All was going well for a long time until again some one who had the game brought it back, and the young people began again to play, although the old folks scolded them. Now one time the katsina came to visit, bringing presents and rain. That night after the katsina left, one of them stayed on in the village, while the boys returned to the kiva to play their game. There were many players in the kiva. So the katsina went in without being noticed, back of the crowd, and watched them play and heard them talk and sing. One of the gamblers got more fresh and started to sing a song which grew more and more disrespectful, and some men started to dance like katsina. They burlesqued the dances and they mocked 26 the peculiarities of some of the katsina (some were bow-legged, some had off-set lips). Finally one said, "Is this the way the clouds look?"
Finally the katsina went out and called to the other katsina. When the people heard it they were startled, saying, "Who was that went out?" But they found it was a real katsina. Some said they thought they had seen the real katsina go out. They were frightened, saying, "A katsina has seen us mock the katsina." This katsina took the story back to Wenimats. There was a man who was not in the kiva
at the time they were mocking. He was on his way in when he met the katsina on the roof of the kiva. When he entered he asked, "What was that katsina doing here?" They kept quiet when they found this was a real katsina, and, knowing they had made a mistake, they kept quiet. So they quit playing and went home, feeling heavy-hearted.
When the katsina got back to Wenimats, he yelled and everyone was filled with excitement and rushed out. He told the katsina chief what he had seen and other katsina were listening and even before he finished telling, some of them began to get angry. Katsina Chief tried to calm them, saying, "Wait, don't get excited!" But they were all enraged. Gomaiowish took the lead on the side of the angry ones. He said, "I am going to tell them that we are coming to visit them." Katsina chief told him not to go, but he went anyway. Katsina Chief urged that there be no hasty action and tried to get them to settle the matter by discussion, if possible, without harming anyone.
Just after midnight that night in the pueblo, the people heard Gomaiowish crying out in the plaza, saying, "I have brought you a message. The katsina are going to visit you and they will bring you presents. They will bring you everything you need, hunting sticks, clubs, so wait for them, make prayer sticks and be prepared for them and prepare a feast for them." Everyone got up, not knowing what was happening. They heard Gomaiowish giving a strange yell they had never heard before. However, they understood his instructions. His yell sounded like crying. The people were frightened, wondering why Gomaiowish was so different. Those who had been in the kiva mocking were the only ones who could guess the reason. They got together and decided that their burlesque must have been the cause. No one went to bed, but stayed up, questioning one another. Gomaiowish left but returned just before sun-up.
When be came the second time they saw that he had clubs and hunting sticks in his hands. Antelope Man (head chaianyi 27 and Father of the katsina) painted himself up and put on the full costume in which he had always met the katsina. The Country Chief and his officers did likewise, and went forth to meet Gomaiowish. Antelope Man said to Gomaiowish, "Have you come, my son?" Gomaiowish replied, "Yes, my father, I have come. I have come to tell you that the katsina are anxious to come and visit you. They will be here a little after noon. They are going to bring presents to your people." Antelope Man tried to talk with Gomaiowish as usual; all the other people were looking on, but Gomaiowish would not come near them. So Antelope Man asked why he did not step up and tell him why the katsina were coming. He told Gomaiowish to stop, and offered him a cigarette. 'But Gomaiowish made excuses, saying he did not want to smoke because
tobacco made one lazy, made the joints crack, and made the eyes water so one could not see a deer when hunting. They tried other ways to get him to stop and talk and to placate him. But Gomaiowish, being the leader of the angry katsina, would not be placated. So Antelope Man asked Gomaiowish to give him the stick he had brought: "Was he not going to give it away? You are my friend, why don't you present it to me?" Country Chief came near and tried to calm Gomaiowish. He caught, hold of him, but Gomaiowish got very angry and hit him with the club. Other men jumped on Gomaiowish and grabbed him. Antelope Man ordered them to bring him to the kiva, hoping that there they could humor him and quiet him down. But Gomaiowish broke loose. He was faster than any of the men, who pursued him in vain. They had taken away his clubs and hunting sticks.
So Gomaiowish went back to Wenimats and brought added complaint, telling that the people had taken away his clubs and sticks. He exaggerated what they had done. He persuaded the other katsina that the people were very wicked, and added fuel to their anger. The katsina leader Tsitsanits tried again to quiet them but they would not listen. All the katsina left in a large band although Tsitsanits tried to stop them and send them back. The people at White House knew there was something wrong, and they all got busy making prayer sticks and praying to the katsina. But the prayer sticks, even when they reached the katsina, were not received. The katsina ran right over Tsitsanits, who was injured trying to stop them; they were on the war path. Before long the people at White House could hear the katsina coming, yelling in the same way they had heard Gomaiowish yell. Country Chief called all the men together. He told the people not to do anything to the katsina. "If they are going to harm us, let us do as they like. Maybe this is to be our punishment. I know that we have been doing wrong." The two sons of the Sun man [Masewi and Oyoyewi] were present as common men; they did not think anything serious was due to happen.
The katsina brought clubs and they had picked up sticks of hard wood, and broken branches off the trees. They were all very angry. They did not pause as they came to the village but came right in by the back way, all in a bunch, and began striking the people with their clubs and killing many of them. The Sun twins rushed to their house. They saw that things had become very serious. They saw their people were being rapidly killed and they got angry toward the katsina. So they started putting on the costumes their father had given them and painted each other as their father had shown them, and put on their quiver with bow and arrows. They intended to fight back at the katsina. The people had made no attempt to defend themselves. The Twins selected the largest bunch of katsina in the plaza and gave the
yell their father had taught them (through which they were to get power from the Sun). They knew they were not to use the hunting stick ordinarily, but they decided this was the necessary occasion. After giving their yell, each one let fly a hunting stick at the katsina in the plaza. The sticks killed all the katsina in the plaza, decapitating them and scattering the others in every direction. The Twins killed all the katsina but Tsitsanits the leader, who was with Country Chief, trying to calm down the katsina. They then captured Gomaiowish, berating him: "It is because of you that our people have been killed. you are looking for trouble, so you will have it." Whereupon they tied him and castrated him. Then Gomaiowish confessed and said, "Oh, it is you! Please forgive me!" He knew who the Twins were from their prayers.
When the katsina leader saw that all the katsina had been killed, all of a sudden he became afraid and said, "I think we have done something wrong, else by whose power has this been done?" By that Tsitsanits meant that both sides had been wrong. This was the first time they had seen death. When Tsitsanits asked by whose power it had been done, the Twins stepped forward, saying, "We are the ones. It had to be done. We stood up for the people. We confess that we understand that the katsina are sacred to us. But it has been held also that the katsina on their part should care for the people." All the rest of the people were terror-stricken, as what had happened was very mysterious. They came out from where they were hiding and gathered where Country Chief was, with the Twins and Tsitsanits and Gomaiowish.
As soon as the elder twin finished telling why they had fought back, Tsitsanits understood and knew that it was their father Masewi. So Tsitsanits stepped up to him and put his arms around him and confessed for the katsina that they had done wrong. So Country Chief stepped up to Masewi and said, "You have performed this miracle. Why should it be so hard and so serious as all this? Forgive us all! Can you bring the katsina back to life for our sake? We all understand that it is also by them that we have lived and been happy." So the elder twin spoke to the katsina leader, asking him if what Country Chief had said was true. If they brought them back alive, there was not to be any more killing and they should not become angry. The katsina leader said that he had confessed for them and Country Chief had said what was true. So the elder Twin said, "I also understand that this should never have happened. We also feel very sorry for the katsina, whom we have depended upon. We are going to try to do what you have asked. If our power works, maybe they will be with us again."
So the Twins went among the scattered katsina and, picking up their heads, placed them back in place. Their father (Sun) had given
them "jackrabbit ears" (peschwipen), an herb. They rubbed this medicine on the necks of the katcina to connect their heads again and on their chests they placed their staff with the arrowhead (as they had been instructed to do to bring animals back to life). Some of them came back to life after this and quickly got strong, others recovered slowly, and a few did not come to life at all. The Twins worked over them all day till sundown. Country Chief sent the people away while they were doing this, telling them it was not good for them to see what was happening. The chaianyi helped the Twins, but all they did was to follow the Twins' instructions. So after they had done the best they could and had brought back to life all those they could bring back, Country Chief confessed to the katsina that it was the people's fault that this trouble had happened. Tsitsanits replied that the katsina had also made a mistake, and were equally at fault. So to protect both sides he decided that the katsina should not come any more, as they might get angry again. "You will not see us any more, but we will still help you from Wenimats and we will always be waiting for you there. You have received presents of the costume of the katsina. From now on you are going to imitate us. In that way we will help you from Wenimats. You have seen how we, are painted up, you have seen how we are dressed (pl. 12, fig. 2). You know how to make our prayer sticks. Go through the ceremony like this and we will help you spiritually. When you have picked out the costume of the katsina you are to represent, his power will come to you and attach itself while you represent him."
So Country Chief replied, saying, "How can this be made real? We are not appointed to do this." Tsitsanits replied, "Well, I guess you will have to be initiated. In this way you will really represent the katsina." So Tsitsanits laid down the word that he was to be called to teach them how to carry this out and to initiate the people so they could learn to be katsina. Then Masewi asked if this was all. The kachina leader said, "Yes." Masewi said, "This is not all for you yet. You will receive punishment and you will have to fast for three 10's of the times the sun comes up. At the end you will all become really reborn. After this is done we will regard you as we have done before." The elder Twin said that at the end of this time he would come with his brother to Wenimats. Everyone felt sorry for each other and felt very bad. So they gathered and the people brought prayer sticks to the katsina and both sides confessed their wrongdoing and said prayers for each other. Then the katsina left. When they got back to Wenimats, they all died again. For these 30 days they were just alive enough to be able to realize their punishment. 28 Tsitsanits took care of them during this time.
Country Chief asked Masewi and Oyoyewi if they could bring the people alive, and they said, "Yes, we can." So all the bodies were brought into the plaza. They did with them as they had done with the katsina, but none of them came to life. The Twins had also made a mistake. Their father had seen what they had done and had taken away all the power of their medicine staff and arrowhead after they had finished with the katsina. And the hunting sticks had no more power. This is why they could not bring any of the people back to life. So Masewi and Oyoyewi said, "Well, we have failed. What is to be done now?" Country Chief and the chaianyi said that it had been laid down that, if anything like this happened, certain rules were to be followed. "Iatiku said that at some time we would come to the end of life. Maybe this is what has happened." So the medicine men said that they would take care of that. So they painted (pl. 15, fig. 2, a) the faces of the men and the women 29 [i. e., the medicine men 30 prepared the dead for burial which was to take place the day after death, thus inaugurating the funeral ritual, 31 part of which is described at this point in the narrative, as follows.] Before the chaianyi leaves, as many different kinds of food as possible are procured and offered. A fire stick (poker) and an arrow point are placed on the floor and for 4 days after death the soul of the dead person is fed a little after each meal. After 4 days a medicine man is called in to put the family through the forgetting 32 ceremony
(pl. 15, fig. 2, b). 33 He is given prayer sticks by the family. He sweeps up the sand painting, and takes out the fire stick and the arrow point and buries them, 34 so the breath 35 of the dead person is removed from the house.
The medicine men remembered how Iatiku had showed them the sand painting of the figure of the earth, with the head to the east, so they thought that probably meant the body should be returned to the earth with the head in that direction, and the feet in the direction the sun goes down. So this is the way the medicine men planted the bodies of their people, so that they would be reborn. The word "plant" is used in this sense in burials.
50:24 At Santo Domingo, spectators are not allowed to leave the plaza during a masked dance for any reason. (White, 1942 ).
50:25 This is not my impression. Although it is true that officers and priests are not infrequently pictured in myths as powerless to bring rain, or wicked, and although it is not infrequently a "common man" who saves the day in mythology, I have received the distinct impression that the people place their trust in their priests and officers and their fetishes. If they can do nothing, there is little that a sicti (common person) can do.--L. A. W.
50:26 See White, 1932, pp. 148-50.
51:27 This is the first statement that Antelope chief was a medicine man. The cacique (Antelope chief) at Acoma recently was not a medicine man (While, 1932, pp. 41-42)
54:28 A hint here of purgatory; the whole paragraph has a Catholic tone: punishment, penance, confession, prayer for somebody. Nor is "soul" (see below) a term generally used by Pueblos.
55:29 Cf. White 1932, p. 137; also White, 1942. At Laguna the deceased had their faces painted with their respective clan designs (Parsons, 1923, p. 216); the shaman "will make [the deceased] so that he may be recognized" (Boas, 1928, pt. 1. p. 203). Common people at Sia are not painted at death, but "official members of cult societies" are painted (Stevenson, 1894, p. 144). The same practice is observed at Santa Ana (White, ms.) and at Cochiti (Goldfrank, 1927, p. 65). At Santo Domingo the deceased are said to be unpainted (White, 1935, p. 85), and there is no mention of face painting at San Felipe (White, 1932 a, pp. 60-61).
Apparently face painting of common people at death is practiced only at Laguna and Acoma.
55:30 Informant's note: Women have their hair cut like Iatiku with hair parted to represent the Milky Way over the forehead, and cut with four corners to represent the ceremonial 4-day period. This is done so Iatiku will recognize them. The face is painted yellow with pollen to indicate a female. The red spots are fox looks; they point thus when dressed up for the dance. Necklace, because Iatiku wears one. Downy eagle feather in hair. (See White, 1942.)
A chaianyi is prepared as for a ceremony. The bangs are drawn up in a topknot. The black and white face Paint was prescribed by Iatiku. (Chaianyi work at night so they can see far like an owl.) The two chin, stripes are made by scratching away the paint. The turkey feathers at sides of head are painted green. Bear-claw necklace; arrowhead represents heart.
The ordinary man is painted with the red stripes of warrior or hunter. His haircut also represents the Milky Way. Abalone pendant. The feathers are chiutika [sparrow hawk, ctcoTika', Boas, 1928, pt. 1, pp. 292-293]. Every man kills one, spreads out the tail feathers, and keeps them to be used when he dies. The corn husk in his hair shows he belongs to Iatiku, he has been initiated into the katsina. [Katsina initiates are referred to as Guiraina (White, 1932, p. 71, ftn. 57) although this Keresan society is not found at Acoma. Elsewhere the sparrow-hawk feather is used by this society. At Laguna this society was closely associated With the katsina. Possibly the society once functioned at Acorns and possibly the dead wear sparrow, hawk feathers to indicate that they are to become katsina. On First Mesa and at the Laguna colony at Isleta deceased adult males are arrayed as katsina.--E. C. P.)
55:31 Cf. Acoma (White, 1932, pp. 137-38; Parsons, 1918, pp. 176-180; White, 1942 ). Laguna (Parsons, 1920, pp. 128-29; 1923, pp. 216-19; Boas, 1928, pt. 1, pp. 203-204). Santo Domingo (White, 1935, pp. 83-87). San Felipe (White, 1932 a, pp. 60-61). Sia (Stevenson, 1894, pp. 143-46). Cochiti (Dumarest, 1919, pp. 166-170; Goldfrank, 1922, pp. 65-66).
55:32 Here and elsewhere, the informant appears to use the term "forget" where the ethnologist would say "exorcise" or "cleanse," or, as Spanish Indians elsewhere would say, "limpiarse."