is the same as a swaggerer. West Smithfield was formerly called Ruffian Hall, where such men usually met, casually or otherwise, to try masteries with sword and buckler; more were frightened than hurt, hurt than killed therewith, it being accounted unmanly to strike beneath the knee. But since that desperate traytor Rowland Yorke first used thrusting with rapiers, swords and bucklers are disused." 1 Jonson, in the induction to his play called Bartholomew Fair, speaks of "the sword and buckler age in Smithfield"; and again, in the Two Angry Women of Abbington, a comedy by Henry Porter, printed in 1599, we have the following observation: "Sword and buckler fight begins to grow out of use; I am sorry for it; I shall never see good manhood again; if it be once gone, this poking fight of rapier and dagger will come up; then a tall man, that is, a courageous man, and a good sword and buckler man, will be spitted like a cat or a rabbit."
Such exercises had been practised by day and by night, to the great annoyance of the peaceable inhabitants of the city; and by the statute of Edward I. the offenders were subjected to the punishment of imprisonment for forty days; to which was afterwards added a mulct of forty marks. 2 These restrictions certainly admitted of some exceptions; for it is well known that there were seminaries at London, wherein youth were taught the use of arms, held publicly after the institution of this ordinance. "The art of defence and use of weapons," says Stow, "is taught by professed masters"; 3 but these most probably were licensed by the city governors, and under their control. The author of a description of the colleges and schools in and about London, which he calls The Third University of England, printed in black letter in 1615, says: "In this city," meaning London, "there be manic professors of the science of defence, and very skilful men in teaching the best and most offensive and defensive use of verie many weapons, as of the long-sword, back-sword, rapier and dagger, single rapier, the case of rapiers, the sword and buckler, or targate, the pike, the halberd, the long-staff, and others. Henry VIII. made the professors of this art a company, or corporation, by letters patent, wherein the art is intituled 'The Noble Science of Defence.' The manner of the proceeding of our fencers in their schools is this: first, they which desire to be taught
at their admission are called scholars, and, as they profit, they take degrees, and proceed to be provosts of defence; and that must be wonne by public trial of their proficiencie and of their skill at certain weapons, which they call prizes, and in the presence and view of many hundreds of people; and, at their next and last prize well and sufficiently performed, they do proceed to be maisters of the science of defence, or maisters of fence, as we commonly call them." The king ordained "that none, but such as have thus orderly proceeded by public act and trial, and have the approbation of the principal masters of their company, may profess or teach this art of defence publicly in any part of England." Stow informs us, that the young Londoners, on holidays, after the evening prayer, were permitted to exercise themselves with their wasters and bucklers before their masters' doors. This pastime, I imagine, is represented by the fourteenth century drawing at the bottom of plate twenty-nine, 1 from whence the annexed engraving is taken, where clubs or bludgeons are substituted for swords.
* THE MASTERS OF DEFENCE.--"The Maisters of the Noble Science of Defence" organised by Henry VIII. in July 1540, were still further consolidated in the reign of Elizabeth. Among the Sloane MSS. of the British Museum is an interesting book compiled in 1575, which contains a record of this Association of Masters, with its rules, notes of prizes played by them, and many other details. 2 The Association consisted first of the "Scholler," or probationer; secondly, the "Free Scholler," which was the junior grade; then the "Provost," or assistant master; and lastly the "Maister." From the masters was chosen the small governing body known as "The Four Ancient Maisters of the Noble Science of Defence." The provosts and masters were licensed by "our soveraigne lady, Elizabeth," to teach in their schools "within this realme of England Irelande and Calleis and the precincts of the same" gentlemen or yeomen who were willing to learn the science of defence, "as playinge with the two hande sworde, the Pike, the bastard sworde, the dagger, the Backe sworde, the sworde and Buckeler, and the staffe, and all other maner of weapons apperteyninge to the same science." The scholar had to play with at least six scholars with the long sword and back sword before he could be a free scholar. Before a free scholar could become a provost he had to play at the two-hand sword, the back-sword, and the staff with all manner of provosts that came on the appointed day; notice being sent to all provosts within threescore miles of the place of play. Amongst other obligations, if successful, the new provost had to be bound over to the four ancient masters not to keep any school within seven miles of any master without license from the governing four. When a provost was minded to take the master's degree, he had to play any masters, who might appear from within forty miles of the appointed place, at the two-hand sword, the bastard sword, the pike, the back-sword, and the rapier and dagger.
* The notes as to play for these different degrees extend from 1575 to 1591, and show the fierceness of the contests. Gregorye Greene, who played for his scholar's prize at Chelmsford in 1578, contended with eight at two-hand sword and seven at back-sword. Edward Harvye in the same year played for his scholar's prize at the Bull within Bishopsgate (the favourite London place of meeting) with fourteen at two-hand sword and two at sword and buckler. The provost's prizes were played in public, usually at some tavern such as the Bull in Bishopsgate and the Bellesavage at Ludgate. Other places named for the playing for master's prizes were Hampton Court, the Artillery Garden, and Canterbury.
* This Association was at its zenith in Elizabeth's reign; it lingered on in the reign of James I. and Charles I., though after a humble fashion, and expired during the Commonwealth struggle. With the Restoration came in prize-fighting as opposed to the earlier prize-playing with broad or back-sword, the cudgel, and the staff. The play of this kind from Henry VIII. to end of Elizabeth was for the honour and gain of being promoted as teachers in a gild or association of fencers; but with the advent of Charles II., when the two-hand sword and the long rapier had gone out of fashion, came the men who merely fought for money prizes, with the addition of whatever coins might be thrown to them on the stage by the public. The lively pages of Pepys yield several accounts of the fierce prize-fighting with swords.
* PEPYS ON PRIZE-PLAY.--"June 1, 1663.--I with Sir J. Minnes to the Strand Maypole, and there light of his coach, and walked to the New Theatre, which, since the King's players are gone to the Royal one, is this day begun to be employed for the fencers to play prizes at. And here I came and saw the first prize I ever saw in my life: and it was between one Matthews, who did beat at all points, and one Westwicke, who was soundly cut both in the head and legs, that he was all over blood; and other deadly blows did they give and take in very good earnest. They fought at eight weapons, three boutes at each weapon. This being upon a private quarrel, they did it in good earnest, and I felt one of their swords, and found it very little, if at all, blunter on the edge than the common swords are. Strange to see what a deal of money is flung to them both upon the stage between every boute.
"May 27th, 1667.--Abroad, and stopped at Beargarden stairs, there to see a prize fought. But the house so full there was no getting in there, so forced to go through an ale house into the pit where the bears are baited; and upon a stool did see them fight, a butcher and a waterman. The former had the better all along, till by and by the latter dropped his sword out of his hand, and the butcher, whether not seeing his sword dropped I know not, but did give him a cut over the wrist, so that he was disabled to fight any longer. But Lord! to see in a minute the whole stage was full of watermen to revenge the foul play, and the butchers to defend their fellow, though most blamed him; and there they fell to it, knocking down and cutting many on each side. It was
pleasant to see, but that I stood in the pit, and feared that in the tumult I might get some hurt. At last the battle broke up, so I away.
"Sept. 1st, 1667.--To the Beargarden where now the yard is full of people, and those most of them seamen, striving by force to get in. I got into the common pit; and there with my cloak about my face, I stood and I saw the prize fought, till one of them, a shoemaker, was so cut in both his wrists that he could not fight any longer, and then they broke off. The sport very good, and various humours to be seen among the rabble that is there.
"April 12th, 1669.--By water to the Beargarden, and there happened to sit by Sir Fretcheville Hollis, who is still full of his vainglorious and profane talk. Here we saw a prize fought between a soldier and a country fellow, one Warrell who promised the least in his looks, and performing the most of valour in his boldness and evenness of mind, and smiles in all he did, that ever I saw; and we were all both deceived and infinitely taken with him. He did soundly beat the soldier, and cut him over the head. Thence back to White Hall, mightily pleased all of us with this sight, and particularly this fellow, as a most extraordinary man for his temper and evenness in fighting."
PUBLIC SWORD-PLAY.--The following show-bill, dated July 13, 1709, contains the common mode of challenging and answering used by the combatants of those days; it is selected from a great number now lying before me; 1 and, being rather curious, I shall transcribe it without making any alteration.
"At the Bear Garden in Hockley in the Hole, near Clerkenwell Green, a trial of skill shall be performed between Two Masters of the noble Science of Defence on Wednesday next, at two of the clock precisely.
"I George Gray, born in the city of Norwich, who have fought in most parts of the West Indies, namely, Jamaica and Barbadoes, and several other parts of the world, in all twenty-five times, and upon a stage, and never yet was worsted, and being now lately come to London, do invite James Harris to meet and exercise at these following weapons, namely, back-sword, sword and dagger, sword and buckler, single falchon, and case of falchons."
"I James Harris, Master of the said noble Science of Defence, who formerly rid in the horse-guards, and hath fought a hundred and ten prizes, and never left a stage to any man, will not fail, God willing, to meet this brave and bold inviter at the time and place appointed; desiring sharp swords, and from him no favour. No person to be upon the stage but the seconds. Vivat Regina!"
With the accession of George I. the taste for these gladiatorial shows began to wane, and their place was ere long taken by pugilism.
QUARTER-STAFF.--In another challenge of the reign of Anne the quarter-staff is added to the list of weapons named on these occasions. Quarter-staff Dr Johnson explains to be "A staff of defence, so called, I believe, from the
manner of using it; one hand being placed at the middle, and the other equally between the end and the middle." 1 The quarter-staff was formerly used by the English, and especially in the western parts of the kingdom. I have seen a small pamphlet of 1625 with this title: "Three to One; being an English-Spanish combat, performed by a western gentleman of Tavystock, in Devonshire, with an English quarter-staff, against three rapiers and poniards, at Sherries in Spain, in the presence of the dukes, condes, marquisses, and other great dons of Spain, being the council of war"; to which is added, "the author of this booke, and actor in this encounter, being R. Peecke." On the same page there is a rude wooden print, representing the hero with his quarter-staff, in the action of fighting with the three Spanyards, who are armed with long swords and daggers. Caulfield has copied this print in his Assemblage of Noted Persons.
* This favourite old English weapon or implement was a stout pole or staff varying from eight to five feet in length, but usually in encounters of a regular length of six and a half feet. It seems to have been originally a mere walking-staff, like the Swiss alpenstock, and then found useful for defence and offence. In action it was grasped by one hand in the middle, and by the other between the middle and the end. When attacking, the latter hand shifted from one quarter of the staff to the other, giving the weapon a rapid circular motion, which brought the ends on the adversary at unexpected points. 2
* In the old Playe of Robyn Hode mention is made of his meeting a stout friar with "a quarter-staffe in his hande," and of the blows they exchanged with these weapons. 3 Bouts at quarter-staff are of frequent occurrence in all ballad histories of Robin Hood. When Robin encountered Arthur a Bland, the tanner of Nottingham, we are told that--
* * * * *
"But let me measure," said jolly Robin,
"Before we begin our fray;
For I'll not have mine to be longer than thine,
For that will be counted foul play."
"I pass not for length," bold Arthur replied,
"My staff is of oak so free;
Eight foot and a half it will knock down a calf,
And I hope it will knock down thee."
Then Robin Hood could no longer forbear,
He gave him such a knock,
Quickly and soon the blood came down,
Before it was ten o'clock.
* * * * * p. 215
About and about and about they went,
Like two wild boars in a chase,
Striving to aim each other to maim
Leg, arm, or any other place.
And knock for knock they hastily dealt,
Which held for two hours and more;
That all the wood rang at every bang
They plied their work so sore. 1
195:1 The two in the middle are from the Bodleian MS. 264.
195:2 No. 6563.
196:1 Harting's Extinct British Animals, 19.
196:2 Essais Hist. sur Paris, vol. ii. p. 178.
196:3 The tumbling ape is from Bodleian MS. No. 264.
197:1 From a Miscellaneous Collection of Papers, Harl. Lib. 5931.
197:2 Granger, Biog. Hist. vol. iv. p. 353.
197:3 Mem. sur Ann. Cheval, tom. i. p. 247.
197:4 Roy. Lib. No. 2, B. vii.
197:5 Roy. Lib. 20 D. iv.
197:6 This and the two illustrations at the bottom of the Plate are from Bodleian MSS. No. 264.
197:7 Menestrier, Trait. de Tournois, p, 218.
198:1 No. 5938.
199:1 * In Chambers's Book of Days, i. 293-295, there is an illustrated account of a wonderfully trained troup of dogs and monkeys that performed in London in 1753, under the name of "Mrs Midnight's Animal Commedians."
200:1 Harl. MSS. No. 6563.
201:1 Du Cange, Glossary, in vocibus Cervula et Kalends.
201:2 See also Bourne's Vulgar Errors, edited by Brand, p. 175.
201:3 History of English Poetry, vol. i. p. 237.
202:1 Mem. Anc. Cheval, tom. ii. p. 68.
202:2 Translated by Alexander Barclay, and printed by Pynson in 1508.
202:3 Stow's Survey, fol. 680.
202:4 Chap. xvi.
203:1 Chron. tom. i. iv. chap. 157, Lord Berners' translation.
203:2 See Nichols' Progresses, vol. i.
204:1 Miscell. Collect. Harl. Lib. No. 115.
204:2 Vol. viii. No. 570.
204:3 Literally, nightingale.
204:4 Description of London. See also Stow's Survey, p. 78.
205:1 Survey of London, ubi supra.
205:2 Lambarde's Perambulation of Kent, published A.D. 1570, p. 248.
205:3 * This accident produced a pamphlet entitled "A Godly Exhortation by occasion of the late Judgment of God shewed at Paris Garden, 13 January, 1583, upon divers Persons, whereof some were killed and many hurt at a Bear-bating."
205:4 Harting's Extinct British Animals, 27, 28. Mr Harting makes a curious blunder over the account roll of Durham Abbey, and imagines that the prior himself kept bears and apes.
205:5 Erasmi Adagia, p. 361.
205:6 Life of Sir Thomas Pope, sect. iii. p. 85.
206:1 Nichols' Progresses, vol. i. p. 40.
206:2 Chronicle of Eng. vol. iii. fol. 1552.
206:3 Nichols' Progresses, vol. ii. p. 228.
206:4 Itinerary, printed in Latin, A.D. 1598. See Lord Orford's translation, Strawberry Hill, p. 42.
206:5 Nichols' Progresses, vol. i. fol. 249.
207:1 Harl. MSS. No. 15.
207:2 The details are given in his Household Books: see Ancestor, Nos. ii. and iii.
208:1 Notes and Queries, Ser. VI. i 86, 105, 186.
208:2 Natural History of Staffordshire, 439.
209:1 Archæologia, ii. 86-91.
209:2 There is a good summary of the history of the Stamford bull-running in Chambers's Book of Days, ii, 574-576.
209:3 Roy. Lib. No. 14, E. iii.
209:4 Roy. Lib. No. 20, D. vi.
209:5 Johan. Sarisburiensis, De Nugis Curialium, lib. i. cap. viii. p. 34.
210:1 Worthies of England, A.D. 1662.
210:2 Maitland's History of London, book i, chap. xi.
210:3 Survey of London, chap. ii.
211:1 Bodleian MSS. No. 264.
211:2 * These rules are printed in full and many other extracts given in the chapter entitled "Prize-players and prize-fighters," of Mr A. Hutton's valuable book, The Sword and the Centuries (1901).
213:1 In a Miscellaneous Collection of Title-pages, Bills, etc., in the Harleian Library, No. 115.
* "Mr Hutton, in The Sward and the Centuries, gives many other particulars of the prize-fighting heroes of queen Anne's days, such as Donald MacBane and James Figs.
214:1 Dictionary, word Quarter-staff.
214:2 Century Dictionary.
214:3 Child's Ballads, iii. 127.
215:1 Child's Ballads, iii. 138.