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Eighteen Treatises from the Mishna, by D. A. Sola and M. J. Raphall, [1843], at


§ 1. R. Akivah saith, "Whence is it [to be inferred] that carrying an idol maketh unclean, even as menstruation doth? From the text, 'Thou shalt cast them away as a menstruous cloth: thou shalt say unto it [the idol], get thee hence.' 1 Even as the carrying of a menstruous cloth defileth, so does likewise the carrying of an idol."

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§ 2. Whence is it [to be inferred] that a ship is clean? From the text, "The way of a ship in the heart [midst] of the sea." 2 Whence is it [to be inferred] that in a garden-bed, six hands square, five different kinds of seed may be sown; [i.e.] four [kinds] in the four corners of the garden-bed, and the fifth in the middle? 3 From the text, "For as the earth, bringeth forth her bud, and the garden causeth ‏זְרוּעֶיהָ‎, her seeds, to spring forth." 4 The text does not say, ‏זַרְעָהּ‎ [her seed, in the singular, as if of one kind only], but ‏זְרוּעֶיהָ‎, [her seeds of various kinds].

§ 3. Whence is it [to be inferred] that a woman who sheds semen on the third day [after coition] is unclean? From the text, "And be ye ready against the third day." 5 Whence is it [to be inferred] that a circumcised infant is to be bathed [washed] on the third day [after circumcision], even though that falls on the Sabbath? From the text, "And it came to pass on the third day, when they were sore," 6 Whence is it [to be inferred] that a red string is to be tied to the head of the scapegoat? 7 From the text, "Though your sins be as scarlet, they shall become white as snow." 8

§ 4. Whence is it [to be inferred] that anointing is [as unlawful] as drinking on the day of atonement? Although there is no [absolute proof] for this assertion, there is an indication thereof in the text, "Let it come into his bowels like water, and like oil into his bones." 9

§ 5. He [is likewise guilty] who carries out wood sufficient to boil a light egg, spices sufficient to season a light egg; and [different kinds of spice are to be] computed together. Nut-shells, pomegranate peels, isatis [woad], and madder, sufficient to dye a small cap-cloth; urine, alum, ‏בורית‎, and ‏קמוליא‎ and ‏אשלג‎, 10 sufficient to wash a small cap-cloth. R. Jehudah saith, "sufficient to pass over a blood-stain, [by way of experiment to see if it can be taken out]."

§ 6. Pimento the smallest quantity, extract of pitch the smallest quantity; all kinds of spice [perfumes] and of metals [ores] the smallest quantity. Altar stones and altar dust, 11 fragments of rolls of

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the law, and fragments of their wrappers [gnawed to pieces by moths] the smallest quantity; because these things are preserved to be secreted. R. Jehudah saith, also, "whoever carries out the smallest quantity of what has been used for idol-worship; for it is said, 'And there shall cleave nought of the accursed thing to thine hand.'" 12

If a man carry out the box of a dealer in spices [apothecary], although there be various kinds [of spice] therein, he is [only] bound to bring one sin-offering. Garden seeds, [rather] less than the size of a dried fig. R. Jehudah ben Bethera saith, "Five [things there are of which, should a man carry the smallest quantity, he is guilty], cucumber seeds two [grains],pumpkin seeds two [grains],Egyptian bean-seed [two grains], a clean 13 live grasshopper any portion [however small], [if it be] dead the size of a dried fig. A vineyard bird 14 any [the smallest] portion [be it] dead or alive." R. Jehudah saith, "He likewise [is guilty]who carries out any [the smallest] portion of an unclean live grasshopper, because these are preserved for children to play with."


49:1 Isa. xxx. 22.

50:2 Prov. xxx. 19.

50:3 Vide Treatise Kilaim, chap. III. § 1.

50:4 Isa. lxi. 11.

50:5 Exod. xix. 11.

50:6 Genes. xxxiv. 25.

50:7 Lev. xvi. 8, 20–22.

50:8 Isa. i. 18.

50:9 Ps. cxix. 18.

50:10 Commentators do not satisfactorily explain the meaning of these three words. Dr. Jost asserts, that ‏בורית‎ is alkaline salt; that ‏אשלג‎, derived from ‏שלג‎, snow, is a kind of frothy soap; and that ‏קמוליא‎ is the creta-cimolia, of which Pliny states (Hist. Nat. lib. v. 57), that it is used for washing.

50:11 From the Temple at Jerusalem.

51:12 Deut. xiii. 17.

51:13 Such as may be eaten. (Vide Lev. xi. 22).

51:14 It is nowhere explained what particular bird is meant by this designation; probably it is grasshopper. (Vide Choolin, fo. 65).

Next: Chapter X