Eighteen Treatises from the Mishna, by D. A. Sola and M. J. Raphall, , at sacred-texts.com
§ 1. He who has turned his olives, 1 and [then] has a death 2 [in his family], or [otherwise] is prevented [from at once putting them to press], or has been disappointed by his labourers, may put the first press-block on [the olives], and leaves it [thereon] until after the Moed. Such is the dictum of R. Jehudah; but R. José saith, "He may put [the olives] into the oil press, and finish pressing [them], and bung up [the casks into which the oil is poured] in the usual manner."
§ 2. Thus, likewise, he whose wine [has been pressed but still] is in the press-pit, should he [then] have a death in his family, or be [otherwise] prevented, or have been disappointed by his labourers, he may pour [the wine into casks], cooper, and bung them up in the usual manner. Such is the dictum of R. José: but R. Jehudah saith, "He must only cover [the pit] with boards, so that the wine may not grow sour."
§ 3. A man may house his fruit from [dread of] thieves, and take flax out of the buck, that it be not spoiled, provided always he does not intentionally defer doing it till the Moed: but should he have intentionally deferred doing it till the Moed, then in all these cases he forfeits [the article in question]. 3
§ 4. They must not purchase houses, slaves, or cattle, excepting for the use of the festival, or for the use of the vendor, who otherwise might have nothing to eat. They must not clear away [remove things] from one house to another, though this may be done if both houses are in the same court. Things [which have been put into the hands of a craftsman to be made up or repaired] must not be brought home from the workshop, 4 but if he [the owner] suspects [that the things, if left with the workman, may be lost, or that he may exact a second payment] he may remove them to another court.
§ 5. They may cover dried figs with straw. R. Jehudah saith, "[They may] likewise [be put] in layers."
§ 6. Dealers in fruit, in garments, or in utensils, may privately sell what is required for use on the Moed. Huntsmen [fishers], and manufacturers of peeled barley and grits, may carry on their occupations in private, as the exigencies of the festival may require. R. José said, "They have of their own accord adopted the more rigorous observance, and do not carry on their occupation during the Moed."
195:1 When they are in the vat, in which case they must at once he pressed, or they rot.
195:2 On account of which, he must keep the seven days mourning, and abstain from work. Should this period expire during the Moed, or should the labourers have disappointed him, longer delay might become fatal to the olives.
195:3 Some explain this to mean, that he must leave the articles to be spoiled, others, that he forfeits them, the Beth Din causing them to be distributed.
195:4 Lest the owner be accused of having placed the things with the workman, and the latter of having been at work on them during the festival. The rule, however, only applies to such articles as are not wanted for use on the Moed.