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p. 242



Long ago, the Jicarilla were camping at Mora. A large band was also camping on the Canadian. There were many cattle about there, one of which was wearing a bell. This one the Apache killed. They were discovered and the American soldiers came, demanding four chiefs. The Jicarilla would not give them up. The soldiers rode back and the Jicarilla moved their camp to another place. The soldiers came again on horseback and demanded the four chiefs. Before the fight began, the Americans passed about their canteens and drank whisky, becoming drunk. They then rode toward the Apache shooting at them. Their fire was returned, three of the Americans being killed. One Apache had his finger shot off.

The Jicarilla moved their camp to a mountain east of Picuris. When they had been there four days the Americans came again on horseback early in the morning. They halted and one approached to pass the Apache a paper. An Apache took it from the hands of the officer and tore it up. Someone shot the person who had handed the paper, wounding him in the arm. Then the soldiers opened the fight. They had halted on the plain with their horses and were shooting in different directions, the Indians having surrounded them. The Apache kept on shooting and killing the soldiers until only two were left. Four of the Apache were killed. They took all the arms of the soldiers and the money from their clothes, a large sum.

From there the Apache moved to the west side of the Rio Grande. From there they moved to El Rito and afterward to Vallecitos. A company composed of Mexicans, Pueblos, and soldiers, followed them, shooting at the Indians who moved their camp without anyone being killed. They camped by Coyote from which place turning back they went to Conejos. From there they moved eastward to Saikanyedîye on top of the mountain. From there they went to the branch of the Arkansas near Pike's Peak and Pueblo. They then moved eastward to a canyon where they mingled with the Ute. They rode down to a place where a Mexican was living, killing all the people that were there. They brought back a scalp and danced with it.

After about a month they moved eastward from Pueblo where they

p. 243

encountered a large number of the enemy. The fighting began early in the morning. The Apache climbed to the top of the mountain on foot where they remained for some time and then went westward coming to DziLdîLee. After camping there a few days they continued westward. Again a band of soldiers, Mexicans and Pueblo Indians commenced to fight them. The Ute withdrew from the Apache who broke up into small bands and scattered in different directions. The Ute, not wishing to continue fighting, went to the various Mexican towns where they lived.

The Apache stayed in the mountains where the enemy, Mexicans, Pueblos, and American soldiers joined in fighting them as if they had been deer. Many old women and children died of starvation. Leaving the country east of Conejos, the Apache came to the neighborhood of Pagosa, camping among the mountains at the head waters of the Chama. At Tierra Amarilla, they joined the camp of a band of Ute. After remaining there a while, they moved their camp to Cangillon near Abiquiu. There the American soldiers made peace with them, distributing goods from wagons. Each Indian received a present and peace was established. "Are these all there are left of you?" asked one of the Americans. "Yes, only so many," replied an Apache. "You were nearly exterminated," said the American. "Do not become enemies again. Many old men, children, and women, have died," he said. 1


243:1 Casa Maria said that when this happened he was about as old as his youngest deaf mute son, about twelve or fourteen. He said the American general's name was Gidi who afterward died at Taos. He agreed that this was probably the man called by Americans, Kit Carson. He said that the goods were issued by a man named Baixahi. In the Annual Report of the commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1855, Mr. Merriweather, governor and superintendent of Indian affairs in New Mexico reports both the expedition and the making of peace. The presence of St. Vaian, an officer or the New Mexican volunteers, is mentioned. In the same report (p. 192) Mr. Carson mentions the fact that he was present at the time peace was made. An extended account of this war is given in the, "Life and Adventures of Kit Carson," Peters, pp. 414-526.

Next: 55. The Horses of the Apache Are Stolen by the Navajo