Tractate Sanhedrin, Herbert Danby tr. , at sacred-texts.com
X. I. These are they who have no share in the world to come: 2 who say there is no resurrection of the dead; 3 that the Law is not from Heaven; and the Epicureans. 4 R. Akiba adds: He who reads the external books; 5 and he who whispers over a wound, saying: ALL THE SICKNESS WHICH I BROUGHT ON EGYPT I WILL NOT BRING UPON THEE, 6 etc. Abba Shaul adds: He who pronounces the Name with its proper letters. 7
M.X. 2. Three kings and four commoners have no share in the world to come. The three kings are Jeroboam, Ahab, and Manasseh. R. Jehuda holds that Manasseh has a share in the world to come, for it is written: HE PRAYED AND MADE SUPPLICATION, AND HE HEARD HIS PRAYER AND BROUGHT HIM BACK TO HIS KINGDOM AT JERUSALEM. 3 They replied: He was restored to his kingdom but not to life in the world to come. The four commoners are Balaam, Doeg, Ahithophel, and Gehazi.
2. The children of the wicked among the heathen shall not live (in the world to come), nor shall they be judged. But R. Eliezer holds: None of the heathen has any share in the world to come, for it is written: THE WICKED SHALL RETURN TO SHEOL, ALL THE HEATHEN THAT FORGET GOD. 5 " THE WICKED SHALL RETURN TO SHEOL,"--these are the wicked in Israel; "ALL THE HEATHEN THAT FORGET GOD,"--these are the wicked among the heathen. R. Jehoshua said to him, "If Scripture had said: THE WICKED SHALL RETURN TO SHEOL, ALL THE HEATHEN, and then said no more, I should have spoken according to thy words; but since Scripture says: WHO FORGET GOD, behold there must be righteous men among the heathen who have a share in the world to come."
3. The School of Shammai 6 say: There are three classes; one for EVERLASTING LIFE, another for
The School of Hillel say: HE IS GREAT IN MERCY, 4 that is, He leans in the direction of mercy; and of them David said: I AM WELL PLEASED THAT THE LORD HATH HEARD THE VOICE OF MY PRAYER, 5 etc.; and of them, the whole psalm is written.
4. The transgressors of Israel and the transgressors of the heathen who are in the world go down to Gehenna with their bodies, and are judged there for twelve months; after twelve months their souls are destroyed and their bodies burnt; Gehenna casts them forth and they become dust; the wind blows them about and scatters them under the soles of the feet of the righteous, as it is written: AND YE SHALL TREAD DOWN THE WICKED, FOR THEY SHALL BE DUST UNDER THE SOLES OF THE FEET OF THE RIGHTEOUS IN THE DAY THAT I DO THIS, SAITH THE LORD OF HOSTS. 6 But the heretics and renegades and traitors and Epicureans, and those who denied the Law, or separated themselves from the ways of the congregation, or denied the resurrection of the dead, and all who sinned and caused the many to sin, like Jeroboam and Ahab, and who set their dead in the land of the living, and stretched
M.X. 3a. The Generation of the Flood have no share in the world to come, nor shall they stand in the judgment, for it is written: 5 My SPIRIT SHALL NOT JUDGE 6 WITH MAN FOR EVER. 7
R. Jehuda, 1 the son of Bethyra, says: AND THE LORD SAID, MY SPIRIT SHALL NOT JUDGE WITH MAN FOR EVER; 2 that is, "There will be no judgment, nor shall My spirit be in thee for ever."
Another explanation: AND THE LORD SAID: LO YADON. The Almighty says, "I will not suffer their soul to return to its case." 3
R. Menahem, 4 the son of R. Jose says: SHALL NOT JUDGE;--the Almighty means, "I shall not judge them when I recompense a good reward to the righteous;" for the fate of the spirits of the wicked is sorer than that of all others, for it is written: THEIR SPIRIT IS A FIRE CONSUMING THEM. 5
7. The Generation of the Tower of Babel have no share in the world to come, nor shall they live in the world to come, for it is written: 6 THEN THE LORD SCATTERED THEM ABROAD FROM THENCE UPON THE FACE OF THE WHOLE EARTH,--that is, in this world; AND THEY LEFT OFF TO BUILD THE CITY,--that is, in the world to come.
M.X. 3b. The men of Sodom have no share in the world to come, 7 but they shall stand in the judgment, for it is written: AND THE MEN OF SODOM WERE EVIL AND WICKED. 8 R. Nehemia says, Neither the Generation of the Flood nor the men of Sodom shall stand in the judgment, for it is
M.written: THEREFORE THE UNGODLY SHALL NOT STAND IN THE JUDGMENT, 1--this is the Generation of the Flood; NOR THE EVIL IN THE CONGREGATION OF THE RIGHTEOUS,--these are the men of Sodom. To this it was answered, "They shall not stand in the congregation of the righteous, but they shall stand in the congregation of the ungodly." 2
Another explanation: EVIL--each against his neighbour, AND WICKED--in obscenity, AGAINST THE LORD--in idolatry, EXCEEDINGLY--in shedding blood.
9a. The spies have no share in the world to come, for it is written: NEITHER SHALL ANY OF THEM THAT DESPISED ME SEE IT. 4
M.X. 3c, The Generation of the Wilderness have no share in the world to come, nor shall they stand in the judgment, for it is written: THEY SHALL COME TO AN END IN THE WILDERNESS AND THERE THEY SHALL DIE, 5--so R. Akiba; but
M.[paragraph continues] R. Eleazar says, It is said of them: GATHER TOGETHER MY HOLY ONES, WHO MADE A COVENANT WITH ME BY SACRIFICE. 1
The company of Korah are not destined to rise, for it is written: THE EARTH COVERED THEM AND THEY PERISHED FROM THE CONGREGATION, 2--so R. Akiba; but R. Eleazar says, It is said of them: THE LORD KILLETH AND MAKETH ALIVE, HE BRINGETH DOWN TO SHEOL AND BRINGETH UP. 3
10. The Generation of the Wilderness have no share in the world to come, nor shall they live in the world to come, for it is written: OF THEM I SWARE IN MY WRATH THAT THEY SHOULD NOT ENTER INTO MY REST, 5--SO R. Akiba; but R. Eleazar says, They will reach the world to come, for of them David says: GATHER MY HOLY ONES TOGETHER, THEY WHO MADE A COVENANT WITH ME BY SACRIFICE. 6 (11) What does Scripture mean by "I SWARE IN MY WRATH"? It was in my wrath that I
R. Shimeon, the son of Menasia, says: The generation of the wilderness will reach the world to come, for of them it is written: AND THE REDEEMED OF THE LORD SHALL RETURN AND COME TO ZION WITH GLADNESS. 1
M.X. 3d. The Ten Tribes are not to return, for it is written: AND HE CAST THEM FORTH INTO ANOTHER LAND LIKE (AS TO) THIS DAY. 2 As a day goes and does not return, so they go and do not return,--so R. Akiba; but R. Eleazar says, "As a day darkens and then becomes light, so they, after being in darkness, shall then have light."
Rabbi says, Both of them shall have a share in
120:* See Introduction, p. viii, n. 2.
120:2 Most codices, excepting C and K add: "All Israel have a share in the world to come, as it is written, And thy people are all of them righteous; they shall inherit the earth for ever" (Isa. 60. 21).
120:3 Cf. Mark. 12. 18; Acts 23. 8.
120:4 An epithet constantly applied to those, Jews and Gentiles alike, who come into opposition with Rabbinical standpoints. The word probably owes its popularity and frequency as a term of abuse, not to a widespread knowledge and practice of Epicurean teachings, so much as to the word-play on the root paḳar, "be free from restraint, licentious, sceptical."
120:5 Books excluded from the Hebrew Canon; in spite of R. Akiba's dictum, Ben Sira is sometimes quoted in Talmud and other rabbinical literature.
120:6 Exod. 15. 26.
120:7 See Mishnah VII. 5.
120:8 Cf. Deut. 31. 16.
121:1 See note on M. VII. 5.
121:2 Cf. Mark 7. 33; 8. 23.
121:3 2. Chron. 33. 13.
121:4 2. Chron. 33. 19.
121:5 Not yet thirteen years. and a day old.
122:1 Mal. 4. 1.
122:2 Psalm 116. 6.
122:3 Dan. 4. 23.
122:4 Mal. 4. I.
122:5 Psalm 9. 17.
122:6 See note on Tosefta VII. I.
123:1 Dan. 12. 2.
123:2 Zech. 13. 9.
123:3 1 Sam. 2. 6.
123:4 Exod. 34. 6.
123:5 Psalm 116. 5. See especially vv. 3-4.
123:6 Mal. 4. 3.
124:1 Not the usual word for Temple, but zebul, "lofty habitation."
124:2 Isa. 66. 24.
124:3 Psalm 49. 14.
124:4 1 Kings 8. 13.
124:5 Gen. 6. 3.
124:6 Lo yadon,--the meaning is uncertain. It is here given a double meaning, "shall not judge" and "shall not continue"; therefore if God's spirit does not continue in them for ever, they can have no life hereafter. Editions based on the Bomberg text add the explanatory gloss, "Neither judgment nor spirit."
124:7 Bomberg text adds the paragraph: The Generation of the Dispersion (Gen. 11. 8-9) have no share in the world to come, as it is written: "And God scattered them abroad,"--in this world, "and from thence God scattered them abroad,"--in the world to come.
124:8 Gen. 7. 23.
125:1 R. Jehuda b. Bethyra, C. 90-130 A.D., was a notable teacher in Nisibis, in Mesopotamia.
125:2 Gen. 6. 3.
125:3 Playing on the word neden.
125:4 R. Menahem b. Jose was a son of R. Jose h. Halafta, and lived towards the end of the second century A.D.
125:5 Isaiah 33. 11.
125:6 Gen. II. 8.
125:7 Bomberg text adds: As it is written [Gen. 13. 13]: "And the men of Sodom were evil and wicked exceedingly in the sight of the Lord,"--evil in this world, and wicked with respect to the world to come.
125:8 Gen. 13. 13. C by error repeats quotation from Gen, 6. 3.
126:1 Psalm 1. 5.
126:2 That is, they shall stand in the judgment. The men of Sodom are called evil, hence they cannot be among the "congregation of the righteous," i.e. in the world to come; yet they are not called ungodly (rashā‘im), but only wicked (rā‘im): therefore Psalm 1. 5 does not exclude them from the judgment.
Bomberg text adds: The spies have no share in the world to come, as it is written (Numb. 14. 37): "And the men who brought an evil report of the land died by the plague before the Lord." They died--in this world; by the plague--in the world to come.
126:3 Gen. 13. 13.
126:4 Numb. 14. 23.
126:5 Numb. 14. 35.
127:1 Psalm 50. 5.
127:2 Numb. 16. 33.
127:3 1 Sam. 2. 6.
127:4 Psalm 119. 176.
127:5 Psalm 95. 11.
127:6 Psalm 50. 5.
128:1 Isa. 35. 10.
128:2 Deut. 29. 28.