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Symbolical Masonry, by H.L. Haywood, [1923], at

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The following paragraphs are designed solely for the use of Study Clubs and such other classes or groups as may systematically study the ritual of Freemasonry by means of the present book. The method pursued in arranging these queries will be immediately apparent; they are constellated in the same order as the chapters and numbered accordingly. No attempt has been made to represent every point made, and often questions have been devised for the purpose of leading discussion outside of the limits imposed upon me in discussing "Symbolical Masonry."


I.—When was the first Grand Lodge of Modern Speculative Freemasonry organised? Where? What was the First Degree then called? How were Masons made in Scotland? Where was the most complete Freemasonry then? What do you know about the famous so-called "schism"? What had come to be the condition of the Fraternity prior to 1717? What, do you suppose, brought about this condition? How many degrees were there at the time of the Revival? What was done with the old "First"? with the old "Third"? By what date was the "three degree" system completed?

II.—What was "Operative Masonry"? What were the Old Charges? Give from memory, and in substance, the picture of an old initiation as given by Hawkins. In what essentials does that initiation differ from the one now in use? What, do you suppose, was the Volume of the Sacred Law then used? Was it the Holy Bible or was it the old Book of Constitutions?

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What qualifications were required for initiation? What was an "indenture"? how long did it last? why did it have to last so long? Were the conditions of apprenticeship governed merely by the rules of the Craft or were they also controlled by the laws of the state? To whom was the Apprentice bound? What were the Apprentice's duties? What were the moral requirements of an Apprentice? How could he become a Master? where?

What does the word "Apprentice" mean? What is it to be a "learner"? How did you set out to "learn" Masonry? Is Masonry, do you think, worth the time and trouble of study, real study? Why is a learner said to be in "the Porch"? What would be meant by "Solomon's Porch"? What are the rights of an Apprentice to-day? what are his disqualifications? What is meant by the phrase "in a symbolical sense"? What is a symbol? What is symbolical language? Can you furnish an original example? In what sense is it true that an Apprentice is "born into a new world"? What is meant by obedience? Give examples of your own of how obedience must precede mastery and freedom. Which is morally free, the man who obeys the moral laws, or the man who disobeys them?

III.—What is an "art"? In what sense is life an art? What kind of a building is it that a Speculative Mason is set to build? What are his materials? what are his tools? Which is more difficult to build, a man or a building? In how many various ways may the Apprentice be pictured? In what sense is he a babe about to be born into a new world? in what sense is Freemasonry a "new world"? Did you find it such? What was new in it to you? What is the central idea in Dr. Buck's interpretation? What can you find out about Dr. Buck? who was he? when did he live and where? what did he do? Who is Dr. J. F. Newton? have you read his book, "The Builders"? Does your lodge "put on" the First Degree with solemnity an d beauty? How could you improve it?


I.—What is the first step to be taken by one who desires admittance to Freemasonry? What is contained in a petition? What are the "constitutional questions"? When is the petition

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read to the lodge? By whom? What is then done with it? What is an investigating committee? Who must recommend a petition? What is done when a petition is rejected? How is a petition rejected? Can a rejected petitioner make another application? How? When? What is a "jurisdiction"?

II.—Can you discover when the present laws governing petitions first came into use? Give the main points covered in a petition. Tell what you can about John Paul Jones as a Mason? Was his petition substantially the same as yours?

III.—What change of conditions made an investigating committee necessary? Have you ever served on such a committee? How did you perform your functions? Do you believe it to be a good system? Among the last dozen petitions presented to your own lodge how many have you known personally? How can a Master of a lodge safeguard membership? How can he hold a committee up to the highest standards? Have you ever known a lodge to fall to a lower plane of usefulness through the poor materials admitted to membership? if so, tell about it. Have you ever seen a questionnaire? what questions were asked? What do you think of the use of questionnaires? What are the objections? Under what conditions is the questionnaire necessary? For what purposes is it necessary to have filed such information as a questionnaire contains?

IV.—What is meant by "solicitation"? In what way does the problem of solicitation lead a student into the inner soul of Masonry? In what way is solicitation a wrong to the man solicited? What is he asked to swear to at the door of the lodge when he comes to be initiated? In what way does that conflict with his having been solicited? How would solicitation be in danger of misleading him as to the real character of the Order? Why is solicitation an evil to the Order? If solicitation were freely permitted, in what way would it cause a deterioration in Masonry? In this regard compare Masonry with other orders that encourage solicitation. Have you had experience in such? what was the difference?

V.—To what extent can you go in acquainting your non-Masonic friends with the history and principles of Freemasonry?

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[paragraph continues] How can you tell a non-Mason what Masonry is? Who was Albert Pike? what great Masonic book did he write?


I.—What is meant by a "ballot"? Describe the machinery of balloting now employed in Masonry as you understand it. What kind of a man would make bad material for the Fraternity? Do many such gain admission? If so, how? Why is the ballot question so "irritating," as one brother is quoted to have remarked? Could you devise improvements in the method? What are the abuses that creep in under the present system? Could you think of an entirely different system for selecting members?

II.—When is a petition put to the ballot? In how many cases is it one month? two weeks? In how many jurisdictions is a re-ballot required for the Second and Third Degrees? When may a rejected petitioner re-apply? When can a member refrain from voting? What is meant by a "unanimous ballot"? What is the universal custom in America? What is the practice in your own lodge? What is the objection to the unanimous ballot? what do you think about it? What system is employed in England? What may be said in favour of the "three blackballs reject" rule? Does the ballot exist in order to get good men in or to keep bad men out? What does Gibson say about it? Are there landmarks to go by? What is to decide what is the wisest system of balloting? What is the usual custom in France? To what extent should the method of balloting be left optional with the subordinate lodge?

III.—What is meant by "secrecy of ballot"? Do you believe in it? Who was Dr. Mackey? Have you ever seen his system of landmarks? What custom of balloting was used before 1720? Why did the methods for balloting change? What is a viva voce vote? What are the objections to it? Why is the present system "as good a method as can be devised"? Why is the present system of balloting difficult to manage in a large lodge? How can its difficulties be overcome? Has your Grand Lodge dealt with balloting methods recently? What is meant by "Masonic jurisprudence"?

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IV.—What is the difference between a Masonic ballot and any other? What determines your choice of political candidates? Have you exactly the same things in mind when you cast your ballot on a petition? In what way does the ballot pass upon a petitioner's character? What are the qualifications for membership in the Order? When should you vote against a man? Should you vote for or against a petitioner who is a stranger to you?


I.—What is meant by "qualifications"? Are they now too rigorous, do you think? What is the "certain purpose" for which Freemasonry is organised? What is the criterion by which the fitness of a candidate is judged? Who was Tolstoy? what is the point of the quotation made from his book? How would you defend the high demands made on candidates as against those who criticise Freemasonry for being "aristocratic or exclusive"?

II.—What were the Old Charges? what are they otherwise called? Name the oldest of them: what is its date? How does it describe the qualifications of membership? Who was James Anderson? When was his version of the constitution made? What qualifications are described in it? What qualifications are demanded by your own Grand Lodge?

III.—Give your own reason why "no bondmen" could be admitted into operative lodges.

Were women admitted to the old guilds? were they admitted to the Masonic guilds? If not, why not? Who was Gould? what did he write? What is he quoted to have said? What does MacBride say?

Give your own reasons at length why an immoral man cannot be admitted. What is "an immoral man"?

IV.—Why does not Masonry accept bad men in order to make them better? What are the reformative agencies in society?

Why cannot we admit women to membership? Under what conditions did Freemasonry evolve into its present form?

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[paragraph continues] What would have to be done in order to admit them? Are you in favour of it? To what would you object? From what book are the verses quoted? Have you ever read a History of Masonry? Can you name three such histories?

What is meant by "free born"? What does your own Grand Lodge require on this point? What is Gibson quoted to have said?

What is meant by "mature" age? How old were Apprentices in operative days? What have been the regulations in force in England with regard to age? What are the rules in your own Grand Lodge? What is the point of MacBride's comment? do you agree with him? Have you ever visited lodges in a foreign country? How could a Grand Lodge maintain its requirement for legal age in such wise as to enable a member to visit a jurisdiction in which eighteen years is permitted?

V.—Why has the question of "physical qualifications" so long been a storm-centre? Have you ever debated it? What does the Regius Manuscript say about it? Why was physical soundness necessary in operative lodges? What is the position maintained by the Grand Lodge of England? Why have Grand Lodges in this land maintained the doctrine of physical perfection? What is your own opinion about the matter? Give substance of statement issued by the Board of General Purposes of England. Who was Dr. Oliver? can you name any of his books? What was his position? Who was T. S. Parvin? what position did he take?

VI.—What is meant by a "right motive"? Are you taking Masonry "seriously"? Were you serious when you came in? What is said by Hughan? Who was Hughan? What is a cowan? What is a "watch-fob Mason"?


I.—Why is the question "Where were you prepared?" so important? In what way does its answer reveal many of the secrets of Freemasonry. Why, do you suppose, did the Ancient Mysteries demand a long process of preparation? What can you tell about the Mysteries? How much of the Ritual did you understand after you had completed your Third Degree? What is meant by "prepared in the heart"? When is a candidate duly

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and truly prepared? What kind of preparation room have you in your lodge? How is it protected against jest and derisive remarks?

II.—How did Mackey describe the hoodwink? How would you yourself describe it? What is the symbolical meaning of it? How long has the hoodwink been used in initiations? Who were the Cathari? who was Innocent III? In what sense is it true that the purpose of the hoodwink is NOT to hide things from the eyes of the candidate? What effect did wearing the hoodwink have on you?

III.—What is meant by the word "revelation"? Give examples of your own that explain its meaning. In what sense did Jesus, according to the V.S.L., bring "life and immortality to light"? In what sense has love ever been "the law of the world"? What did Newton discover? Watt? Copernicus? Give other examples that would illustrate the same point. What is the difference between "reveal" and "discover"? In what manner may it be said that Freemasonry "confers the power of vision"?

IV.—What does Freemasonry reveal to us? How? In what sense has brotherhood always been a reality, a "law of the world"? Does Freemasonry create brotherhood? Define the kingdom of heaven. Can you think of a better definition? In what sense was brotherhood "true" during savage times? Does brotherhood seem like a frail tender thing to you? In what sense is this an erroneous thought? What are the enemies of brotherhood? What is the hoodwink that prevents men from discovering it in their own lives? What is the real hoodwink? Give examples of this same idea from religion, politics, and science.


I.—Why was the noose whereby early man learned to control wild animals of such great importance to him? What part did animals play in the life of primitive man? (See "The Dawn of History," by J. L. Myres.) What led primitive peoples to make symbolical use of tools and implements? Is the symbolising process still going on? If so, give examples. Repeat the examples

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of the early use of the noose as a symbol given in the text. What is meant by "A.Q.C."? How did Operative Lodges use the cable tow? What is meant by "Operative Lodges"? How is the cable tow used in English lodges? How used among us?

II.—How does Mackey define "cable tow"? The Standard Dictionary? What is said by the author of this last definition? How is the term defined by Pike? by Lawrence?

III.—What did the cable tow mean to you during your initiation? How would you now interpret it? How does Pike interpret it? Do you agree with him? If not, why not? What is Waite's opinion? Paton's? Churchward's? Give the "obedience theory" of the cable tow. Give examples of "bad" obediences; of "good." Why does a symbol always have many meanings? In what sense is this an advantage? Give a list of symbols, emblems, and symbolical acts in every day use about you.

IV.—Repeat the author's interpretation. Do you agree with it? Could you write out your own interpretation? Give substance of Dr. Buck's interpretation. In what sense are you bound by law as a candidate is bound by the cable tow? Is law a thing that gives us liberty? or does it take away liberty? Give examples of other "cable tows" that bind us in every day life? How about the ties of friendship? marriage? business contracts? Does the principle made clear by the interpretation of the cable tow enable you the better to understand the meaning and use of all human ties?

V.—In actual Masonic practice how do you interpret "the length in your cable tow"? What does Castello say? Give Mackey's interpretation. What was the Baltimore Convention? Would "the length of my cable tow" mean the scope of your ability to ASSOCIATE with a brother as much as to ASSIST a brother? should it be given that larger interpretation?


I.—What is Pierson's theory of the meaning of the word "lodge"? Give the various definitions of the word. What is

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its meaning among Masons? What did it mean to Operative Masons? How did the Fraternity as a whole come to be called "lodge"?

II.—What is the symbolical meaning of "lodge"? What did ancient people believe about the earth? What does Professor Breasted say about Egyptian homes? What does Albert Pike say about ancient temples? Of what is the lodge a symbol? Give a description of the symbolical lodge. What are the Three Pillars on which it is supported?

III.—What does the lodge do for men? How does co-operation increase the power of men? In what way is the lodge a symbol of brotherhood? In what way does lodge life prepare for brotherhood?


I.—What is the first step taken toward introducing a candidate into a lodge? What worthy motive might a man have for entering a Masonic lodge? On what must a candidate depend when he enters a lodge? Why must a candidate knock for entrance? Give examples of the way in which one must knock for entrance to the arts and sciences.

II.—How is Freemasonry defined to the candidate? How did MacBride define Masonry? How does he define Speculative Masonry? Give Thomas Green's definition. What is the Royal Arch definition? Give Dr. Buck's definition. Give Brother Waite's definition. What is the author's definition?

III.—How is Masonry defined from the point of view of architectural symbolicism? What is it "which was lost"? What is Brother MacBride's illustration of this idea? What is meant by a "drama of regeneration"? In what way can Masonry be thus described?

IV.—What is meant by "a merely natural man"? How can one live the eternal life now? Give Albert Pike's definition of Freemasonry.

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I.—What is the meaning of "sharp instrument?" What is the only real penalty? Why have penalties led to attacks on Freemasonry? What is MacBride's theory concerning them? What are the actual penalties of wrongdoing? What are the penalties for transgressing the laws of any art.


I.—What is the place of prayer in human life? What is Thorp's theory of the Apprentice's prayer? Why is prayer found in the Masonic ceremonies? In what way is prayer a force? How may prayer be described as "spiritual work"?

II.—Why should man pray if God is all-knowing and all-powerful? Give examples of the way in which God and man must work together. Why do men pray? What are the effects of prayer? Do any other living beings on this earth ever pray? Who was the author of the stanzas quoted? What do these stanzas mean?


I.—What is the meaning of the word Circumambulation? From whom have we inherited this rite? What do primitive people believe about the sun? Among what people was the rite of Circumambulation practised? What is said about the Greeks, Romans, Hindoos, Druids and early Christians? In what way does Mackey compare Masonic Circumambulation with the Greek?

II.—How did the old Legends explain Circumambulation? What was Pike's explanation? In what way is Circumambulation "a drama of the development of the individual life"? What is Pierson's theory? What did Circumambulation mean to you at the time of your initiation? What is the last explanation given?

III.—What does the sun represent? In what way does Circumambulation suggest "the secret of human accomplishment"? Give some examples of this.

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I.—Into how many parts may the ceremony of approaching the East be divided? Why did early peoples come to look upon the North as a place of darkness? What does Fort say about the North in the Middle Ages? What does Evans say about the symbolism of the North? Milton? Shakespeare? Why is the North in the Masonic lodge the place of darkness? What is the symbolism of the South? How did the church builders make use of this symbolism? What part does the South play in a Masonic lodge? What is the symbolical meaning of the West? Who was Sophocles? How does Tennyson use the symbolism of the West? What does the East mean in a Masonic lodge?

II.—What is meant by Orientation? How were ancient temples situated and dedicated? How was the city of Rome oriented? How were early Christian churches situated? How did the Jews orient their temples? Why is the Master's station in the East? How is the Masonic lodge oriented?

III.—What is the meaning of the approach to the East? What is the Masonic ceremony of approaching the East? What is the meaning of that ceremony? How do you approach the East in your daily life?


I.—Where does the Altar stand? How should the Altar be made? With what should it be furnished? Where is the Masonic life lived? Of what is the Altar a symbol? In what way is it the symbol of gratitude? What is the theory of human stewardship?

II.—How was the Altar used as a sanctuary in early centuries? In what way is the lodge a sanctuary? In what way is the Altar a station of sacrifice? What is meant by sacrifice? How do you yourself make use of sacrifice?

III.—Give in your own words the substance of the paragraph quoted from Dr. Newton. Why is man a "seeker after God"?

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I.—Define the word "obligation." Have oaths and obligations been in universal practice? Why? Can you name oaths administered outside the Fraternity with which the Masonic obligation may be compared? Are the marriage oath, the President's oath, etc., such forms? Why is a religious sanction thrown about an oath? Does the taking of an obligation imply that the candidate cannot be trusted? Does it make his obligation or does it define it? What does Tyler say about the universality of oaths? How do Philo and Cicero define an oath? Can you give a better definition of an obligation than any herewith offered? If so, will you send it in to the Society?

What does Gould believe to have been the original of the Masonic oath? Why was the oath taken by the freemen adopted into the forms of the Masonic lodge? Do we see to-day any institutions copying the forms of oaths employed by some other institution? Name them. Were the earliest Masonic obligations short or long? How did the obligation evolve into such length? Is this legitimate? Have any other parts of the ceremony evolved similarly? Are Masonic ceremonies still changing and growing? If so, why? If not, why not? What was the substance of the earliest obligations? Why were the building secrets so jealously guarded? How did these secrets come to be public property? What effect did such publicity have upon the Freemasons?

What is the whole point of the present obligation? Have we any trade secrets? If you believe that a simpler, more effective obligation might be written, will you offer one? Why should Masonic secrets be still so jealously guarded? What is the function of secrecy in Masonry? Does friendship have its secrets? Business? Diplomacy? What would happen to the Fraternity if it should abandon its policy of secrecy? Does secrecy attract men to it? Why?

What is the meaning of "due form"? Whence came the term? What is the difference between form and formality? When two friends meet do they shake hands in "due form"? Does the form in which the obligation is given add to its dignity and impressiveness? Do you permit any flippancy in your own lodge's ceremony of initiation? Why not?

Why are the penalties kept so secret? How much can you

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talk about Masonry without violating your obligation to secrecy? Did the earliest obligations have any penalties attached? If not, why not? What is the "Harleian Manuscript"? What is meant by "Old Charges"?

What do Old Testament writers seem to feel concerning the sea? When the sailors cast Jonah overboard did they suppose they were putting him out of reach of the God he had offended? Would you as soon be buried in the sea as on the land? What is meant by "consecrated ground"? What churches still bury their dead in consecrated ground? Why? Does the custom of setting apart a special tract of ground for burial add dignity to the thought of death? Would you as soon think yourself dead lying in the sea as lying in a grave?! Who added the present penalties to our obligations? When? What hint do you get from Brother Clegg's suggestions?

II.—Why have anti-Masons so rabidly attacked the obligation? Is a man scared by penalties which he knows will never be inflicted? Who was John Quincy Adams? Why did he fight the Fraternity? Do you agree with what Brother MacBride says about the obligation? If not, why not? If you do, why? Is there any way in which the obligation could be recast? Who would have the authority to do so? Would it be of any advantage to have a General Grand Lodge of America to take care of such matters?

Why is the cable tow removed when it is? What does it signify? Is the obligation an appeal to a man's sense of honour? Or is it a slam against his sense of honour? Does the wedding oath add to or detract from the stability and dignity of marriage?

If marriages were left to private wills could the law have any control over them? How could Masonic law be brought to bear upon a man who had never taken an obligation? What is the real "Masonic Tie"? Does that tie draw you to other Masons? Does it ever restrain you from doing a wrong to a brother Mason? Why?


I.—Why is the Holy Bible called the V. S. L.? To what extent are the materials in our ritual drawn from it? In what

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sense is the Bible true? What constitutes its "unity"? How many books in it? Can you tell how these books came to be gathered together? Can you tell the difference between the canon (or "collection") of books used as the Bible by the Greek Catholics, the Roman Catholics, and the Protestants? What is inspiration? In what way is the Bible inspired?

What does "infallible" mean? Is the Bible infallible as history? As a book of science? In what way is it infallible? If it is infallible in any manner at all how can we prove it? How can its teachings be verified? How are scientific teachings verified?

Of what is the Bible a symbol? What are the sacred books of other races? When, and for what reason, can those books be substituted for the Bible on a Masonic altar? In what manner can other sacred books serve as a symbol of that of which the V. S. L. is the symbol?

II.—In how many ways is the Square used in our ritual? Describe the Square as it is used Masonically. Why did early peoples think that the earth was cubical or square-shape? How did the Square come to have its present significance? What is the Great Light of which it is a symbol? Why do we say of an honest man that he is "square"? What do we mean by "the square deal"? Why do we say that a dishonest man is "crooked"? Is dishonesty ever justifiable? Is a dishonest man like one who walks in the dark? Why?

III.—Why did ancient peoples believe the heavens to be circular? What did the Compasses signify to them? What do they signify to us? Do you believe that there is a divine element in you? Is there a divine element in a murder? How can we discover the divine in others? and in ourselves? How can we learn to let it rule us? Explain the various positions of the Compasses with relationship to the Square and explain the reason for this.


I.—What are the Lesser Lights? What is meant by Hermetic? What was the Hermetic symbolical explanation of the sun? of the moon? Give illustrations of the way in which nature is divided between male and female, active and passive.

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[paragraph continues] Who was John Woolman? What kind of a nature did he have? Who was Friedrich Nietzsche? What did he stand for? Who were Isis, Osiris, Horus? What does the Worshipful Master represent in Masonic symbolism?

II.—What is Steinbrenner's theory of the Lesser Lights? How could this symbol have been suggested by lodge windows? What do you think about Steinbrenner's theory? What did the Lesser Lights mean to you?


I.—Repeat in your own words Brother Newton's paragraph about light. What was the nature of the first religions of the world? Repeat quotation from Norman Lockyer. Who is Norman Lockyer? What does he say about the Egyptians and their beliefs concerning the Sun? Why did ancient peoples worship light?

II.—What does the Bible say about light and darkness? Who was Jamblichus? Zoroaster? What is the meaning of "Lux e Tenebris"? Why are Masons called the sons of light? In what way does initiation bring a candidate to light? What is meant by light in Masonry? What is the difference between truth and knowledge?

III.—What meaning does the author give to the symbolism of light? In the world at large? In the individual? What is the word that Masonry utters to man? What is the lost word?


I.—Give examples of the use of secret modes of recognition in past times. What does Gould say about the use of signs, grips, etc.? Why, do you suppose, are these "common features" of all secret societies? In what way do they protect secrecy? Why should secrecy be protected? Can you name any political, social, religious, or literary clubs which employ secret modes of recognition? If so, why do they use them? Chemists and druggists employ arbitrary signs to stand for various formulæ, and these are understood only by themselves. Are such signs analogous to our own?

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II.—What evidence is there to show that Freemasons used signs in old times? Why is the evidence so slender? Why were not these signs published and explained? What is the point of the quotation from Fergusson? Even if the early Operative Masons had been able to read and write, could they have dispensed with their signs and grips? We can all read and write: why have we not dispensed with them?

Can you guess what the Scotch "Mason Word" may have been? What was the significance of "words" among Masons in other countries at that time? How, and for what purpose, do we use words? Can you define a "password"? What are its usages and advantages? Does the army employ passwords? Why? What other organisations do so? In what way is "Word" used in the Third Degree? What is the meaning of "The Lost Word"?

III.—What is the "Due Guard"? Why was it invented and taken up by American lodges? What is the meaning of "an Americanism" as Mackey employs the term?

In what way are grips and tokens different from passwords? Can you give any examples of your own use of these outside the lodge room? When we say we have given a friend "a token of our esteem" do we use the word in its Masonic sense? Why are Masons entitled to use secret modes of recognition? Can you give reasons not given in this paper?


I.—What is the meaning of "salutation"? How is it used in general society? Is tipping your hat to a lady a salutation? Why does a private salute an officer in the army? Give all the reasons you can think of to explain why the candidate should salute the Wardens. In what way do they represent the law and authority of the lodge?

What is there in the principles of Masonry that has ever caused it to be the champion of liberty? Can you offer examples not given in the paper? Can you tell the story of Masonry's part in the Revolutionary War? What great leaders in that day were Masons? Was Lafayette a Mason? Washington? Franklin? Where was the Bible obtained on which Washington took his oath of office?

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II.—Can liberty exist in a monarchy as well as in a democracy? What is the difference between "freedom" and "liberty"? Between "liberty" and "independence"? Can a nation be independent without enjoying liberty? Did Italy secure liberty when she gained independence from Austria and France? What is a "free thinker"? Are Masons "free thinkers"? Why is law necessary to liberty? What would become of liberty if laws were destroyed?

What does law do for us in our daily life? Why should a man desire to be free? What are the advantages of freedom? What are the relations between liberty and authority? Are they opposed to each other? Why are Masons bound to uphold the dignity of law and order? What is meant by "civil scepticism"? Does the habit of speaking sarcastically of law and of courts help to uphold man's respect for social order? What should be a Mason's attitude toward the laws of his own community? Suppose, as was the case in Italy, that Masonry itself were declared unlawful, should a Mason under such circumstances oppose the law? If so, why? In what way should such opposition be different from lawlessness?

Is the desire to substitute a good law for a bad law, lawlessness? How were the laws of Masonry instituted? How are they enforced? In what way do they protect the liberty of each member? Would you say that the Masonic organisation is a constitutionalism or a democracy? What is the difference?


I.—Why has the apron been interpreted so variously? Give,; a list of the interpretations you have heard. Why is it dangerous to seek for symbolisms in the present shape and size of the apron? How long has it had its present shape and size? If the shape and size has changed from time to time is it safe to build any symbolism thereon?

II.—Can you give any examples of non-Masonic use of the apron not mentioned in the text? Why, do you suppose, has the apron been so widely used? Why did the Operative Mason wear an apron? What do you imagine its material and size to have been? If it was once of leather, why? Why was it changed to its present material? Why is the apron we usually wear in

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lodge different from that given to us during initiation? What led Speculative Masons to change its material and shape? Give usual dimensions of aprons as worn in American lodges. Why are they sometimes varied for different degrees and offices?

III.—What is a badge? What is the badge of a Mason? What is the difference between a badge and an emblem? A symbol? Has the Masonic use of the apron done anything to wear down the old prejudice against manual labour? Why were men ever so prejudiced? How long has it been since the prejudice began to break down? What were the causes? What are the labours of a Mason? Are they of any great value to society?

IV.—In what way is the apron as now used the symbol of sacrifice and innocence? Why have men so frequently thought of white as a symbol of innocence? Give examples of the early use of the colour as such symbol. What is the meaning of innocence? How can a grown man be innocent? What is the Masonic meaning of innocence?

What do you think of Brother Crowe's argument as given in the text? Why is the lamb the symbol of sacrifice? Can you give examples from the Bible of such a meaning? What is sacrifice? Why is sacrifice necessary? What is a Mason's sacrifice?

What was the Golden Fleece? The Roman Eagle? Star and Garter? Why is the apron more ancient and honourable than these? How would it affect human society if all men accepted the Masonic meaning of toil, innocence and sacrifice?


I.—What is the significance of the way in which the candidate is prepared? What is the difference between humility and humiliation? Why should the symbols in a Masonic lodge cause a man to feel humility? What is meant by discalceation? What is Mackey's interpretation of discalceation? What is the meaning of this ceremony in the terms of every-day life?

II.—What is the meaning of the word holy? What does the Holy Bible teach concerning holiness? What is meant by sacredness? What is astrology? alchemy? What was the

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astrological theory about the influence of planets? What does A. E. Waite say about destitution? What is your theory of destitution?


I.—Why is the candidate "reinvested with that of which he had been divested"? Why not wait until the end of the degree? What means "Northeast"? Is a boy halfway through school standing in education's "Northeast"? What is the Masonic meaning of "profane"? Why is the North a place of darkness and the East a place of light? Why is an Entered Apprentice said to be midway between the two? Do you know of any members of your lodge who are still in the Northeast? Has your study club helped you to find the East?

Describe the posture of the candidate as he stands in the Northeast Corner. Why is he made to stand thus? When is a man morally upright?

What is the function of a cornerstone in a building? Have you ever attended a ceremony of cornerstone laying? If so, describe what happened. Why a ceremony? What would you describe as a cornerstone of government? Of education? Of religion? In what way is the Entered Apprentice the cornerstone of Masonry?

Describe the cornerstone ceremonies in early times. Why was a living man sacrificed? What is the real meaning of sacrifice? Have you ever made sacrifices for Masonry? In what way has the Fraternity a right to expect sacrifices from its members? Would you agree with this definition of Masonic sacrifice: "Masonic sacrifice is the surrendering of all that conflicts with the principles of Masonry"? Name some things which men commonly do that would so conflict. What sacrifice has Masonry as a whole been making during the war—not subordinate lodges, but the Craft as a whole?

II.—What is your opinion of human nature? Do you believe that man is by nature depraved? Is our hope for the race built on what man is now, or on his capacities? What can be meant by the divinity of man?

Has man a capacity for the god-like? If so, how does Masonry appeal to that? How does Masonry help to develop

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it? What is the point of Brother Markham's poem? Do you agree with him? Is it mere sentimentalism to deal with men in such a way as to call out the best that is in them? In what way does Masonry make its appeal to the best that is in us?


I.—What can you add to the quotation from Carlyle? What particular accomplishment of man is cited by Bergson to distinguish man from brute? In what manner do the tools of the brute differ from those of man? How has man's superiority over the brute developed? Where does man's superiority lie?

What is the key to Masonry's use of the "working tools"? What is their use? How are they symbolised? What is the ultimate design to be accomplished by the use of the working tools of Masonry? Can a Mason shape his own destiny or be instrumental in shaping the destiny of others without the aid of his Masonic working tools?

Why is not the newly initiated candidate at once intrusted with all the working tools or implements of Masonry? With what tools is he intrusted and instructed in the Masonic application of, in the Entered Apprentice degree? in the Fellow Craft degree? in the Master Mason degree?

II.—What is a "twenty-four inch guage"? Of what is it the symbol, in our Monitors? Give the Monitorial exposition of the twenty-four inch guage in the language of the standard "work" of your Grand Jurisdiction. What reference to it was made by the old writers in connection with Saints Ambrose and Augustine and King Alfred? Do you agree with what the author says regarding the right use and division of time? If not, why not?

What is your definition of "Time"? What definition of it does the author give? Does Time symbolise to you opportunities to be grasped and improved upon? Who wastes time, the laggard or the successful man? Do you consider it a waste of time to attend the Study Club meetings of your lodge or Study Club? Are you wasting time by not attending these meetings? Are you applying the twenty-four inch guage to your time as did Abraham Lincoln and Albert Pike and other busy men?

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What is the fundamental reason for so many men developing into "human failures"? How may we protect ourselves against becoming failures in life? How has man heretofore divided his actions? What test should we apply to our actions? What foundation are Masons laying for the morality of the future? What great secret have we to learn from the twenty-four inch guage?

III.—What was the symbolism of the gavel in the Middle 'Ages? Whence was this symbolism derived? Of what was the gavel a symbol in Scandinavian mythology? What other peoples attribute to it the same symbolism? What is the Masonic derivation of the gavel? Give the Monitorial reference o the gavel as used in the standard "work" of your Grand Jurisdiction. Is the common gavel a symbol of authority? How is it distinguished from the implement of authority wielded by the Master of a lodge? What functions are combined in the common gavel? What is Mackey's explanation of its probable derivation? What use did the Operative Masons make of the common gavel? What is a "knob" on a stone? an "excrescence"? What do these suggest to the author? Do you agree with him in his deductions? If not, why not?

Does Masonry demand more from its members in the foregoing respect than do other organizations of their members or employés? What is the first lesson to be learned by a soldier, or an employé of a corporation? Why must they learn this lesson? Is "team work" and "co-operation" necessary to the success of a lodge? of a Grand Lodge? of Masonry as a whole? Could Masonry successfully cope with the questions which are arising each day in connection with the great work of reconstruction which the world is now facing, without some such united organisation as the recently launched "Masonic Service Association of the United States"? Did the necessity of "team work" and "co-operation" demand the organisation of such a Body?


I.—What is the meaning of the term Fellow Craft? What were the Schaw Statutes? What do they say about Fellow

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[paragraph continues] Craft? What was a Mason's mark? What was the ceremony of passing in Operative lodges? When was the term introduced into England? What was the old-time meaning of Fellow Craft? How did the term come to have its present meaning?

II.—What was a masterpiece? What is the key word of the Second Degree? Who was William Preston? What did he set out to do? Who was Hemming? When were his lectures adopted? Who was Philip Webb? What was the dominating idea in Preston's time? What did Preston do with the Second Degree?

III.—What does Pound say about Preston's theory? What is your own theory concerning the matter? What did the Second Degree mean to you when you were initiated?


I.—What is the meaning of indentured? What space of time do American Jurisdictions require between the First and Second Steps? What does Gould say about marks in Solomon's Temple? How did Operative Masons use the mark? What is meant by essay? How could present-day lodges make use of the old custom of the essay or masterpiece?

II.—What do you think about the memory test? What was an intender? What is the function of custodians of the work? How could the Fraternity carry on schools of Masonry? What should be demanded of a candidate who wishes to pass from the First to the Second Degree?


I.—What is meant by the phrase "arts, parts and points," etc., familiar to every Mason? What teaching do they convey? Is a Mason expected to be square and upright only in his dealings with members of the Fraternity? What has always been expected of him in his relations to the Craft? Is a Fellow Craft under any stronger tie to the Fraternity than he was as an Apprentice? Why?

What was the original meaning of virtue? What is its

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present-day definition? What is your definition of "rectitude"? Should Masons be content with merely observing the conventions of society, or should they strive to be active at all times in things that tend toward a higher plane of morality?

II.—Of what is the breast a symbol in Masonry? What are we to realise from the Fellow Craft application of the square? Has the man who has two codes of ethics, one of which he practises for effect in his own community and the other when away from home and among strangers, fully learned the truth designed to be conveyed by the application of the square? What kind of a moral code does Masonry demand that its votaries follow?


I.—What custom was observed by the Greeks during their ceremony of Circumambulation? Why did this custom obtain? What similar custom is practised in Masonic lodges of the present day? Why?

What did Amos seek to do in his day? What is the end to which the Fellow Craft should apply the knowledge gained in his Masonic studies? What was the state of society during the time of Amos? What penalty was inflicted upon Amos because of his teachings? What was Amos’ method of teaching?

II.—What picture does Amos portray to us in the Scripture reading? What is the author's interpretation of the reading? Have you a better interpretation?

What was the lesson learned by Job? Can we expect to escape from punishment for our wrongdoings?


I.—In what particular does the Fellow Craft's approach to the East differ from that of the Entered Apprentice? What is the significance of this variation? Prior to the time of reading this chapter, did you ever try to discover the origin and meaning of the term "oblong square"? If so, what did you learn concerning it?

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What is Mackey's definition? What reference does he find in it? Whence does he seek to trace this reference? What inference does the author take from Mackey's deductions?

II.—What other interpretations are cited by the author? What objections are advanced to these interpretations? How are squares classed by Brother Hunt? Do you agree with him in his deductions? If not, why not? How is Brother Hunt's theory supported by Irwin?

What theory does the author advance as to the possible manner in which the "oblong square" was handed down to us? What lesson does he think the framers of our present-day ritual intended to convey when they retained the phrase?


I.—Describe the "due form" assumed by the candidate in the Fellow Craft degree. In certain jurisdictions whenever the signs are given the brethren must also be on the step of that particular degree at the same time. It is held that the signs cannot be properly given unless this is done. The brethren thus place themselves in due form to give the signs. Try this, and see if the body is not thus brought into the proper position to facilitate giving the signs properly. Then try giving them without first being "on the step." Possibly you will thereby discover the reason for practising such "forms."

Define the words "form" and "formality." What is a "formalist"? What is "formality"? Is "form" necessary in our every-day business and social life? Is it necessary in Masonry? If so, for what purpose? Why do we use the term "due form"? Is a candidate expected to comply with these "due forms"? What does his compliance signify?


I.—What are the working tools of a Fellow Craft? How have you explained them to yourself? What is their meaning in your understanding now? Why do you always think of goodness, holiness, heaven, God, as being above you? What is the

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difference, in your judgment, between morality and righteousness? Do you think of your ideal of your own life as being above and beyond you? If so, what efforts are you making to attain to that ideal? May this not be one of the suggestions in this working tool of the plumb?

What do you mean by "a hero"? How can a man erect himself above himself? What influence has the memory of Washington, Pike, Jefferson and Lincoln had for you? In what way may a true Mason be a hero to his friends? his family? his race?

II.—What do you understand yourself when you use the word "level"? Do you really believe that you are equal in all ways to every other individual? Is every other individual equal to you in all ways? If there are fundamental differences between you and other individuals, just what is the nature of these differences? What do you understand by "pride"? "superciliousness"? In what way are all Masons on a level with each other? What becomes of your pride when you sincerely stand in a lodge room on a level with your brother countryman?

III.—How would you explain the meaning of the square when that symbol is used as one of the working tools of a Fellow Craft? How can the sense of manly pride and the feeling of equality be joined together in your own experience? Do you really use your gifts to help your brethren and to help others in this world? How can a healthy man use his own strength to help those that are ill? How can a learned man use his learning to help those that are ignorant? How can a man who has money really help those that have little or no money? Should not we try to help others in such a way that they do not even know that we are helping them? How should parents help their children? How should teachers help their pupils?

How may the Master and officers of a lodge help the members of that lodge without their knowing it? What is meant by not letting your right hand know what your left hand is doing?


I.—What is your understanding of the Ashlar symbolism? hat is meant by saying that a profane man, using the word in

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a Masonic sense, is but like a rough block of stone? Is not an ignorant, unclean, profane, dishonest, unbrotherly man like an unshaped piece of rough rock from the quarry? If you know of such a man, how can you help him to become a man more square, cultured and brotherly? What is the Masonic Fraternity as a whole now doing, in your own honest estimation, to help this old world to cease to be a wreck of a world?

II.—Is not this present world but a great crude piece of rock in your eyes? What can our Fraternity do to help make this living human race more square with the everlasting laws of life, righteousness, health, happiness and God? Which are you in your own lodge—a rough ashlar or a perfect ashlar? What do you do with the members of your lodge who make trouble? Do you grow impatient with them, or do you help them? You see that all these questions are designed to lead Masonic students to understand that Freemasonry tries to help us in our daily lives.


I.—In what light have you heretofore interpreted the existence of the "Middle Chamber" of Solomon's Temple—as a literal fact or simply as a symbol? What is Sir Charles Warren's opinion? What is Mackey's opinion regarding it? Do you agree with them? If not, what reasons have you for disagreeing with them?

What is the modern Biblical interpretation of the term "chamber" as used in the present connection? How many such chambers were there in the Temple, and what were their uses? Were they used as "paymaster's offices," or as chambers of instruction?

What is a "myth"? Were our ceremonies contrived as vehicles for the conveyances of historical facts to candidates? What thought should we continually bear in mind while pursuing our Masonic studies?

Of what is the Middle Chamber a symbol? What does it represent in the Second Degree ritualism? How are we benefited by "learning" or education?

What part does the Second Degree occupy in Ancient Craft

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[paragraph continues] Masonry? Would the system have been complete without it? Have you gained a new conception of the Second Degree from this section of the author's present study paper from that which you formerly held of it?


I.—Describe Operative Masonry. Why did Operative Masonry decline? Give substance of MacBride's theory? What specific elements existed in Operative Masonry? What is Mac-Bride's theory about this? Give substance of A. E. Waite's theory. What elements in modern Masonry could not have come from Operative Masonry? What did Speculative Masonry inherit from Operative Masonry? What is Masonry's general idea concerning the world? What is the point of the Browning poem?

How were builders organised in mediæval times, and for what purpose? Why were they intrusted with signs, words and grips? why were they called "Operative" Masons?

Why were persons who had no connection with the building trades admitted into the Order prior to 1717? What attracted them to it? What was the result of their admittance?

How does Brother MacBride describe the transition from Operative to Speculative Masonry?

What influence has the speculative element on the operative organisation?

What did the non-operative element undertake to do after their acceptance into the organisation, according to Brother Waite? How were Kabbalistic and Rosicrucian ideas and symbols introduced into the Order?

What did Speculative Masonry inherit from the Operatives? Was all of our philosophy and mysticism handed down from the Operatives?

What was the work of the Operative Mason, and what were his wages? What is the work of the Speculative Mason, and what are his wages?

Do you believe with those who claim that the race cannot be improved; that because evils of one kind and another have always existed, that they are always to remain with us? What is the mission of Masonry?

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I.—Why did early peoples set up pillars before their places of abode, about their villages and over the graves of their dead? What did they believe such pillars to symbolise? What did pillars portray to the Mayas and Incas? How were they looked upon in Bible times? By whom were monoliths most widely used? In what manner, and for what purposes? In the course of religious development what did they come to symbolise? What did the obelisk symbolise?

Whence did the custom of placing pillars before temple entrances proceed from Egypt? What did Hiram probably use as his models for the pillars placed before Solomon's Temple?

What do the pillars used in the lodge room represent? What is the height of the pillars as given in the Book of Kings? In the Book of Chronicles? What is the author's theory concerning these variations? How does Mackey describe the original pillars?

II.—What was the shape and composition of the pillars? What was their combined weight? What were they respectively called and what were their positions? How are these names interpreted Masonically? What part did they occupy during celebrations? Where were the pillars supposedly cast?

What should be the height of the pillars used in our lodge rooms? What are the heights as adopted by American Grand Lodges? What was the height of the pillars as now accepted by present-day authorities? Is it imperative that we know the actual height of the pillars to pursue our Masonic studies? In what light should we consider them?

What did the pillars symbolise to Preston? To Caldecott? To Covey-Crump? To Mackey? To the old Jewish Rabbis? What is the author's interpretation?

Where do you keep the pillars in your lodge room during the time they are not in actual use? Has such position any particular significance? In some jurisdictions we find them at either side of the entrance from the preparation room; in others they stand in front of the Senior Warden's station. Can you give a reason for either or both of these locations other than "for convenience"? How did the pillars impress you when you first saw them? What do they mean to you now?

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What are the two globes called? Why are they so-called? Describe the Egyptian symbol of the Winged Globe. What is the objection to the theory that our globes came from Egypt? What is the author's theory of the origin of the globes? Why did Preston give the globes a place in the Second Degree? What do the two globes represent? What sciences deal with the earth? What sciences deal with the heavens? In what way can a Mason gain enlightenment from this science?

What two theories have been offered by Masonic scholars concerning the origin of the globes? How was the first theory suggested? What is the symbol of the winged globe? What did its oval shape suggest or symbolise? Do you accept this Egyptian theory? If so, why? If not, why not?

Why does it appear that Preston modified the chapiters of the pillars into globes? How is Preston's theory verified? Do you agree with the author that we of to-day have the same right to interpret the symbols in our own way as did the ancients? If not, why not?


I.—To what extent is the origin of the symbolism of the Winding Stairs generally known? Is it essential that we discover the exact facts in order to intelligently pursue our present study?

Have there ever been advanced satisfactory answers concerning the source of the symbolism? To what extent should discussion of the origin be considered of value?

Do you agree with the contention of early scholars that there was actually a winding stair of three, five or seven steps in Solomon's Temple? What can you offer in support of such contention? Could the semicircular stairway at the Gate Nicanor where the Levites chanted the "Psalms of Degrees" have been taken as the prototype of our winding stairs? What is your opinion concerning this theory? What does Sir Charles Warren say concerning the staircase?

What is the "Theological Ladder"? When and by whom was it introduced into the ritual? What was the symbolism of

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the "Theological Ladder"? Have we anything similar to it in our ritual of the present day? What does the author say about this interpretation?

What is the theory of the Operative origin of the symbolism? Can this theory be depended upon? If not, why not?

Since the origin of the Winding Stair symbolism cannot be accurately traced, how should we view the use of the stairs in our work?

II.—What does the use of the mystical numbers suggest to you? Of what is the Winding Stair as a whole a symbol?

What is Pike's theory concerning the number "15"? What would happen should our present symbolic arrangement of the Winding Stairs be changed? Would a change be of any material advantage?

Is the use of numbers in symbolism of modern origin? Can you give a reason for even numbers being used to denote earthly or human things and odd numbers to suggest divine or heavenly truths? Has this always been the case?

What was "the number of the beast" and its interpretation? How were ancient temples usually approached? Why should we feel gratified that the symbolism of odd numbers is retained in Masonry?

What is the "triad" or "ternary"? How was it considered by philosophers?

III.—How does the author explain the number "5"?

Of what is the number "7" the symbol? How was knowledge divided in mediæval times? What does Gould say about the seven sciences?

How can our ritual be made to be of assistance to us in our every-day life?

What is our most familiar explanation of the "three steps"? How does Masonry help the individual? Should a Mason feel that he is being left apart and alone in his endeavours to improve his physical and spiritual condition?

What great lesson is revealed to us in the five steps?

How is the group of seven steps interpreted? Is this teaching a necessity? Does Masonry approve ignorance? Is the expression "I have no time to read or study" one of yours? How did Burritt, Franklin, Livingstone and others secure their education? What grows out of ignorance?

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Do you believe that the human race is still progressing? What must we avoid in measuring progress? In what manner alone can the human race progress? What are your answers to the author's closing questions?


I.—Why, do you suppose, were so many allusions to the art of Architecture incorporated in our Ritual and monitorial lectures? What was Preston's idea in the formation of the Second Degree Lecture? What advantage has the boy or man of our day over the Masons of Preston's time?

What is Morris’ definition of Architecture? Is a structure erected with a view of catering to physical needs only worthy of being designated as "architecture"?

Is Morris’ definition borne out by facts?

What do the Parthenon and the colonnades at Thebes tell us? What part did art play in the Middle Ages?

To what have the buildings of men always had a reference? What is the story of the Tower of Babel?

II.—What is the secret of Masonry's use of architecture? How are Masons at present interested in building? Is the use of builder's tools as symbols of modern origin? Is such symbolism to be found in the Bible? Can you quote illustrations? Are similes in use at the present day? Name some of them. In what sense do we usually speak of a "builder"? a destroyer? Is there a connection between the present-day mission of Masonry and the language of architecture? From what source do we derive our Masonic institution of the present day?

Is a Mason an "architect"? Why? What manner of a structure is each individual Mason engaged in the building?

Do you agree with the author's assertion that Masonry is a "world-builder"? If so, why? If not, why not? When will Masonry's work be completed?


I.—What part of the ceremonies or lectures most impressed you on the night you took your Second Degree? How were you impressed by the lecture on the "Five Senses"? How have

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you expressed or carried out your impressions? Have you ever given the matter any further thought? Have you "Masonized" your Five Senses?

What thought have you gained from the author's short discourse on the part played by the senses in a man's life? What is the underlying idea of the series of paintings in the Congressional Library at Washington mentioned by the author?

In what direction should our senses be trained?

II.—How does the author interpret the sense of feeling? the sense of tasting? the sense of smelling? the sense of hearing? the sense of seeing?

III.—Can you give a different interpretation of any or all of these senses?

What important lesson has the author endeavoured to emphasise in the present chapter? What new understandings have you gained from the foregoing pages?


I.—How many branches of learning were taught in the schools of the Middle Ages? What were these two groups called? What is the meaning of "trivium"? "quadrivium"? What branches comprise these two groups? What does Conder say about the London Society of Masons? What was the Ahiman Rezon? When was our oldest MS. written? What was Preston's purpose for the Second Degree? What have the Liberal Arts and Sciences to do with Masonic light? What did scholars of the Dark Ages study? Who were the Humanists?

II.—How do the Liberal Arts and Sciences "improve us in social intercourse?" How does education help a man to he a better lodge member? How does enlightenment make for brotherhood?


Have you ever heard a satisfactory explanation for the connection of the use of a sheaf of grain with the war between Jephthah and the Ephraimites? If so, what is it?

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What was the cause of the Ammonitish war? Who was Jephthah? How did he intercept his enemies?

How did the custom originate of placing gifts on altars to appease the gods in early times? How was the nature of the gifts determined?

Whence originated the present-day custom of depositing records and valuables in the cornerstones of buildings?

What is the author's interpretation of the symbolism of corn, wine and oil? Can you give a different interpretation?


I.—Before reading the article on the letter G by the author what was your conception of its symbolic meaning? Did you accept the ritualistic explanation as authentic and final? Or had you at any time subsequent to receiving your Second Degree investigated the subject from other sources? If so, what conclusions did you reach? Did the Masons of the eighteenth century know why the letter G was adopted as a Masonic symbol? Are Masonic students of the present day agreed upon the subject? What is said about it in the article in Mackey's Encyclopædia?

Name several interpretations of the symbol as quoted by the author. What are two of the most common theories?

What branch of the sciences was given the greatest prominence in the old Constitutions of Masonry? What is a reasonable explanation for this?

How are the confused explanations of the symbol by eighteenth century writers accounted for?

II.—How did the letter G ever come to stand for Deity? What was the Kabbala? Around what did the symbolic system of the Kabbala centre? What restrictions were placed upon the real name of God by the ancient Jewish people? What was the result of these restrictions? What symbol did the Kabbalists adopt for the lost name of Deity? In what manner is the letter G supposed to have been substituted for the Hebrew Yod?

III.—When will men have learned the secret of the letter G?

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I.—In a study of the Third Step shall we expect to find architectural symbolism as in our preceding studies? In what terms were the teachings in First and Second Steps given to us? Of what will our new studies treat?

Who originated our Third Degree? and when? Have these questions ever been satisfactorily answered?

How many degrees were there at the beginning of the Grand Lodge period? What were they? Why was the old Apprentice Degree divided into two parts? When was this division made?

Did this change meet with unanimous approval? Was the new degree universally worked immediately after the division? Why was the new degree so slow to meet with universal approval? Was it welcomed by Masons outside of London?

Who is believed to have been responsible for the introduction of this new material?

II.—What was the new material introduced between 1723 and 1738? Why does the author not believe that it was the Hiram Abiff legend? What is the author's theory concerning the substance of this legend? Give his answer to the question, Who imported the new material? Was the Third Degree as elaborate from the first as it is now? Is it worked uniformly in all countries? In all Grand Jurisdictions in the United States?

If you received the degree in another State than the one in which you now reside, state for the benefit of the other members of your Study Club some of the details in which the work as you received it differs from that of the Jurisdiction where you now live.

What is the possibility of our learning the full details concerning the origin and early working of the degree in the very near future? Do we have record of similar legends in existence before our present Masonic system was established? Can you cite some of them?

What is the purpose of this degree? What is its secret?

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I.—At the time you received your Third degree what particular impression did the method of reception make upon you? Did you look upon this particular part of the ceremony as simply a matter of routine, or did you endeavour to think out for yourself the true meanings of the words "friendship, morality and brotherly love"?

Can a man who lives a secluded life apart from his fellows be said to know the true meaning of happiness? Has the friendship of fellow-members of your own lodge and those of other lodges with whom you have come into close contact been a help to you since you became a member of the Fraternity? Has this friendship caused you to change your opinion of any of the fellow-members of your own lodge with whom you had but a speaking acquaintance prior to your becoming a Mason? Has your own mind been broadened by such friendships?

II.—What is your conception of the word "morality"? Has this word been misused? Is a system of morality necessary to the advancement of the human race? Why?

What is the derivation of the word "morality"? What was probably the sense in which it was first used? What has it become to mean in Christian times? What is "righteousness"?

Give a few concrete examples of which you may have knowledge. What is "right"?

"How can brotherhood be possible among us men?" asks the author. What is his solution? What is your idea as to how it may be accomplished?


I.—Read the chapter from the Book of Ecclesiastes on "The Golden Bowl and Silver Cord." What is the old-time interpretation of this chapter? Give in your own words the author's interpretation.

II.—What does death mean to you? In what way does trust in T. S. G. A. O. T. U. destroy in us the fear of death?

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1.—What is the master symbol of Blue Lodge symbolism? Why should we be cautious in our endeavours to ascertain the origins of the symbolism of the "Lost Word"?

How were brethren in the early days of Masonry sometimes "made Masons"? Have our researchers yet been able to discover what the "Lost Word" was? What would those who hold to the theory that the Royal Arch Word is the "Lost Word" lead us to believe? Is there any evidence to prove beyond a doubt that this word was really the "Lost Word"?

II.—Do you agree with the author that the "Lost Word" was never a component part of the Blue Lodge work which was later taken away from the Blue Lodge and transplanted into the Royal Arch Degree? If so, what are your grounds for so agreeing? If not, what are your reasons for disagreeing with him?

What is the Legend of the Tetragrammaton? What was the custom among the Jewish people relative to pronouncing the name of Deity? How was the use of the name restricted? What finally became the penalty inflicted upon one who spoke the name aloud? What further restrictions were placed upon the use of the name? How was the name spelled?

When and in what manner did the true pronunciation of the name become wholly lost? What did this result in after the Exile was ended? What did the priests and scribes have left upon which to base their search? What were the vowels of the word?

III.—Of what did the Tetragrammaton become the centre, and how did the search for the word spread?

Did the form of the legend always remain the same? What various forms did it take?

IV.—Has the symbolic idea centred in the search for the "Lost Word" been confined to Masonry alone? Do we find it in modern literature?

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I.—Have some brother recite the monitorial lecture on the Trowel as the working tool of the Master Mason. Why is the Trowel most appropriate to the Master Mason Degree? What are the working tools of an Entered Apprentice, and their uses? What are the working tools of a Fellow Craft, and their uses? What is the function of a Trowel in the hands of a Master Mason? Why is the Trowel most symbolic in the work of temple building?

II.—Of what power may we consider the Trowel to be a symbol?

What do we say of men who lack unity in their makeup? Whence came the word "character"? What is its present-day meaning? What may a man who lacks character do to better himself?

What can he use to accomplish this end?

How did the builders of ancient times lay out their building designs? How and by whom was the degree work laid out in early English lodges? What was the duty of the youngest Entered Apprentice after the conclusion of the ceremony? How was the "plan of work" later displayed? What is the tracing board of a degree? Are the tracing boards of the several degrees represented in your lodge? How? Of what is the tracing board a symbol?

III.—How would you answer the author's question, "What is the force that can unite individual Masons into a unified and harmonious order"? What is it that ties you to your fellow Masons? What is your conception of the "Brotherhood of Man"?


I.—Who was Edwin Booth? What is his opinion of the Hiramic Legend?

Give your own opinion on the Legend in your own words. Are Masonic authorities agreed as to its origin and interpretation?

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II.—What have Pike and Vibert to say of its introduction into our ritual? When does Gould believe it to have been made a part of our ceremonies? Are other Masonic scholars in agreement with these brethren? What do MacBride and Newton have to say on the subject?

III.—How was the Legend accepted by eighteenth century writers? Was their position held to by later writers? What are we to infer from findings of more recent times?

Had the Jews a tradition of the Grand Master's death? Can we deny positively that the Legend is not historically true? What is the belief of other writers, who do not agree with the historical theory? When do they believe the drama to have had its inception? What are the assertions of Speth and Marks?

IV.—Is there any good evidence to support the Templar theory? What were the theories advanced by Speth, Carr, Pike and others?

What is the author's theory? Does this theory seem logical to you?

V.—Do all writers agree as to the interpretation of the Legend? How many theories were offered by Oliver? What were they? What were some other theories advanced?

What is the author's present-day interpretation?

After receiving the Third Degree how did you interpret the drama?


I.—What does the author consider to be the central idea of the Legend of the Third Degree?

In what respect does the term "Eternal Life" differ from Future Life? Immortality? Resurrection?

II.—What is the author's definition of "Eternal Life"? How would you define it?

What are the two component parts of human nature?

III.—What group of our activities has reference to the body? What is man's "spirit"? Why is this "spirit" eternal?

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What is the principal fault of many of us? What is the result of this fault?

What is the remedy for this condition?

Why is the "Lost Word" the symbol of "Eternal Life"?

IV.—Do you agree with the author's conception of the "Raising"? If not, wherein do you differ from him? (A general question.)

Is it necessary for us to seek outside of our Blue Lodge ritual for the "Lost Word"? If so, why?

Has the present Study Club lesson given you a new conception of the Legend of the Third Degree, and opened up any new thoughts on the subject? If so, what are they? (A general question.)


I.—What does the article in Mackey's Encyclopædia have to say concerning the Lion's Paw? What is the substance of Mackey's article on "The Lion of the Tribe of Judah"?

Why has the lion always been a favourite subject with symbolists? What was the symbolism of the lion among early peoples in India? Of what was it a symbol to the Nile dwellers? Give an example of the use of the lion symbolism in Egyptian sculpture. How does Harrison describe the raising of Osiris?

II.—What was the crux ansata, or "ansated cross" originally? In what manner did it develop into the "symbol of life"? What did Albert Pike see in the crux ansata?

III.—How was the lion as a symbol used by the Jews? Whence is it supposed that the Comacine Masters derived their habitual use of the lion in their cathedral building? What has Leader Scott to say concerning the lion in architecture? What is the author's theory as to how the symbolism of the Lion's Paw came into Masonry?

IV.—What power did the people of the cathedral building period believe the lioness to possess? Of what was this a symbol to them?

Of what did the early Freemasons consider the lion a symbol?

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Is there any difference between the real meaning of the symbolism of the Lion's Paw as interpreted by Albert Pike and as interpreted by Leader Scott?

Does the symbol refer to a raising in this life or in a future life?


I.—Recite the monitorial lecture on the Weeping Virgin monument.

Was the Weeping Virgin monument known to the Ritual of the eighteenth century? Is it now generally found in European systems and in all American jurisdictions? Is there a brother present from a jurisdiction where this emblem does not appear in the monitor of his mother jurisdiction? By whom is the emblem supposed to have been invented? Who was Jeremy Cross? What is the tradition as to where Cross borrowed the emblem? What is another theory? How should we view this emblem in the light of such meagre information concerning its origin as we now possess?

II.—Recite the monitorial lecture describing the Temple of Solomon.

Where was the Temple erected? For what other things was the hill on which the Temple was erected noted in Hebrew tradition? How was the hill described by the Mohammedans? What great event in the life of Mohammed is claimed by him to have occurred there?

What influence did the temple have on the legends, history and traditions of the people of early times?

Until how long ago was it the general belief that our present-day Masonic organisation was formed at the time of the building of the Temple? After receiving your degrees did you believe this to be a fact? (A general question.) What sort of marks have been discovered on the original foundation stones of the Temple? Are we certain of an actual historical connection between the Phœnicians and our present organisation? How is the Masonry of to-day interested in the Temple legend?

How did the Temple find its way into our Masonic system? What is Vibert's contention? What was the theory of it having

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been adopted in 1724? What is the position of Johnston and Rylands on the subject?

What is Brother Waite's theory?

How does the author compare our "work" with the building of the Temple?

In what manner did the Temple differ from our present-day houses of worship? In what manner did it differ from other temples? What is our object in building a "spiritual" temple?

III.—Recite the monitorial lecture on the Pot of Incense. Why was incense burned in ancient days? What is the reason for using it to-day? Of what is incense an emblem, in both the Old and New Testament?

How is incense used in Masonry of to-day? What should we bear in mind regarding the symbol?

IV.—Recite the monitorial lecture on the beehive.

Of what was the bee an emblem to the Hindoos? What may be believed to be the origin of the custom of using the bee as a symbol of immortality? Why did Napoleon adopt the bee as his royal emblem?

How was the bee symbolism used by the Greeks and some of their modern imitators?

How did the beehive come to be used in Christian symbolism?

Why did the Egyptians call the bees "an obedient people"? How does the beehive symbolise a lodge of Masons? Are there any "drones" in the "hive" of Masonry? Can you suggest how these "drones" might be transformed into "workers"?


I.—Recite the monitorial lecture on "The Book of Constitutions guarded by the Tiler's Sword."

Were written constitutions known to Operative Freemasons in the eleventh to fifteenth centuries? How were the traditions and charges communicated to the candidate in those times? What is supposed to have been the gradual evolution of these traditions and charges?

What is the oldest manuscript of the Old Charges? In what form was it written? What is the next oldest copy? To whom are we indebted for our present collection of these old documents?

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[paragraph continues] How many copies of these have been collected and preserved?

What happened to a number of the Old Charges that were in the hands of Masons at the beginning of the eighteenth century? When was one of the first attempts made to collate them?

Who made the first digest of these old manuscript constitutions shortly after the formation of the Grand Lodge of England? In what light is Dr. Anderson's work looked upon at the present day?

II.—What symbolical interpretation may be placed upon the Book of Constitutions?

III.—What is the symbolical significance of "The Book of Constitutions guarded by the Tiler's Sword"? What is the origination of the word "Tiler," and when was that office first created? What is one theory of the derivation of the word? What is another theory? Of what should the Tiler be a reminder?

Whence was the word "cowan" derived? What is supposed to have been the original meaning of the word? In what other sense was the word used?

When was the term introduced into English Masonry? By whom was it supposed to have been introduced? What is its present-day literal meaning? Is it the Tiler's duty alone to "keep off cowans"?

IV.—Recite the monitorial lecture on "The Sword Pointing to a Naked Heart."

What is Mackey's theory of the origin of the symbol of the "Sword Pointing to a Naked Heart"? How is it presumed to have come into our Ritual?

Of what is the heart a symbol in this instance? the sword? What was one of the early beliefs concerning God? What did the term "morality" mean in those days?

How is the "moral law" interpreted by Masons of the present day?


I.—Recite the monitorial lecture on "The Anchor and Ark." Is the Anchor and Ark symbol a modern or an old one? What does the Anchor typify? Of what was it a symbol among early

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[paragraph continues] Christians? How was it displayed in those early times? What does Lundy say of it?

II.—Is the symbolism of the Ark as well known as that of the Anchor? What symbolic significance did Laurence Dermott attach to it? What did it symbolise to the Hermeticists? Was the symbol used in the Ancient Mysteries? In what manner?

III.—Of what was the Ark a symbol to the early Christians? Why? What does the Ark mean to us, as Masons?


I.—Recite the monitorial lecture on this emblem. Why should the emblem be one of particular importance to Masons? What prominence did Dr. Anderson attach to it?

Is our monitorial lecture on the emblem generally accepted as accurate in all details? Why is its alleged discovery by Pythagoras doubtful? What is the argument of those who defend the monitorial interpretation? Which of the two views given in the chapter do you believe the most convincing? What is a "hecatomb"?

II.—What does Dionysius Lardner say on the subject? The Encyclopædia Britannica? Brother J. F. Thompson? What might be added to Brother Thompson's statement?

III.—In what manner is the Proposition a symbol of Brotherhood?

How did the Egyptians use the Problem to portray the principle of the "perfect"? How is this symbolism displayed in "The Three Lesser Lights"?

IV.—Was a knowledge of the principle of the Forty-seventh Proposition vital to the existence of early operative Masonry? Why? Why is the triangle of symbolism of importance to present-day Masonry?


I.—Recite the monitorial lecture on "The Hour Glass."

In what manner was the Hour Glass symbol commonly used

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by operative Masons? Is the emblem a modern one? How was it used in funeral ceremonies in early days? What is the lesson we should learn from this emblem?

II.—Recite the monitorial lecture on the "Scythe."

III.—Have you any answers to the questions asked by the author in this section of his chapter?

IV.—Recite the ritualistic lecture on these emblems.

V.—What does the First Degree symbolise? The Second? What does the drama of the Third Degree symbolise? Did you realise the symbol of the Hiramic Legend the night you were raised? Was its meaning entirely clear to you at that time, or did you have to study it out later?

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