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Jaina Sutras, Part II (SBE45), tr. by Hermann Jacobi, [1895], at


A sage thinks that he should leave off sins just as (a snake) leaves its slough; and he is not proud of his Gôtra and other advantages; or is there any use in blaming others? (1)

A man who insults another will long whirl in the Circle of Births; to blame others is not good. Considering this a sage is not conceited. (2)

He who is independent, and he who is the servant of a servant, if they but observe the Vow of Silence 2, they have no reason to be ashamed; (therefore a monk) should behave equally towards all. (3)

Indifferent and pure with regard to every kind of control, a Sramana should walk about; he who entertains pure thoughts during his whole life, dies as a worthy and wise man. (4)

The sage who sees the far-off (goal, viz. liberation), past and future things, will practise indifference, though he suffer corporal punishment and be beaten. (5)

Possessing perfect wisdom, a sage always vanquishes (his passions); he correctly expounds the

p. 254

[paragraph continues] Law; he never neglects even the smallest (duty); he is neither angry nor proud. (6)

A man who controls himself according to (the Law), which is praised by many people, and is not bound by any worldly ties, who is always pure like a lake, proclaims the Law of Kâsyapa. (7)

Seeing that numerous living beings lead an individual life, and that every one feels (pleasure and pain) just as the others, a wise man who observes the Vow of Silence, leaves off (injuring them). (8)

A sage has completely mastered the Law, and has ceased to do actions; but the selfish grieve, they will not (thereby) recover their (lost) property 1. (9)

Know that it (viz. property) entails pains in this world, and very great pains 2 in the next. Who will lead a domestic life when he knows that everything must perish? (to)

One should know (and renounce) the great attachment (to the world), and respect and honours on earth; (for conceit) is a very thin thorn difficult to pull out. A wise man, therefore, should abandon worldliness 3. (11)

A monk should perform postures (as Kâyôtsarga, &c.) alone on his seat, and alone on his couch he should meditate; excelling in the performance of austerities, guarded in words, and restrained in thoughts. (12)

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An ascetic does not shut the door of a deserted house (where he puts up), nor does he open it; when asked he returns no (rude) answer; he cuts no grass, nor does he strew it (on the ground for a couch). (13)

Where (he is) at sunset, there he calmly (performs his duties); a sage bears pleasant and unpleasant things, be there insects, or wild beasts, or snakes. (14)

He bears the three kinds of calamities arising from beasts, men, and gods. A great sage will not be seized with a shivering, &c. 1, when he stays in a deserted house. (15)

He should not fear for his life, nor should he desire to be praised (for his courage). Fearful things will frighten the mind of a monk who stays in a deserted house. (16)

They say that he who is very well disciplined, who protects others, who lives in a place removed from other people, who is not frightened by dangers, possesses right conduct, &c. (17)

A monk who uses warm or hot water 2, who follows the Law, and loathes (wrong conduct), will by intercourse with bad kings become deficient in his devotion though he be ever so virtuous. (18)

When a monk quarrels and uses very bad language, he will suffer great spiritual loss; therefore a wise man should not quarrel. (19)

He who abstains from cold water 2, who plans (or undertakes) nothing, and has ceased from even the smallest actions, who does not eat food out of the dish of a householder, possesses right conduct, &c. (20)

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Though life cannot be prolonged, as the saying is 1, still foolish people sin recklessly; a foolish man is filled to the brim (as it were) with sins. Considering this a sage is not conceited. (21)

By self-invented rites common people seek holiness 2, they are full of deceit and shrouded (as it were) in delusion. But a monk is holy 2 through his innocence, he allows no troubles 3 to influence his words, (thoughts, and acts). (22)

As a clever gambler, playing at dice, is not vanquished, since he casts the Krita, but not Kali, nor Trêta, nor Dvâpara; (23)

So adopt for your welfare the best and highest Law which has been proclaimed in this world by the Saviour, as the clever (gambler casts) the Krita, and avoids the other casts. (24)

I have heard that sensual pleasures are said to have the strongest hold on men; but those who abstain from them follow the Law of Kâsyapa. (25)

Those who follow the Law that has been proclaimed by Gñâtrika, the great seer 4, are virtuous and righteous; they confirm each other in the Law. (26)

Take no heed of the seductive (pleasures), endeavour to shake off delusion. Those who are not subdued by the wicked (pleasures), know meditation to be their duty 5. (27)

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A monk should not tell stories, nor ask idle questions, nor gossip 1. But, knowing the highest Law, he should perform his religious duties, and regard nothing his own. (28)

A monk should not indulge deceit 2, greed 3, pride 4, and wrath 5. Those are virtuous who have arrived at the right understanding of these passions, and who have well practised control 6. (29)

(A monk) should be free from attachment, wise, controlling himself, seeking the Law, earnest in the performance of austerities, and subduing his senses. It is difficult to obtain the soul's benefit. (30)

Right conduct, &c., which has been taught by the Gñâtrika, the sage who knew everything in the whole world, has either not been learned or not been truly practised (by creatures now in distress). (31)

Many men who thought this Law to be the highest good and conducive to their spiritual welfare, obeyed their preceptors, ceased from works, and have crossed the great flood (of worldly existence). (32)

Thus I say.


253:2 Maunapada.

254:1 Sîlâṅka quotes a verse which the Nâgârgunîyas insert here; compare part i, p. 32, note 2.

254:2 I take duhamduha for a kind of intensive form of duha.

254:3 This is a rather dark verse. Sîlâṅka, after explaining it, quotes the verse as it was read by the Nâgârgunîyas, which may be rendered thus: Respect and honours are a great obstacle, this he should know; be the thorn small (or) difficult to pull out, a wise man should remove it by the (means we are about to describe).

255:1 Literally, horripilation. By the '&c.' the other outward signs of horror are indicated.

255:2 It should be kept in mind that Gaina monks are forbidden to use cold water, because it is considered to possess life.

256:1 Compare Uttarâdhyayana IV, I, above p. 18. The same words recur below, I, 2, 3, 30, p. 259.

256:2 Palêti = pralîyatê.

256:3 Literally, cold and heat.

256:4 Mahâvîra.

256:5 Âhitam, literally, has been declared. The commentators explain the word as â-hitam, thoroughly good, or âtmani vyavasthitam, placed in the soul.

257:1 Samprasâraka?

257:2 Khanna = mâyâ.

257:3 Pasamsa = prasamsâ, lôbha.

257:4 Ukkâsa = utkarsha, mâna.

257:5 Pagâsa = prakâsa, krôdha.

257:6 Dhuya = dhûta. The word preceding this is sugôsiyam = gushtam, sêvitam. A various reading is sughôsiyam, which means 'who have well annihilated their Karman (dhûta).'

Next: Book 1, Lecture 2, Chapter 3