Eighteen Treatises from the Mishna, by D. A. Sola and M. J. Raphall, , at sacred-texts.com
The word ערוב [erub] signifies commixture; and is used here to express the means through which the extreme rigour of the Rabbinical enactment of שבות [the Sabbath-rest] may in some degree be alleviated; inasmuch, as by these means, places are combined together, which otherwise would be distinct and separate, so that, without erub, it would be unlawful to carry any thing from one of them to another. And the distance which [without erub] it is unlawful to exceed, becomes enlarged: and thus, by this commixture, or combination of places, an extension of immunities or privileges is obtained.
The present Treatise contains regulations for the ערובי חצרות, the combining of courts; also for ערוב תחומין, the combining of limits; and for ערוב מבוי, the combining of streets, also called שתוף, junction. 1 The combining of courts treats of the rules and regulations by the observance of which the various houses standing in one court, each of which houses forms a distinct private reshuth, 2 are combined into one general reshuth. This is done, through all the householders in the court joining together in some article of food, which they
deposit in a certain place; by doing which they are, in law, considered to declare and proclaim the whole of the court, and all the dwellings therein to be one general and common abode for all its inmates; who thereby become entitled to carry and convey from one house to another, within the limits of the court, on the day of rest.
The combining of limits treats of the rules and regulations, by the observance of which the distance which may lawfully be traversed on the day of rest becomes extended. According to the Mishna, no man is allowed to go beyond 2000 paces from the bounds of his domicile on the day of rest. He who intends to go further, must deposit food for two meals in any particular place before the coming in of the day of rest; by doing which, he is, in law, considered to declare that particular place as his domicile, and he may then go 2000 paces beyond it.
The combining of streets, treats of the rules to be observed with respect to narrow streets, which otherwise would be considered as a private reshuth. And also with respect to public places, inclosed on three sides, which otherwise would be considered as carmelith; 3 but which, by means of a cross-beam, or a wire, or a rope, are converted into a private reshuth.
In the practice of these rules the utmost nicety and strictness is required, which it is the object of this Mishna to teach and to enforce.
70:1 There is another commixture called ערוב תבשילין, combining of cookery; for which, vide Treatise Yom-tob.
70:2 Vide Introduction to Treatise Sabbath.
71:3 Vide Introduction to Treatise Sabbath.