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Eighteen Treatises from the Mishna, by D. A. Sola and M. J. Raphall, [1843], at


§ 1. As long as it is lawful for the priests to eat of the heave-offering, 1 [the Israelite] may give [non-consecrated articles of leaven] to his domestic or wild animals, or to fowls; he may also sell it to strangers, 2 or derive benefit from it in any other way; but when that time is passed, it is unlawful to derive any benefit whatever from it, not even to use it as fuel, or to light therewith an oven

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or stove. 3 R. Jehudah says, "The removal of leaven must be effected by its being burned:" but the sages say, "It must be crumbled into small particles, cast forth to the wind, or thrown into the sea."

§ 2. Leaven belonging to a stranger, which has been in existence during the Passover, may be used after that festival, but not when it belonged to an Israelite, because it is said (Exod. xiii. 7), "Neither shall there be any leaven seen in all thy quarters."

§ 3. When a stranger has lent money to an Israelite upon the security of leavened articles, they may be applied to use after the Passover; but when an Israelite has lent money to a stranger upon leavened articles, they may not be applied to use after the Passover; leaven that has been covered by fallen ruins, must be considered as banished and removed; Rabbon Simeon ben Gamaliel says, "Only then, when it is so much covered that a dog cannot drag it out."

§ 4. If any person should eat leavened heave-offering during the Passover through error, he shall pay the principal, and the fifth part in addition; but if he did it wilfully, he is free of the obligation of repayment, and of paying for the value of the wood 4 in case of the heave-offering being unclean.

§ 5. A person discharges his obligation 5 with the following articles on Passover:—with cakes made of wheat, barley, spelt, oats, and rye; also with ‏דמאי‎ [corn which it is doubtful whether it was tithed], with the first tithe, of which the heave-offering has been taken, and with the second tithe, and consecrated things which have been redeemed. Priests,—with the cake of the dough [‏חלה‎], and the heave-offering, but not with that which is yet mixed or untithed [‏טבל‎], nor with the first tithe of which the heave-offering has not been taken, nor with unredeemed second tithe, and consecrated things not ransomed; also, not with the cakes of thank-offering, and the thin cakes of the Nazarite's offering, if they had prepared them for their own use; but if for public sale, they may discharge their obligation therewith.

§ 6. The obligation of eating bitter herbs on the Passover, may be discharged with the following herbs: namely, with lettuce, wild

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endive, and garden endive, 6 with ‏חרחבינה‎, 7 and bitter coriander, 8 either fresh or in a dried state, but not if pickled, boiled, or cooked in any way: they may also be combined to the size of an olive, and the obligation is discharged if the stalks of them only had been used; and also when it is doubtful whether they were tithed, or are of the first tithe of which the heave-offering was taken, or of the second tithe, or of redeemed consecrated things.

§ 7. It is prohibited to soak bran on the Passover to feed fowls; but it is permitted to pour boiling water thereon; a woman may not soak the bran which she takes with her to the bath, but must use it in a dry state to rub her body therewith. A person may not masticate grains of wheat to put it [as a poultice] on his wound, because they will become leavened.

8. It is unlawful to put flour in ‏חרוסת‎, 9 or in mustard, but if it were done, it must be immediately eaten; but R. Meir prohibits it. The paschal sacrifice may not be boiled in any liquid, or juice of fruit; but it is permitted to moisten it [after it has been roasted], or to dip it [in any liquid when eaten]. Water which a baker uses [to cool his hands while kneading ‏מעות‎ unleavened-cakes] must be thrown away immediately, because it becomes leaven.


99:1 This is according to the opinion of R. Gamaliel, mentioned above, chap. I. § 5.

99:2 Wherever the word "strangers" is mentioned in this chapter, it refers to those who are not Israelites.

100:3 That is, when used to prepare food in. The word ‏כירים‎ signifies "open ovens" or ranges, and ‏תנור‎ "closed ovens."

100:4 This will be understood by comparing chap. VI. of Treatise Terumoth, or of Heave-offerings.

100:5 Of eating unleavened-bread on the first night of the Passover.

101:6 Original, ‏תמכה‎. According to De Pomis in "Zemach David," it is the cardus marrubium; others consider it to be the green tops of the horseradish.

101:7 A kind of nettle; urtica, according to Landau's Dictionary.

101:8 Or, according to De Pomis, lactuca agrestis, or the wild lettuce.

101:9 This is a mixture of vinegar, almonds, and spice, which the ancients used to dip their food in; flour was sometimes added to thicken it.

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