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When Tsichtinako was instructing Iatiku and Nautsiti, Tsichtinako cautioned them to be always very careful in handling their baskets. They were very careful for a while but they soon became too anxious to give life to what was still in their baskets and they became careless. When Iatiku and Nautsiti were giving life to the snakes and fishes, in their eagerness they dropped an image from a basket to the ground. They did not know this had happened, nor did Tsichtinako. The image came to life itself, and with power of its own. It came to life in the form of a serpent, like the rest of the snakes. The two sisters noticed a strange snake among the ones to which they had given life, but they only stopped long enough to ask each other, "Did we give life to that snake?" and paid no more attention to it, as it looked like the others. This was the snake that was to tempt Nautsiti.

Now Nautsiti spoke to Iatiku, who had used more of the seeds and images from her basket, and said she wanted a chance to give life to more of her images. Iatiku replied, "I am the older, you are younger than I," but Nautsiti said, "We should both give equally because we were created equally. Is it true that you are the older? Let us try each other! Tomorrow, when the sun rises, let us see who is going to have the sun rise for her first." But Iatiku was afraid that her sister was going to get the better of her in some way. She knew a white bird that was named shō’ēka 18 (magpie). She went to it and asked it to go on ahead into the east, where the sun was to rise, without resting or eating. There it was to shade the sun with its wings from Nautsiti. The bird went as instructed, for it was very strong and skillful. But, while on its way, it got hungry and it passed a place where a puma had killed a deer. Here, although it had been instructed not to stop, it stopped and found a hole in the side of the deer where the intestines were exposed. The bird put its head into the gash to eat, and as it did so it got blood on its back and wings and tail, and it flew on not noticing that it was stained from the blood. Finally, after a long time, the bird reached the east where the sun was ready to rise and it spread its wings on the left of the sun, making a shade in the direction of Nautsiti. So the sun struck Iatiku first and she straightaway claimed to be the older. And Nautsiti was very angry for she had hoped to win. Iatiku, who did not want her sister to know anything about the trick she had used, whispered to the bird when it returned from the east, telling it not to say anything, and she also punished the bird for disobeying her. She had told it not to stop to eat on the way to the rising sun, but she knew that the bird had stopped for it was all dirty with blood. So she said to it, "For stopping and eating you will not know from now on

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how to kill your own meat. You will not be a hunter, you will eat what others have killed and left, and most of the time you will eat what is spoiled. Your color also will be spotted from now on, you will not be white as you were at first."

The two sisters were now thinking selfish thoughts. Nautsiti schemed to get the better of her sister. She often wandered off, making plans to outdo Iatiku, but Iatiku watched her and noticed everything. She saw that Nautsiti was falling away from her and was not happy as she used to be. Iatiku also noticed that Nautsiti was becoming solitary and that she would wander off alone. Iatiku tried to comfort her and asked her why she had changed.

A long time before this Tsichtinako had told them that Uchtsiti forbade them to think of having children. In due time other humans made in their likeness would be borne to them. But one day Pishuni, the snake that had come to life of itself, met Nautsiti and said to her, "Why are you lonely and unhappy? If you want what will make you happy, I can tell you what to do. You are the only one on earth that is lonely. You and your sister do not like each other. If you bore someone like yourself, you would no longer be lonely. Tsichtinako, wants to hold back this happiness from you. Unless you do as I tell you, you will have to wait a long time." Nautsiti asked Pishuni how she could do this, and the serpent replied, "Go to the rainbow. He will meet you and show you what to do." Nautsiti thought it would be well to do what Pishuni said. Soon after she was sitting alone on a rock when it rained. It was very hot and the rain steamed on the hot ground. Nautsiti lay on her back to receive the rain, and the dripping water entered her. This was the work of rainbow, and she conceived without knowing what had happened. Some time after, Iatiku noticed that Nautsiti was pregnant. After a time she bore twin sons. Iatiku helped her sister to take care of them. Tsichtinako came back to them and asked, "Why have you done this without my instructing you? Uchtsiti had forbidden you this." Tsichtinako, left them angrily, saying, "From now on, you will do as you see fit. I will not help you any more because you disobeyed your father." But instead of being sorry, the two sisters felt happier. It happened that Nautsiti disliked one of the children. So Iatiku took this one and cared for it.

Because they had committed a sin, their father called Tsichtinako away from them. But they lived happily, and the children grew up. After a long time Nautsiti said to Iatiku, "We are not happy together. Let us share what we have in our baskets and separate. I still have many things. These animals in my basket, these sheep and cattle I will share with you, but it is understood that these animals will demand much care." Iatiku answered that it would be too hard a task to care for them and that she did not want her children to have

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them. Nautsiti also pointed out some seeds and told Iatiku to take some of them. They were seeds of wheat and vegetables. Nautsiti knew also that these were going to be hard to raise, but she wanted to share them with Iatiku. But Iatiku. again did not want them for her children. In Nautsiti's basket, too, there were many metals. She offered to share these, but Iatiku did not take any. When. Nautsiti had looked this far into her basket she found something written (ti’thyătra’nī). Nautsiti also offered this, but Iatiku did not want it. Nautsiti said, "There are still many things that are very good for foods in my basket but I know that all of these things will require much care. Why is it, sister, that you are not thankful, why do you not take some of the things I have offered? I am going to leave you. We both understand that we are to increase our kind, and in a long time to come we shall meet again and then you will be wearing clothes. We shall still be sisters, for we have the same father, but I shall have the better of you again. I am going away into the East." Iatiku, did not say where she would go. She thought she would stay where she was. So Nautsiti left her, taking the child she loved with her and leaving the other for Iatiku.

So Nautsiti disappeared into the East, while Iatiku stayed on and became very sad. She said to the boy child who stayed with her, "We shall live here with everything that our father has given us." They lived together for a long time and when he grew up, he became her husband and she named him Tia’muni. Iatiku bore many children and she named the first for the clan of her sister--the Sun clan. Now Iatiku had her own power. She did everything in the way she had been instructed; she took the child the fourth day after birth to pray to the sun, as she herself had been taught when she came into the light, and she put some pollen and some sacred corn meal into the child's hands. She taught this to every child that she bore after this. And the brothers and the sisters all lived together and they all began to increase. Iatiku was the mother and ruled.

Whenever a girl was born to Iatiku, she gave it a clan name. The first clan mothers in order of birth were as follows:

Sun clan, oshach hano; named thus because Iatiku was still grieving over Nautsiti who had named herself of the Sun clan.
Sky clan, hoak’ă hano.
Water clan, ts’its hano.
Badger clan, dyupi hano.
Fire clan, hakanyi hano.

[paragraph continues] After naming these, she thought she would name the rest after things she had brought to life; so the next in order were named:

Antelope clan, ku’uts hano.
Deer clan, diĕhni' hano. 19
Bear clan, kohaiya 20 hano.


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[paragraph continues] She did not give her own clan name, Yaka hano, Corn clan, as she wanted to be kept apart, so she divided it as follows:

Red corn, kūgănish yaka hano.
Yellow corn, kūŭchnish yaka hano.
Blue corn, kūiskkush yaka hano.
White corn, kăshăish 21 yaka hano.

[paragraph continues] The next clans in order were:

Oak clan, hapani hano.
Squash clan, tănyi' hano.
Roadrunner clan, shaaskă hano.
Eagle clan, dyami hano.
Turkey clan, tsina hano.
isthe (?) clan, isthe 22 hano.

(These are the only clan names mentioned in the myth, though many other clans later came into existence, as for example the Parrot, Snake, Buffalo, and Ant. These were not descended from daughters of Iatiku.)

Now that Tsichtinako had left her, Iatiku wished for other rulers, so she made the Spirits of the seasons. There was still some earth in her basket. She took this and gave it life in the same way as before. First she made Sha·k’ako23 the spirit of Winter (ko·ko) (pl. 3, fig. 2)., To him she said, "You will give life to everything in the winter time. You are to be ugly and ferocious. You will not live with us, go to a distance. You will live in North Mountain, and I shall give you your costume."

Next she gave life to Morityema, the spirit of Spring (ti·cha) (pl. 1, upper left). To him also she gave a costume which was ugly, and she sent him to West Mountain. 24 She next made Maiyochina, the spirit of Summer (kashai’ti), and sent him to South Mountain (pl. 1, upper right). And finally she gave life to Shrui'sthia, 25 the spirit of Fall (haiya’tsi), 26 and sent him to East Mountain (pl. 4, fig. 1). All these creatures were ugly 27 and not in the likeness of the children she had borne. She thought, "Now that I have placed strong rulers in each direction, each will order the earth in turn," and she instructed each one where to work and how. The spirit of Winter she told to bring snow; the spirit of Spring was to warm up the world; the spirit of Summer was to heat the world, giving life to vegetation. The spirit of Fall was not to like the smell of plants and fruits, so he was to

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work to get rid of the smell by ridding the world of plants. And Iatiku told her children that they were to depend on these spirits and were to pray to them in their various directions, for moisture, warmth, ripening, and frost. She taught them how to pray to the spirits, explaining that each would require certain prayers and prayer sticks before they would answer.

Now when this was done, Iatiku gave life to the other spirits she was going to believe in. With dirt from her basket she gave life to the katsina. The first she named Ts’its’anĭts 28 (pl. 1, lower left) (no female was made for this first one); the others as she created them, male and female, she named Kuashtoch 29 (sticking up), so called from feathers on one side of the head (pl. 1, center right); Kuapichani, 30 "Divided," so called because one side of his face is yellow and the other red (pl. 5, fig. 1); Wai'osh 31 (duck), He'mĭsh, 32 Na'wish 33 (pl. 6, fig. 1), Kohaiya 34 (bear), Kakuipĕ, 35 Gomaiowish 36 (messenger), Mo·ots, 37 Ahote, and, finally, Cha'koya 38 (pl. 7, fig. 1), who is a great hunter. She called Tsitsanits to her, saying, "I am going to give you your costume. You are very handsome; but you will have a mask which will make you appear different from humans." Iatiku made this mask (shpi·tso) out of buffalo skin. (All masks are of buffalo skin.) She made it to fit the god and then colored it with colors from different earths. She also put different feathers on it. On the head of the god she put this mask and around his neck a wildcat skin. She then painted the god's body and gave him a skirt, belt, and moccasins. She put cords on each wrist and dyed buffalo skins on his arms. On his calves with cords she bound spruce branches. When she had

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completed this costume Iatiku said to Tsitsanits, "You see that I have created many other gods. I have appointed you to be their ruler. You will initiate the other gods." And she gave him blades of yucca plant with which to perform this initiation.

Then Iatiku took more dirt from the basket and gave life to Kopishtai'ya and his wife. 39 Iatiku said, "You look ferocious so you will have to live in a different place."

Then Iatiku turned to Tsitsanits and told him, "You are going to be chief of the katsina and will rule over them. Take them with you to Wenimats, 40 west and south of here. [This place was described as a place where there was a lake with weeds growing in it and under this lake is Wenimats.] There is where you are going to live. Bring happiness to my people. Whenever my people want you they will send you hachamoni 41 (prayer sticks)." So Iatiku made one so Tsitsanits would know it, and made one for each kind of katsina so each would know his own prayer stick. When they [the prayer sticks] were sent they [the katsina] would have to answer.

After giving all the prayer sticks, Iatiku told Tsitsanits to make a song of their own which must be very pretty so as to give happiness to her people. So this is the way Iatiku sent them to Wenimats and told them to wait for their prayer sticks from her people and to be always prepared to come. "Your people and my people will be combined," she said. "You will give us food from your world and we will give you food from our world. Your people are to represent clouds; you are to bring rain, you are to rule the summer clouds." Iatiku told them to take along animals as they would also be permitted to be hunters. Iatiku then took up the basket of corn meal, pollen, tobacco, and prayer sticks, and made the road open for them four lengths (long distance) to Wenimats and return by which they could come back when needed. Then she gave Tsitsanits the basket.

Kopishtaiya remained, and Iatiku turned to him saying, "You are to be separate from the others." He was given the same sort of instructions and prayer sticks and told to go east to Hakuoi'kŭchahă, 42 to the place where the sun rises. "You are going to represent, and rule the winter clouds. My people will pray to you to obtain bravery and long, healthy life. In the winter time my people will send you prayer sticks." Thus she spoke.

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After Iatiku had instructed Kopishtaiya she gave him the basket with pollen, corn meal, tobacco, and prayer sticks. She made the road four lengths to the east and return, and told them to make their home at Hakuoikuchaha. So this is the way Iatiku placed the rulers of the clouds to whom her people were to pray.

After this was done Iatiku was thinking of leaving, so she told her people, "Now you are going to make homes here." So when she spoke the words, "nano ūs’thē i'chĭn," 43 there grew up all of a sudden a house. Iatiku told her people, "This is the kind of a house you are going to build to live in." So her people started to build one of their own, using this as a model. Iatiku gathered some rocks and dirt for them and sticks. All of them grew and multiplied till ready for use. So they made a town. Iatiku laid out the plans for the town and laid out the plaza. After this was done, she started to instruct her people. She called the first man who was born in the Antelope clan and said to him, "You are to be Tiamuni 44 and the father of the katsina. 45 You are the one to welcome them when they come." So, Iatiku made him a ya'paishĭ'ni 46 (altar), the first one to be made. So Iatiku said, "Let us try and see if everything works all right. We will call the katsina." So she taught the people how to maker prayer sticks and taught them the prayers. It took 4 days to make these up. They were instructed to bring all their prayer sticks to the altar of the Antelope clan (pl. 3, fig. 1) and place them in a basket. They had four baskets full. So all of the Antelope clan took these baskets and offered them to the katsina and asked them to come. They took them to the west and buried them. In praying they make four motions so as to cover the four lengths of the road. After this was done, the prayer sticks all went to the katsina. Then Tsitsanits took them and told each one of the katsina they were called to visit the people at Shipapu (where they still were). So the katsina prayed to the clouds with these same prayer sticks, and they smoked the cigarettes that were in the baskets so that clouds would come into them. Tsitsanits told Gomaiowish to go back to Iatiku's people and tell them that they [the katsina] were coming on the fourth day. "We are going to bring them provisions and corn," he said. So the Goniaiowish went.

When he got to Shipapu, the Antelope chief met him and he received the message. 47 Gomaiowish left and Antelope chief told all the people

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the message that he had received and said that everyone was to expect the katsina on the fourth day. So Iatiku told her people, "Let us also prepare to welcome them with our food." So she called for a tribal hunt. Everyone who killed anything prepared it in his own home the day they expected the katsina to come. So it really happened that they came that day. They came in a cloud and everything (food, etc.) was brought. Gomaiowish was in the lead and told of their approach.

When they arrived they were met by the Antelope clan chief. 48 So the chief pointed out to them the different places they were to dance on the plaza: First on the north side, then west, then south, then east side. After the katsina finished the four dances they were brought inside where the altar was to rest. At this time there were no kivas; they were just trying out. The people were much interested in the katsina and were very happy over the visit. The katsina had their own songs. So the people were instructed to take food to the house where they were but they were not allowed to enter the room, only members of the Antelope clan, who served them were allowed to enter. This was at noon. In the afternoon, after each dance, the katsina gave the people presents of the food they had brought. Among the presents given out were throwing-sticks (bow and arrows had not been made yet), clothing of the katsina (not masks). Before the katsina left, Gomaiowish announced that the katsina did not wish to leave them entirely find told them to take their presents and use them for any dance that they wanted to put on, in the town (for happiness). So before they left they stripped, all except their masks, and gave the people their clothing as presents. (The Acoma still do this when they finish dancing; as a rule they distribute their costumes to their near relatives.)

So the Antelope chief bade the katsina goodbye and they left. Iatiku said, "So far all is well but there are some things needed yet. We have no sacred place, we have no kaach 49 (kiva)." Iatiku said, "this is the way I emerged, so I guess we will make a house in the ground, which we will call kaach. This will be the sacred place for the katsina when they come." (The kivas were round at first, now they are square. At the foot of the mesa where the old town was all washed away the kiva was round.)

When they began to build the first kiva, Iatiku told Oak man that it must be done in a certain way. Then she told him just how it was to be done. The whole kiva was to represent Shipapu, the place of emergence, though in ceremonial language it is called mauharo kai 50


FIGURE 1.--Plan of Acoma</P>
<P>1, Rainbow (Kastiatsi) trail, by which the people first entered Acoma. 2, Ladder trail. 3, Cliff trail (very steep). 4, Sand trail. 5, Crack trail (not used always). 6, Ladder crack trail. 7, Burro trail. Black line, high cliff; dotted line, edge of mesa, second cliff (low). <I>A</I>-<I>H</I>, Places where katsina dance. <I>J</I>, Place where dancers dress. <I>K</I>, <I>L</I>, <I>M</I>. Cisterns for drinking water. <I>N</I>, <I>O</I>, Cisterns for washing, plastering, etc. Houses have rock foundation and the first floor is of rock. From there up. adobe. <I>P</I>, Church. <I>Q</I>, Cemetery. <I>R</I>, Convento. <I>S</I>, Corral where burros were kept. <I>T</I>, Komaxira meeting house built by Spaniards.
Click to enlarge

FIGURE 1.--Plan of Acoma

1, Rainbow (Kastiatsi) trail, by which the people first entered Acoma. 2, Ladder trail. 3, Cliff trail (very steep). 4, Sand trail. 5, Crack trail (not used always). 6, Ladder crack trail. 7, Burro trail. Black line, high cliff; dotted line, edge of mesa, second cliff (low). A-H, Places where katsina dance. J, Place where dancers dress. K, L, M. Cisterns for drinking water. N, O, Cisterns for washing, plastering, etc. Houses have rock foundation and the first floor is of rock. From there up. adobe. P, Church. Q, Cemetery. R, Convento. S, Corral where burros were kept. T, Komaxira meeting house built by Spaniards.

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[paragraph continues] (the dark underworld where the Sisters were found; Shipapu is the upper part of the place of emergence where there was some light). 51

When they built the kiva, they first put up beams of four different trees. These were the trees that were planted in the underworld for the people to climb up on. In the north, under the foundation they placed yellow turquoise; in the west, blue turquoise; in the south, red, and in the east, white turquoise. Prayer sticks are placed at each place so the foundation will be strong and will never give way. The walls represent the sky, the beams of the roof (made of wood of the first four trees) represent the Milky Way, wakaiyanistiawĭ'tsa (way-above-earth beam). The sky looks like a circle, hence the round shape of the kiva.

The medicine man was instructed to make a fireplace inside the kiva. This fireplace is right under the ladder and is called kohaiya (bear)


FIGURE 2.--Diagram of kiva, showing fog seats.
Click to enlarge

FIGURE 2.--Diagram of kiva, showing fog seats.


[paragraph continues] (fig. 2, A). In front of the fireplace is tsiwaimitiima (another-altar-placed-under). It is a hollow place in the floor in which an altar like the one Iatiku first made is kept. It is covered with a board (fig. 2, B). The chianyi are the only ones who are allowed to dance on it. It gives out a hollow sound. 52 Iatiku said that whenever a medicine man wanted to get more superhuman power for himself he was to dance and roll over this altar.

The ladder (fig. 2, C) represents the rainbow (kastiatsi).

On the north is a hollow dug-out place that represents the door of North Mountain, East Mountain, West Mountain, Sun and Moon

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[paragraph continues] (fig. 2, D). Whenever they pray to these powers (kūa’watsaiishu'mă, "powers that rule") they pray into this doorway.

Around the entire base of the kiva are he'ăshită'nămă (fog seats) (fig. 2, E), imaginary seats of fog covered with bear skins or lion skins. (All this is described in prayer.) Spirits are invited in prayer to come and sit on these seats. Actually, only fetishes are in the kiva; the real spirits are out in the mountains of the cardinal points. They are invited to come and to be present during ceremonies, and they are supposed to be seated there.

Iatiku ordered that people should always enter the kiva facing the ladder as soon as a foot is placed on it. When entering or leaving the kiva, one should never turn back after starting. This is because when Nautsiti and Iatiku came up from the lower world they went on up without turning back or without stopping. If anyone turns back, it will shorten his life; he will leave his soul in the kiva. If someone should do this, his relatives will have to buy back his life by bringing food to the kiva. When they go to the top of the ladder with the food, they call down inside, "Chima!" (Below!)

The ladder must be made of wood of the four first trees of the underworld. Nautsiti and Iatiku did not know where the pine trees touched, and they do not know where the rainbow touches, so they call the ladder "Rainbow."

When you get down to the foot of the ladder in the kiva, you must always go to the right and take a seat; never to the left. When you leave, you must circle round to the right. Never take fire from the front of the fireplace, nor step into it. Never whistle in the kiva. All these were the rules that Iatiku laid down for the conduct of the kiva.

Iatiku said, "I think someone ought to be the father of the game animals--shay·'ik 53 will be his name. His work will be the power of his songs. When he sings and prays to the animals they (hunters) will be partners to the prey animals." She picked the oldest man born in the Eagle clan because the eagle is a bird of prey. His work was to sing the songs with the people when they go out to hunt because he was the only one to know the prayers belonging to the prey animals. So Iatiku taught him songs and prayers and gave him an altar (pl. 8, fig. 1) with which to secure the power of the animals that kill, to come and be in his people. So Iatiku said, "Let us try it out and see if it will work out right." So this chosen man set up his altar and Iatiku taught him to make prayer sticks to give to the man who was going on a hunt and taught him to make fetishes representing the beasts of prey. So Eagle. Man called a meeting at his house where the altar was, so they could sing the songs that had been taught him. They sang these songs all night. Early in the morning, Eagle Man gave

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prayer sticks to each man who had been singing and told him to go out and pray in the wilds. They were called shaiyai'kă (hunter's Society): They prayed so that they would have the power of the prey animals. So the chief of the hunters' society (the Eagle Man),started out early the fourth morning to a place he had selected. On his way whenever he saw tracks of animals, even small ones, he would take some dirt out of the track, and dung, and place it in a cedar bark container like a dish. When he came to the designated place he tied both ends of the cedar bark with yucca blades. He was going to scorch the feet of the game animals. 54 Then he made a fire and scorched the dirt and dung so as to scorch the feet of the animals so they could not run fast. (This fire is made in a natural way with a fire drill.)

After this to give the signal for the people to come he threw green branches on the fire to make a smoke. Eagle Man had already told the men that when they went out to meet at the camp they were to bring along sacred corn meal and pollen and also to pick up any dung or dirt from animals' tracks they passed; so when they came to the fire they were to throw it in, to help scorch their feet. When they threw it on the fire they were to name any animal they wished to help them on the hunt, birds for small game like rabbits; lion, wolf, wildcat, for deer and large game. So everyone upon coming to the camp did this. Usually a high spot was picked as meeting place, so they could watch and not start the hunt if someone was still on his way to the meeting place. When all were in camp, the Eagle Man told the people, "Now we are going north, west, south or east on a drive, stirring up the game in the brush." He advised the men that when they go on a hunt, that when they stop they should pray with corn meal to Mother Earth, so they would not be injured, or blamed for killing the animals. Then he selected two men from his clan who were to lead two lines of men in a wide circle. These lines were to meet at a place designated by Eagle Man. They were instructed to carry some fire with them (torches of cedar bark), so that they could signal when the two lines met.

They were also instructed to observe several rules: When you throw a stick and hit a game animal, if it does not get up, it's yours. If two sticks hit about the same time and kill it, the one who says, "shi" (mine) first gets it. If you hit a rabbit and knock it down, but it gets up and is killed by another, the one who stops it gets it.--This was to avoid any argument on the hunt for small game.


11:18 Cro·'k’aiya, Santo Domingo (White, 1935, p. 205); cro'wakaiya, Santa Ana (White, ms.).

13:19 tyε’nyε' (Boas, 1928, pt. 2, p. 286).

13:20 k‘wa'ya (Boas, 1928. pt. 2, p. 292).

14:21 Archaic term for white now used at Acoma only ceremonially, chămŭts being the word commonly used. At Santa Ana, kăshăish is commonly used.--L. A. W.

14:22 It has been called Mustard or Tansy Mustard.

14:23 Ca·'k’ak‘ who lives on North Mountain (Boas, 1928, pt. 1, p. 283) and sends snow.

14:24 At Laguna Mo·'rityαmī lives on the mountain of the nadir (Boas, 1928, pt. 1, p. 282).

14:25 Laguna, cui'siyai (Boas, 1928, pt. 1,p. 283); Santo Domingo, crui'simana’wi (White, 193.5, p. 32).

14:26 These names for the seasons correspond with the Santa Ana terms, except for Fall; the Santa Ana term is sto·na (White, ms.).

14:27 Informant's note: The rulers of the Mountains look fierce, different from the katsina. Shakak looks like a boss. Shruisthia is not a very good fellow. He brings soot and rubs it on the faces of people.

15:28 "Big teeth," or "The whipper." He whips the children when they are initiated into the kachina cult. This kachina is reported from Laguna but not from any other Keresan pueblo. (See White, 1932, pp. 72-74, 79, pl. 10, b; 1942; Boas, 1928, pt. 1, p. 279; Parsons, 1920, p. 100, fig. 10; Gunn, 1917, pp. 127-123.)

15:29 Reported from Acoma and Laguna but from no other Keresan pueblo. A full company appears In dances. (See White, 1932, p. 75, pl. 4, d; Boas, 1928, pt. 1, p. 279; Parsons, 1920, p. 100.)

15:30 A full company of KoaBi'tacnyi appears in dances (see White, 1932, p. 75, pl. 4, b.) Unreported from any other Keresan pueblo.

15:31 A full company of Wai'oca appears in dances at Acoma (White, 1932, p. 75, pl. 4, f.). Duck katsina are found in most, if not all Keresan pueblos.

15:32 Jemez katsina (see White, 1932, p. 75, pl. 5, d.).

15:33 Informant's note: Before going to work in their fields, Acoma people call upon Nawish to help them. Nawish guard the fields. At Wenimats Nawish are themselves farmers.

A full company of Na·'wic appears at Acoma (White 1932, p. 76, pl. 2, e.). This katsina is found in most Keresan pueblos.

15:34 This is the first time Bear katsina has been reported from Acoma. He is found at Santo Domingo (While, 1935, pp. 107, 111) and at Cochiti (Goldfrank, 1923, p. 112).

15:35 He appears at Acoma today in the "Fight with the katsina." He lives on the south side of the Acoma mesa (White, 1932, pp. 79-80, pl. 2, f). Unreported from other Keresan pueblos.

15:36 Gomaiowish are to be equated with the Koyemshi of Zuñi (Parsons, 1918, pp. 182-183; 1920, pp. 101, 103). (See White, 1932, pp. 79, 89-91, 130, 144, 148, pl. 10, b; 1942; Parsons, 1920, fig. 15; Boas, 1928, pt. 1; p. 278.) They have been reported from Sia and Santa Ana (White, mss.). but not from Santo Domingo, San Felipe, Cochiti.

15:37 Moki or Hopi katsina. A full company appears at Acoma (White, 1932, p. 75, pl. 10, f). Reported at Laguna (Boas, 1928, pt. 1, p. 279), but not from other Keresan pueblos.

15:38 They are the best moccasin makers; men call for them when making moccasins (Informant's note).

A full company of Tc’akwiya (White, 1932, p. 75; pl. 8, a) come out at solstice ceremonies. To be identified with Chakwena of other pueblos.--E. C. P.

16:39 At Acoma this term (K’o·Bictai'ya) refers to (1) a health and strength-giving supernatural and to (2) masked impersonations of these supernaturals who appear at Acoma in the winter time. In no other Keresan pueblo are these spirits impersonated so far as is known. In Keresan pueblos other than Acoma K’o·Bictai'ya seems to be a generic term for benevolent spirits. (See White 1932, pp. 79, 86-88, pls. 8, b, 10, a; 1942.)

16:40 In Keresan mythology We·nimatsi is the home of the katsina and it is located "out in the west." (See White 1932, pp. 69, 142; Boas, 1928, pt. 1, p. 277; White, 1932 a, p. 24; 1935, pp. 173, 175; Dumarest, 1919, pp. 172-173.

16:41 See White 1932, pp. 125-129.

16:42 Cf. koai'k‘tc‘, Boas (1928, pt. 1, pp. 284-285).

17:43 Meaning of nano unknown. ūs’thĕ suggests the Acoma pronunciation of Dios, yo·cthi (White, 1932, p. 128). ai'tcin means "house" at Santo Domingo (White, 1935, p. 9), also the wooden slat altar. Compare pl. 16.

17:44 See White, 1942.

17:45 The cacique at Acorns today is the head of the Antelope clan and the "father of the katsina" (White, 932, p. 41).

17:46 At Acoma and Laguna the wooden slat altars of the curing societies are called yaBaicini (White, 1932, p. 109, ftn. 1) or ya·'paicĭ'nyi (Boas, 1928, pt. 2, p. 61, l. 16). Among eastern Keres the meal-and-pigment paintings are so called; the wooden slat altars, ai'tcin (White, 1942; 1935; ms., pp. 11, 161).

17:47 See White, 1941 a, for the ritual of delivering and receiving a message from the Gomaiowish.

18:48 They are met today in all Keresan pueblos (except Laguna) by the cacique (see White, 1935, p. 95; Dumarest, 1919, p. 177).

18:49 The head kiva. (Cf. White, 1932, pp. 30-31; Boas, 192S, pt. 1, p. 293.) Among eastern Keres the k’a·'atc‘ is called tci·'kya (White, 1935, p. 11; 1932 a, p. 15).

18:50 Informant is explaining that mauharo is the ceremonial word for kiva, k’a·'atc‘ the ordinary word; kai means house.

19:51 The opening into the upper world through which the people passed when they "came out" is usually referred to as Shipapu (cip’áp‘u Laguna, Boas. I", pt. 2, p. 1, l. 1). But, strictly speaking, Shipapu is the place in the fourth world below, inside the earth, where the people were at "the beginning." The actual place of emergence is called Gauwatsaicoma (White, 1942). See also pl. 10. fig. 1.

19:52 See White (1932, pp. 31, 49, 73 and fig. 2, p. 73) for the, tsiwai'mιtyιn, "foot drum," and its uses. Something quite like this is reported for Zuñi (Parsons, 1924, p. 21), among Hopi (Stephen, 1916, pp. 10, 17, 514, 704), and at the Village of the Great Kivas near Nutria (Roberts, 1932, pp. 58-60. cf. Lowie).

20:53 See White, 1932, pp. 101-102; 1942; Boas, 1928, pt. 1, pp. 28-33, 296-298.

21:54 Compare the Santa Ana tale about a man who got power from a witch to kill a deer. The hunter put the shell given him by the witch in the deer's tracks and performed a ritual. When he caught the door "its legs were scorched up to his knees and when they ate the meat it tasted like it had been smoked. The Caiyaik‘ found out about the way this man had killed his deer, and made him quit it. They took his shell away from him and destroyed it. They say the Navahos and Comanches used to kill deer like this." Compare First Mesa hunt fire (Stephen, 1936, pp. 1006, 1024, fig. 501).

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