Tractate Berakoth, by , by A. Lukyn Williams, , at sacred-texts.com
M.I. 7 (4). At dawn one says two Benedictions 2 M. before the Shma‘, and one after it; 3 [[In the evening one says two Benedictions before it and one after it]]. 4 In the evening two before it 5 and two after it, 6 one in the long and one in the short form. 7
In a place where they bid one use the long form it is not permissible to use the short, and where to
M.use the short, it is not permissible to use the long. Where [they have bidden men] "seal" 1 it is not permissible not to seal, and where not to seal, it is not permissible to seal.
6. The following are the Benedictions which are said in the short form. When one utters a Benediction over fruits, and over religious duties; (also) the Benediction at the invitation, 6 and the second Benediction at the recitation of the Shma‘.
The following are the Benedictions which are said in the long form—the Benediction at the Fasts, and the Benedictions on New Year's Day, and the Benedictions on the Day of Atonement: By a man's benedictions it is discovered whether he be ignorant or whether he be a scholar.
7. The following are the Benedictions which one
8. The following are the Benedictions with which one opens with "Blessed,"—the whole of the Benedictions one opens with "Blessed," except the Benediction which is joined to the recitation of the Shma‘, 2 and the Benediction which is joined to another Benediction. For one does not open in these with "Blessed."
9. The following are the Benedictions in which one bends forward, the first Benediction, 3 at its beginning and its end; and in the Modim, 4 at its beginning and at its end. And as for him who bends forward in every single Benediction, he is to be instructed that he should not bend forward. We do not respond together with him who pronounces the Benediction. 5 [But] R. Judah used to respond together with him who pronounced the Benediction: "Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts, the whole earth is full of His glory," and "Blessed be the glory of the LORD out of His place." 6 All these (words) R. Judah used to say together with him who pronounced the Benediction.
7:1 See M. 3.
7:2 The first is Yotser’ Ôr, with additions (Staerk, pp. 4 sq., SA, 37-39), the second, ’Ahabah rabbah (Staerk, p. 6; SA, pp. 39 sq.)
7:3 This begins with ’Emeth wyatzîb, and includes the Ge’ullah, vide supra p. 4.
7:4 The clause in [[ ]], found in C, is clearly an error.
7:5 Ma‘arîb arabim and ’Ahabath ‘olâm (Staerk, p. 8; SA, p. 96).
7:6 The first begins with ’Emeth we-’emunah, and includes the Ge’ullah (Staerk; p. 8; SA, pp. 98. sq.); the second begins with Hashkibenu, and is a prayer for protection during the night (Staerk, P. 9; SA, pp. 99. sq.).
7:7 one in the long and one in the short form. The meaning is not clear, for to-day the two prayers are of much the same length. Perhaps formerly the first in each case was the longer. Or perhaps permission was given to use an abstract (see p. 30 note) in one, or in the other, of the two prayers.
8:1 seal. i.e. with a summary of the Benediction it follows, beginning with "Blessed."
8:2 why. The answer does not seem to be given.
8:3 do they say. i.e. the authorities in the mishna.
8:4 not permissible to seal. So far the section is a quotation from our mishna, but the next sentence is not there.
8:5 to bend. Compare what is said of Aqiba in T. III. 5 (p. 88).
8:6 the invitation. See M. vii. 1. (infra, p. 59).
9:1 R. Jose the Galilean. In the younger group of the second generation of mishna-teachers (c. 110-130), to be carefully distinguished from R. Jose (ben Chalaphta). He was the father of R. Eleazar bar Jose (p. 29).
9:2 except the Benediction which is joined to the recitation of the Shma‘. i.e. ’Emeth wyatzib in the morning (SA, p. 42), and ’Emeth we-'emunah in the evening (SA, p. 98).
9:3 the first Benediction. i.e. of the Tephillah, the Eighteen Benedictions (Staerk, pp. 9 sq. SA, p. 44).
9:4 the Modim. The 17th or 18th of the Eighteen (SA, p. 51).
9:5 we do not respond together, etc. See T. III. 26, V. 21 (infra, p. 73).
9:6 Isa. 63; Ezek. 312, both in the third Benediction.