Jaina Sutras, Part II (SBE45), tr. by Hermann Jacobi, , at sacred-texts.com
Now learn from me with attentive minds the division of Living Beings and Things without life 3, which a monk must know who is to exert himself in self-control. (1)
The Living Beings and the Things without life make up this world (Lôka); but the space where only Things without life are found is called the Non-world (Alôka). (2)
The Living Beings and the Things without life will be described with reference to 1. substance, 2. place, 3. time, and 4. development. (3)
A. Things without life.
Things without life are 1. possessing form, 2. formless; the formless things are of ten kinds, those possessing form are of four kinds. (4)
(1) The ten kinds of formless things: 1. Dharma, 2. its divisions, 3. its indivisible parts; 4. Adharma, 5. its divisions, 6. its indivisible parts; 7. space,
[paragraph continues] 8. its divisions, 9. its indivisible parts, and 10. time 1. (5, 6)
Dharma and Adharma are co-extensive with the World (Lôka); space fills the World and the Non-world (Alôka); time exists in what is called the place of time 2. (7)
Dharma, Adharma, and Space are ever without beginning and end. (8)
And time also, if regarded as a continuous flow 3, is called so (i.e. without beginning and end); but with regard to an individual thing it has a beginning and an end. (9)
(2) The four kinds of things possessing form are 1. compound things, 2. their divisions, 3. their indivisible parts, and 4. atoms 4. (10)
Compound things and atoms occur as individual things and apart (or different from others) 5, in the whole world and in parts of the world; this is their distribution with regard to place. (11)
Subtile things occur all over the world, gross things only in a part of it.
I shall now give their fourfold division with regard to time. (12)
With regard to the continuous flow (or development of a thing) it is without beginning and without end; but with regard to its existence (as an individual thing) it has both a beginning and an end 1. (13)
The longest duration of Things without life possessing form is an immeasurable 2 period; the shortest one Samaya. (14)
The longest interruption 3 in the existence of Things without life possessing form is an endless time; the shortest one Samaya. (15)
Their development is fivefold: with regard to 1. colour, 2. smell, 3. taste, 4. touch, and 5. figure. (16)
Those which develop with regard to colour are of five kinds: 1. black, 2. blue, 3. red, 4. yellow, 5. white. (17)
Those which develop with regard to smell are of two kinds: 1. sweet-smelling substances, and 2. of bad smell. (18)
Those which develop with regard to taste are of five kinds: 1. bitter, 2. pungent, 3. astringent, 4. sour, and 5. sweet. (19)
Those which develop with regard to touch are of eight kinds: 1. hard, 2. soft, 3. heavy, 4. light, 5. cold, 6. hot, 7. smooth, and 8. rough.
In this way the substances have been declared, which develop with regard to touch. (20, 21)
Those which develop with regard to figure are of five kinds: 1. globular, 2. circular, 3. triangular, 4. square, and 5. long. (22)
Things of black colour are subdivided with regard to smell, taste, touch, and figure. (23)
The same subdivision holds good with blue, red, yellow, and white things. (24-27 1)
Things of sweet smell are subdivided with regard to colour, taste, touch, and figure; things of bad smell are similarly subdivided. (28, 29)
Things of bitter taste are subdivided with regard to colour, smell, touch, and figure. (30)
The same subdivision holds good with pungent, astringent, sour, and sweet things. (31-34)
Things of hard touch are subdivided with regard to colour, smell, taste, and figure. (35)
The same subdivision holds good with soft, heavy, light, cold, hot, smooth, and rough things. (36-42)
Things of globular figure are subdivided with regard to colour, smell, taste, and touch. (43)
The same subdivision holds good with circular, triangular, square, and long things. (44-47)
Thus the division of Things without life has briefly been told.
B. Living Beings.
I shall now, in due order, deliver the division of living beings. (48)
Living beings are of two kinds: 1. those still
belonging to the Samsâra, and 2. the perfected souls (siddhas). The latter are of many kinds; hear me explain them. (49)
(1) The perfected souls are those of women, men, hermaphrodites, of orthodox, heterodox, and householders. (50)
Perfection is reached by people of the greatest, smallest, and middle size 1, on high places, underground, on the surface of the earth, in the ocean, and in water (of rivers, &c.). (51)
Ten hermaphrodites reach, at the same time, perfection, twenty women, one hundred and eight men; four householders, ten heterodox, and one hundred and eight orthodox monks. (52, 53)
Two individuals of the greatest size reach perfection (simultaneously), four of the smallest size, and one hundred and eight of the middle size. (54)
Four individuals reach perfection (simultaneously) on high places, two in the ocean, three in water, twenty underground, and one hundred and eight on the surface of the earth. (55)
From where are the perfected souls debarred? Where do the perfected souls reside? Where do they leave their bodies, and where do they go, on reaching perfection? (56)
Perfected souls are debarred from the non-world (Alôka); they reside on the top of the world; they leave their bodies here (below), and go there, on reaching perfection. (57)
Twelve Yôganas above the (Vimâna) Sarvârtha is
the place called Îshatprâgbhâra 1, which has the form of an umbrella; (there the perfected souls go). (58)
It is forty-five hundred thousand Yôganas long, and as many broad, and it is somewhat more than three times as many in circumference. (59)
Its thickness is eight Yôganas, it is greatest in the middle, and decreases 2 toward the margin, till it is thinner than the wing of a fly. (60)
This place, by nature pure, consisting of white gold, resembles in form an open umbrella, as has been said by the best of Ginas. (61)
(Above it) is a pure blessed place (called Sîtâ), which is white like a conch-shell, the aṅka-stone 3, and Kunda-flowers; a Yôgana thence is the end of the world. (62)
The perfected souls penetrate the sixth part 4 of the uppermost Krôsa of the (above-mentioned) Yôgana. (63)
There at the top of the world reside the blessed perfected souls, rid of all transmigration, and arrived at the excellent state of perfection. (64)
The dimension of a perfected soul is two-thirds of the height which the individual had in his last existence. (65)
The perfected souls, considered singly, (as individuals) have a beginning but no end; considered
collectively 1 (as a class) they have neither a beginning nor an end. (66)
They have no (visible) form, they consist of Life throughout, they are developed into knowledge and, faith, and they possess paramount happiness which admits of no comparison. (67)
They all dwell in one part of the world, and have developed into knowledge and faith, they have crossed the boundary of the Samsâra, and reached the excellent state of perfection. (68)
(2) Living beings which still belong to the Samsâra, are of two kinds: a. movable, and b. immovable ones: the immovable ones are of three kinds: (69)
α. Earth Lives, β. Water Lives, and γ. plants; these are the three kinds of immovable living beings; now learn from me their subdivision. (70)
α. The Earth Lives are of two kinds: subtile and gross; and both of them are either fully developed or undeveloped. (71)
The gross and fully developed are of two kinds: viz. smooth or rough. The smooth ones are of seven kinds: (72)
Black, blue, red, yellow, white, pale dust, and clay.
The rough ones are of thirty-six kinds: (73)
Earth, gravel, sand, stones, rocks, rock-salt 2, iron, copper, tin, lead, silver, gold, and diamond; (74)
Orpiment, vermilion, realgar, Sâsaka 3, antimony,
coral, Abhrapatala, Abhravâluka; these are varieties of gross (Earth-) bodies and kinds of precious stones. (75)
Hyacinth, natron, Aṅka, crystal, Lôhitâksha, emerald, Masâragalla, Bhugamôkaka, and sapphire; (76)
Kandana, red chalk, Hamsagarbha, Pulaka 1, and sulphur; Kandraprabha, lapis lazuli, Galakânta, and Sûryakânta 2. (77)
These thirty-six kinds of 'rough earth' have been enumerated. The 'subtile earth' is but of one kind, as there is no variety. (78)
The subtile species is distributed all over the world, but the gross one (is found) in a part of the world only.
I shall now give their fourfold division with regard to time. (79)
With regard to the continuous flow (or development of an earth-body) it is without a beginning and end; but with regard to its existence in its present form it has both a beginning and end. (80)
Twenty-two thousand years is the longest duration of the Earth Lives; its shortest is less than a muhûrta. (81)
The longest duration of the body of Earth Lives, if they do not leave that (kind of) body 3, is an
immeasurable time; the shortest is less than one muhûrta. (82)
The longest interval between an Earth Life's leaving its body (till its return to it), is an endless time; the shortest less than one Muhûrta. (83)
Their varieties, caused by (difference of) colour, smell, taste, touch, figure, and place, are (counted) by thousands. (84)
β. The Water Lives are of two kinds: subtile and gross ones; and both of them are either fully developed or undeveloped. (85)
The gross and fully developed ones are of five kinds: pure water, dew, exudations, fog, and ice. (86)
The 'subtile water' is of one kind, as there is no variety. The subtile species is distributed all over the world, but the gross one (is found) in a part of the world only. (87)
With regard to the continuous flow, &c. (as in verse 80).
Seven thousand years is the longest duration of the life of Water Lives, &c. (as in verse 81). (All that has been said of Earth Lives in verses 82-84 is verbally repeated here of 'Water Lives.') (88-92)
γ. Plants are of two kinds: subtile and gross ones; and both of them are either fully developed or undeveloped. (93)
The gross and fully developed plants are of two kinds: either many have one body in common, or each has its own body. (94)
Those who severally have their own body are of
many kinds: trees, shrubby plants 1, shrubs 2, big plants 3, creeping plants 4, grass 5; (95)
Palms 6, plants of knotty stems or stalks 7, mushrooms 8, water-plants, annual plants 9, and herbs 10. These are called plants possessing severally their own body. (96)
Those plants of which many have one body in common are of many kinds 11: Âluya 12, Mûlaya 13, ginger; (97)
Harilî, Sirilî, Sassirilî, Gâvaî, Kêyakandalî 14, onion, garlic, plantain-tree, Kuduvvaya 15; (98)
Lôhinîhûya, Thîhûya, Tuhaga, Kanha 1, Vaggakanda 2, Sûranaya 3; (99)
Assakannî 4, Sîhakannî, Musundhî, turmeric, and many others besides. (100)
The subtile plants are of one kind, as there is no variety. Subtile plants are distributed all over the world, gross plants (are found) in a . part of the world only. (101)
With regard to the continuous flow, &c. (as in verse 80). (102)
Ten thousand years is the longest duration of the life of plants, &c. (All as in verses 81-84. Substitute plants, which are here called vanaspati and panaka, for Earth-bodies.) (103-106)
Thus the three kinds of immovable living beings have briefly been told. I shall now explain in due order the three kinds of movable living beings. (107)
b. The movable beings are α. the Fire Lives, α. the Wind Lives, and γ. those with an organic body; these are the three kinds of movable beings. Learn from me their subdivision. (108)
α. The Fire Lives are of two kinds: subtile and gross ones; and both of them are either fully developed or undeveloped. (109)
The gross and fully developed ones are of many kinds: coal, burning chaff, fire, and flame of fire; (110)
Meteors, and lightning, and many other kinds besides.
The subtile Fire Lives are but of one kind, as there is no variety. (111)
The subtile species, &c. (see verses 79-84. Substitute Fire Lives for Earth Lives. In verses 114 f., corresponding to verses 81, 89, and 103, read: 'the longest duration of the life of Fire Lives is three days,' &c.; the rest as above). (112-117)
β. The Wind Lives are of two kinds, &c. (as in verse 109). (118)
The gross and fully developed ones are of five kinds: squalls 1, whirlwinds 2, thick winds 3, high winds, low winds; (119)
And the Samvartaka 4 wind, &c.; thus they are of many kinds 5.
The subtile Wind Lives are but of one kind, as there is no variety. (120)
The subtile species, &c. (as above 79-84. Substitute Wind Lives for Earth Lives. In verse 123, corresponding to 114, read: 'the longest duration of the life of Wind Lives is three thousand years;' the rest as above). (121-126)
γ. Movable beings with organic bodies (i.e. animals) are of four kinds: i. those possessing two organs of sense, ii. those with three organs, iii. those with four organs, iv. those with five organs. (127)
i. Beings with two organs of sense are of two kinds: subtile and gross ones. Both are either fully developed or undeveloped. Learn from me their subdivision 1. (128)
Worms, Sômaṅgala, Alasa 2, Mâivâhaya 3, Vâsîmuha 4, shells, conches, Saṅkhânaga 5; (i 29)
Pallôya, Anullaya, cowries, leeches, Gâlaga, and Kandana 6. (130)
These and others are the many kinds of beings with two organs of sense. All of them live in a part of the world only, they do not live everywhere. (131)
With regard to the continuous flow, &c. (as in verse 80). (132)
The duration of the life of beings with two organs of sense is twelve years at the utmost; the shortest is less than a muhûrta. (133)
The longest duration of the body of beings with two organs of sense is a Samkhyêya (or measurable time) if they do not leave that (kind of) body; the shortest is less than one muhûrta. (134)
135, 136 = 83, 84. Substitute 'beings with two organs of sense' for Earth Lives.
ii. Beings with three organs of sense are of two kinds: subtile and gross ones. Both are either fully developed or undeveloped. Learn from me their subdivision. (137)
Kunthu 1, ants, bugs, Ukkala, white ants, Tanahâra, Katthahâra, Mâlûga 2, Pattahâraga; (138)
Duga shining like lead, which originate in the kernel of the cotton-seed, Sadâvarî, centipedes, Indagâiya; (139)
Cochineal, &c. Thus they are of many kinds. All of them live in a part of the world only, they do not live everywhere. (140)
141-145 = 132-136. (Substitute 'beings with three organs of sense.' The longest duration, &c., is forty-nine days, verse 142 = 133.)
iii. Beings with four organs of sense are of two kinds: subtile and gross ones. Both are either
developed or undeveloped. Learn from me their subdivision. (146)
Andhiya, Pottiyâ, flies, mosquitoes, bees, moths, Dhiṅkana and Kaṅkana; (147)
Kukkuda 1, Siṅgirîdî, Nandâvatta 2, scorpions, Dôla, crickets, Viralî, Akkhivêhaya; (148)
Akkhila, Sâhaya Akkhirôdaya, Vikitta, Vikittapattaya 3, Uhilmgaliyâ, Galakârî, Nîyâ, and Tantavagâiyâ. (149)
These and others are the beings with four organs of sense. All of them, &c. (the rest as in verses 131-136. Substitute 'beings with four organs of sense.' The longest duration, &c., is six months, verse 152 = 133). (150-155)
iv. Beings with five organs of sense are of four kinds: denizens of hell, animals 4, men, and gods. (156).
a. Denizens of hell are of seven kinds according to the seven hells; they are called Ratnâbha, Sarkarâbha, Vâlukâbha; (157)
Paṅkâbha, Dhûmâbha, Tamâ, and Tamatamâ. Thus the seven kinds of denizens of hell have been enumerated. (158)
All the (denizens of hell) live in a part of the
world only; they do not live everywhere, &c. (as in verses 79 and 80). (159, 160)
In the first hell the longest duration of their life is one Sâgarôpamâ; the shortest is ten thousand years. (161)
In the second hell the longest duration of their life is three Sâgarôpamâs; the shortest is one Sâgarôpamâ 1. (162)
In the third hell the longest duration of their life is seven Sâgarôpamâs; the shortest is three Sâgarôpamâs. (163)
In the fourth hell the longest duration of their life is ten Sâgarôpamâs; the shortest is seven Sâgarôpamâs. (164)
In the fifth hell the longest duration of their life is seventeen Sâgarôpamâs; the shortest is ten Sâgarôpamâs. (165)
In the sixth hell the longest duration of their life is twenty-two Sâgarôpamâs; the shortest is seventeen Sâgarôpamâs. (166)
In the seventh hell the longest duration of their life is thirty-three Sâgarôpamâs; the shortest is twenty-two Sâgarôpamâs. (167)
The length of the life of denizens of hell is also that of their continuance in the same kind of body, with regard both to the longest and shortest duration of it. (168)
Verses 169, 170 = 83, 84. (Substitute, denizens of hell.)
b. The animals which possess five organs of sense are of two kinds, those which originate by generatio
aequivoca 1, and those which are born from the womb. (171)
Either of them are again of three kinds: 1. aquatic, 2. terrestrial, and 3. aerial animals. Learn from me their subdivision. (172)
1. Fishes, tortoises, crocodiles, Makaras, and Gangetic porpoises are the five kinds of aquatic animals. (173)
174, 175 = 159, 160.
The longest duration of the life of aquatic animals is one Krore of former years 2; the shortest is less than one muhûrta. (176)
The longest duration of the aquatic animals’ continuance in the (same kind of body) is from two to nine 3 Krores of former years. (177)
178 = 83.
2. Quadrupeds and reptiles are the two kinds of terrestrial animals. The quadrupeds are of four kinds; listen to my description of them: (179)
(1) Solidungular animals, as horses, &c.;
(2) Biungular animals, as cows, &c.;
(3) Multiungular animals, as elephants, &c.;
(4) Animals having toes with nails, as lions, &c. (180)
The reptiles are of two kinds: 1. those which walk on their arms, as lizards, &c., and 2. those which move on their breast, as snakes, &c. Both are again of many kinds. (181)
182, 183 = 159, 160.
The longest duration of the life of terrestrial animals is three Palyôpamâs; the shortest is less than one muhûrta. (184)
The longest duration of the terrestrial animals’ continuance in the (same kind of) body is three Palyôpamâs plus from two to nine Krores of former years; the shortest is less than one muhûrta. (185)
186 = 83.
3. Winged animals are of four kinds: those with membranous wings 1, those with feathered wings, those with wings in the shape of a box 2, and those (which sit on) outspread wings 3. (187)
188, 189 = 159, 160.
The longest duration of the life of aerial animals is an Asamkhyêya-part of a Palyôpamâ 4; the shortest is less than one muhûrta. (190)
The longest duration (of the aerial animals’ continuance in the same kind of body) is an Asamkhyêya-part of a Palyôpamâ plus from two to nine Krores of former years; the shortest is less than one muhûrta. (191)
192, 193 = 159, 160.
c. Men are of two kinds; listen to my description of them: men originating by generatio aequivoca 5, and men born from the womb. (194)
Those who are born from the womb are of three
kinds: those living in the Karmabhûmi 1, those living in the Akarmabhûmi, and those living on the minor continents 2. (195)
They have, in the same order, fifteen 3, thirty 4, and twenty-eight subdivisions. These are the numbers handed down. (196)
Men originating by generatio aequivoca are of as many kinds. They all live but in a part of the world. (197)
Verses 198-202 = 183-186. (Substitute, 'men' for 'terrestrial animals.')
d. Gods are of four kinds; listen to my description of them: 1. Bhaumêyikas; 2. Vyantaras; 3. Gyôtishkas; 4. Vaimânikas. (203)
There are ten kinds of Bhavanavâsins ( = Bhaumêyikas), eight of those who live in woods ( = Vyantaras), five of Gyôtishkas, and two of Vaimânikas. (204)
1. The Bhavanavâsins are: the Asura-, Nâga-, Suvarna-, Vidyut-, Agni-, Dvîpa-, Udadhi-, Vâta-, and Ghanika-(Kumâras 5). (2(15)
2. The eight kinds of Vyantaras are: Pisâkas,
[paragraph continues] Bhûtas, Yakshas, Râkshasas, Kinnaras, Kimpurushas, Mahôragas, and Gandharvas. (206)
3. The moons, the suns, the Nakshatras, the planets, and the hosts of stars are the fivefold dwellings of the Gyôtishkas. (207)
4. The Vaimânika gods are of two kinds: a´. those who are born in the heavenly Kalpas, and b´. those who are born in the regions above them 1. (208)
a´. The former are of twelve kinds: those who live in (the following Kalpas, after which they are named): Saudharma, Îsâna, Sanatkumâra, Mâhêndra, Brahmalôka, and Lantaka; (209)
Mahâsukla, Sahasrâra, Ânata, Prânata 2, Ârana, and Akyuta. These are the gods who are born in Kalpas. (210)
b´. The gods who are born in the regions above the Kalpas are of two kinds: α´. the Graivêyakas 3, and β´. the Anuttaras 4. The Graivêyakas are of nine kinds. (211)
α´. The lowest of the lowest, the middle of the lowest, the highest of the lowest, the lowest of the middle; (212)
The middle of the middle, the highest of the middle, the lowest of the highest, the middle of the highest; (213)
The highest of the highest. These are the Graivêyaka gods.
β´. The Vigayas, the Vaigayantas, the Gayantas, the Aparâgitas (214)
And the Sarvârthasiddhas: these are the five kinds of Anuttara gods.
These and others besides are the many kinds of Vaimânika gods. (215-217 = 159-160)
The longest duration of the life of the Bhaumêyika gods is somewhat more than a Sâgarôpamâ, the smallest ten thousand years. (218)
The longest duration of the life of the Vyantaras is one Palyôpamâ, the shortest is ten thousand years. (219)
The longest duration of the life of the Gyôtishkas is one Palyôpamâ plus one hundred thousand years, the shortest is the eighth part of a Palyôpamâ. (220)
The longest duration of life in the Saudharmakalpa is two Sâgarôpamâs, the shortest is one Palyôpamâ. (221)
(In the same way (a) the longest, and (b) the shortest duration of life in the remaining Kalpas and heavenly regions is given in the original. I give in the sequel the substance only of each verse.)
In Îsâna Kalpa (a) is somewhat more than a Sâgarôpamâ, (b) somewhat more than a Palyôpamâ. (222)
In Sanatkumâra Kalpa (a) is seven, (b) two Sâgarôpamâs. (223)
In Mâhêndra Kalpa (a) is somewhat more than seven Sâgarôpamâs, (b) somewhat more than two. (224)
In Brahmalôka Kalpa (a) is ten Sâgarôpamâs, (b) seven. (225)
In Lantaka Kalpa (a) is fourteen Sâgarôpamâs, (b) ten. (226)
In Mahâsukla Kalpa(a) is seventeen Sâgarôpamâs, (b) fourteen 1. (227)
In Sahasrâra Kalpa (a) is eighteen Sâgarôpamâs, (b) seventeen. (228)
In Ânata Kalpa (a) is nineteen Sâgarôpamâs, (b) eighteen. (229)
In Prânata Kalpa (a) is twenty Sâgarôpamâs, (b) nineteen. (230)
In Ârana Kalpa (a) is twenty-one Sâgarôpamâs, (b) twenty. (231)
In Akyuta Kalpa (a) is twenty-two Sâgarôpamâs, (b) twenty-one. (232)
In the first (Graivêyika region) (a) is twenty-three Sâgarôpamâs, (b) twenty-two. (233)
In the second (Graivêyika region) (a) is twenty-four Sâgarôpamâs, (b) twenty-three. (234)
In the third (Graivêyika region) (a) is twenty-five Sâgarôpamâs, (b) twenty-four. (235)
In the fourth (Graivêyika region) (a) is twenty-six Sâgarôpamâs, (b) twenty-five. (236)
In the fifth (Graivêyika region) (a) is twenty-seven Sâgarôpamâs, (b) twenty-six. (237)
In the sixth (Graivêyika region) (a) is twenty-eight Sâgarôpamâs, (b) twenty-seven. (238)
In the seventh (Graivêyika region) (a) is twenty-nine Sâgarôpamâs, (b) twenty-eight. (239)
In the eighth (Graivêyika region) (a) is thirty Sâgarôpamâs, (b) twenty-nine. (240)
In the ninth (Graivêyika region) (a) is thirty-one Sâgarôpamâs, (b) thirty. (241)
In the four heavens (of the Anuttara gods), beginning
with Vigaya 1, (a) is thirty-three Sâgarôpamâs, (b) thirty-one. (242)
In the great Vimâna Sarvârtha(siddha) there is no difference between the longest and shortest duration of life, but it is always thirty-three Sâgarôpamâs. (243)
The longest and shortest duration of the gods' (continuance in the same kind of) body is equal to that which has been given for their life. (244, 245 2, 246 = 159, 160)
We have described the Living Beings, the worldly and the perfected ones, and we have described the Lifeless Things, those possessing form and those without form. (247)
Having thus learned (the nature of) living beings and lifeless things which is in accordance with the principles of reasoning 3, and believing in it, a sage should delight in self-control. (248)
After having lived as a Sramana many years, a sage should mortify himself 4 by the following religious exercises. (249)
The longest duration of the mortification is twelve years; the middle, one year; and the shortest, six months. (250)
In the first four years he should abstain from dressed food 1, in the second four years he should keep various fasts. (251)
During two years he should eat Âkâmla 2 at the end of every second fast; in the following half year he should keep not too long fasts. (252)
In the second half of the year he should keep long fasts. During the whole year he should eat but small portions of Âkâmla 2. (253)
During the (last) year a sage should make the ends of two consecutive fasts meet 3, and should break his fast after half a month or a whole month, (till he dies). (254)
The following (Bhâvanâs), Kandarpa-, Abhiyôgika-, Kilvisha-, Môha-, and Asuratva-(Bhâvanâs 4), will lead to evil ways (i.e. bad births); they are obnoxious at the time of death. (255)
Those souls who cherish heretical opinions, commit sins, and kill living beings, will not reach Bôdhi at the time of death. (256)
Those souls who cherish orthodox opinions, do not commit sins, and are enveloped in white Lêsyâ, will reach Bôdhi at the time of death. (257)
Those souls who cherish heretical opinions, commit sins, and are enveloped in black Lêsyâ, will not reach Bôdhi at the time of death. (258)
Those who love the creed of the Ginas and piously practise it, will be pure and free from the soil (of passions), and will (in due time) get out of the Circle of Births. (259)
The miserable men who do not know the creed of the Ginas, will many times commit unholy suicide and die against their will. (260)
Those who are well versed in the sacred lore and possess much knowledge, who awaken piety (in others) and appreciate their good qualities, are for this very reason worthy to hear the doctrine of salvation 1. (261)
He who by ribaldry and buffoonery, by his comical habits and appearance, by jests and words amuses other people, realises the Kandarpa-Bhâvanâ. (262)
Those who practise spells and besmear their body with ashes for the sake of pleasure, amusement, or power, realise the Abhiyôgika-Bhâvanâ 2. (263)
The deceitful man who reviles the sacred lore, the Kêvalins, the teacher of the Law, the Satigha, and the monks, realises the Kilvishika-Bhâvanâ. (264)
He who is continuously angry, and who puts his faith in prognostics, realises the Asuratva-Bhâvanâ. (265)
Those who use weapons, eat poison, throw themselves
into fire or water, and use things not prescribed by the rules of good conduct, are liable to be born and to die again and again. (Such persons realise the Môha-Bhâvanâ.) (266)
The enlightened and liberated Gñâtri(putra) has thus delivered Thirty-six Lectures of the Uttarâdhyayana 1, which the pious 2 approve of. (267)
206:2 It will perhaps not be amiss to give a systematic list of the subjects treated in this lecture. The numbers refer to the verses.
A. Things without life, 3-48.
(1) Without form, 5-9.
(2) With form, 10-48.
B. Living Beings, 48-246.
(1) Perfected souls, 50-68.
(2) Mundane Beings, 69-246.
a. Immovable Beings, 71-106.
α. Earth Lives, 71-84.
β. Water Lives, 85-92.
γ. Plants, 93-106.
b. Movable Beings, 108-246.
α. Fire Lives, 109-117.
β. Wind Lives, 118-126.
γ. Beings with an organic body, 127-246. p. 207
i. With two organs of sense, 128-136.
ii. With three organs of sense, 137-145.
iii. With four organs of sense, 146-155.
iv. With five organs of sense, 156-246.
a. Denizens of hell, 157-170.
b. Animals (vertebratae), 171-193.
1. Aquatic, 171-178.
2. Terrestrial, 179-186.
3. Aerial, 187-193.
c. Men, 194-202.
d. Gods, 203-246.
1. Bhavanavâsin, 205, 218.
2. Vyantara, 206, 219.
3. Gyôtishka, 207, 220.
4. Vaimânika, 208, 221-246.
a´. Living in Kalpas, 209, 210, 221-232.
b´. Living above the Kalpas, 255.
α´. Graivêyakas, 212, 213, 233-241.
β´. Anuttaras, 214-217, 242, 243.
206:3 Gîva and agîva. The former is defined in the Dîpikâ as upayôgavân in accordance with our text, XXVIII, 10; the latter is also called pudgala.
208:1 It is here called addhâ-samaya, which may be translated real-time. It has no divisions or parts as the other things, because of time only the present moment is existent. And a moment cannot be divided.
208:2 Time is only present in the two and a half continents inhabited by men, and the oceans belonging to them; beyond this sphere there is no time or, as the Dîpikâ correctly remarks, no divisions of time.
208:3 Samtatim pappa = samtatim prâpya.
208:4 According to the Dîpikâ, we should have but two divisions, viz.: 1. compound things (skandha, aggregates of atoms), and 2. not aggregated atoms; for Nos. 2 and 3 of our text are but subdivisions of No. 1.
208:5 Êgattêna puhuttêna = katvêna prithaktvêna.
209:1 The meaning of this verse is that a thing, as far as its material cause is concerned, has always existed, and will ever exist under one form or other, but that the individual thing in its present form has but a limited existence.
209:2 Asamkhakâlam. See above, p. 42, note 2.
209:3 Antaram; the interval between the thing being removed from its proper scene and reaching it again (Avakûri and Dîpikâ).
210:1 Each verse has the same form as 23, only that another colour is substituted for black. In the same way the subdivisions of smells, &c., are given. I give the first verse of each class and abbreviate the rest.
211:1 The greatest size (ôgâhanâ) of men is 500 dhanus, or 2,000 cubits, the smallest one cubit.
212:1 Similar details are given in the Aupapâtika Sûtra (ed. Leumann, § 163 f.).
212:2 According to the commentator, who quotes scripture, it decreases an aṅgula every Yôgana.
212:3 Compare XXXIV, 9 and note. The commentators here treat aṅka as a separate substance without offering any explanation. The Dîpikâ writes sîtâ instead of sîtâ.
212:4 Or 333⅓ dhanus.
213:1 The words translated, 'considered singly' and 'considered collectively,' are êgattêna and puhuttêna = êkatvêna and prithaktvêna. Their usual meaning has been given in verse 11.
213:3 Not in our dictionaries; the commentators only say that it is a kind of mineral, dhâtuvisêsha. I give the Sanskrit names of p. 214 the stones, which cannot be identified with certainty, or are not contained in the index of R. Garbe's work on the Indian minerals, Leipzig, 1882.
214:1 A medicinal earth, commonly called Kaṅkushtha.
214:2 The enumeration contains thirty-nine, instead of thirty-six items, as stated in verses 73 and 76.
214:3 The meaning seems to be that souls of earth-bodies live in p. 215 earth-bodies, the time stated in verse 82, while the length of each separate existence is determined in verse 81.
216:1 Gukkha; it is explained to denote such plants from the single root or bulb of which come forth many stalks, e.g. Vrintâka, Solanum Melongena.
216:2 Gulma, similar to the preceding class, but bringing forth twigs or stems, instead of stalks, e.g. Navamâlikâ, Jasminum Sambac, Kanavîra, &c.
216:3 Latâ, as Lotus, Pandanus, &c.
216:4 Vallî, as gourds, Piper Betel, &c.
216:5 Trina, grass. But of the two examples given in the commentary, guñguka is not in our dictionaries, and Arguna denotes usually a tree, Terminalia Arjuna.
216:6 Valaya; so called from their foliation.
216:7 Parvaga, as sugar-cane.
216:8 Kuhana, plants which cause the earth to burst, as sarpakkhatra, mushroom (toad-stool).
216:9 Ôshadhi, such plants as die after having brought forth seed, as rice, &c.
216:10 Haritakâya, as tandulêya, &c.
216:11 The plants in the following list are, according to the commentary, mostly bulbs, 'well known in the countries where they grow.' Many of them are not in our dictionaries. I give the Prâkrit form of their names, and note the Sanskrit equivalent when it can be identified.
216:12 Âluka, Amorphophallus Campanulatus.
216:13 Mûlaka, radish.
216:14 A various reading has for the last two words (which might be differently divided), â paikkêikandalî. The Kandalî, the plantain-tree, occurs in the next line again.
216:15 A various reading is Kudambaya.
217:1 Krishnakanda, Nymphaea Rubra.
217:2 Vagrakanda of the Sanskrit Koshas.
217:3 Sûrana, Arum Campanulatum.
217:4 Asvakarnâ. Asvakarna is a tree, Vatika Robusta.
218:1 Utkalikâ, intermittent winds.
218:2 Mandalikâ = vâtôlî.
218:3 According to the comm. these winds blow on the oceans which are situated below the Ratnaprabhâ-hell, or which support the heavenly Vimânas, and have the density of snow. Perhaps the notion is similar to that of the Hindu astronomers, who fancied that the heavenly bodies were set in motion by cords of wind called pravaha. See Sûrya Siddhânta II, 3.
218:4 This seems to be the hurricane which causes the periodical destruction of the world. But Dêvêndra says: Samvartaka is a wind which carries grass, &c., from the outside into a particular place.'
218:5 Though in the preceding verse it was said that there are five kinds of wind, six are enumerated, and more are implied by the '&c:
219:1 As many of these lower animals are not known to us, I give the Prâkrit names of those which I cannot identify. Dêvêndra says: 'Some of them are well known, the remaining ones are to be explained according to tradition.' The explanation of this passage in the Avakûri is fuller.
219:2 A small poisonous animal. Petersburg Dictionary, s. v. According to the Gîvavikâra Vritti V, 16, they are earth-snakes (bhûnâga), which originate in the rainy season when the sun is in Asleshâ, i.e. about the beginning of July.
219:3 Mâtrivâhaka. According to the description of the Avakûri, the larvae of Phryganeae seem intended. According to the Gîvavikâra Vritti, they are called kûdêlî in Guzeratî.
219:4 Vâsîmukha, explained: Whose mouth is like a chisel or adze. There are many insects, e.g. the Curculionidae, which suit this description.
219:5 Saṅkhânaka, very small, conch-like animals.'
219:6 Kandana = Akâvriksha (?). According to the Gîvavikâra Vritti V, 16, they are animals living in water and on land, and are called Aksha in the vernacular (samayabhâshâ).
220:1 Kunthu or animalcules are also called Anuddharî, see concerning them, Kalpa Sûtra, Rules for Yatis, § 44, part i, p. 304.--I give in the text the Prâkrit form of the words I cannot identify.
220:2 Mâlûka is the name of a plant, Ocimum Sanctum. It must, of course, here denote some animal.--The Gîvavikâra enumerates many other animals, lice, bugs, different kinds of larvae living in dung, corn, &c.--The trinahâra, kâshthahâra, and patrahâra seem to denote different kinds of ants.
221:1 Kukkuta is given in the dictionaries as the name of a small lizard.
221:2 Nandyâvarta occurs elsewhere as the name of a particular fish, and of a shell. It can be neither of these in our passage, as both animals belong to other classes than the Katurindriyas.
221:3 Etymologically: with many-coloured wings. Probably butterflies are intended.
221:4 Tirikkha = tiryak. Apparently only the higher animals are intended by this term, the lower animals, from the insects downwards, being enumerated in the preceding classes of beings.
222:1 It will be seen that the longest duration of life in each hell is always equal to the shortest in the preceding one.
223:1 Sammûrkhima. They grow by assimilating the materials in their surrounding. According to a second explanation, their internal organ does not fully develop.
223:2 See page 16, note 1.
223:3 This is, according to the Avakûri, the meaning of puhuttam prithaktvam.
224:1 E.g. the karmakatakas or bats.
224:2 Samudga. These interesting birds are said to live outside the Mânushôttara, or world inhabited by men.
224:3 The comm. do not tell us what kind of birds is intended.
224:4 The comm. do not explain this expression; the meaning, therefore, is doubtful. I give a literal translation of it in this and the next. verse.
224:5 See page 223, note 1, on verse 171.
225:1 Concerning Karmabhûmi, see part i, p.195, note 1. The Avakûri places the Akarmabhûmi first, but the next verse proves that it originally stood in the second place.
225:2 These are seven groups of islands situated off the eastern and western ends of the Himâlaya, which are inhabited by fabulous races.
225:3 According to the Avakûri, there are five kinds in Bharata, five in Airâvata, and five in Vidêha.
225:4 Viz. five in each of the six Akarmabhûmis: Haimavata, Harivarsha, Hairanyavata, Dêvakuru, and Uttarakuru.
225:5 According to the commentaries the word kumâra is to be supplied after each of the ten names.
226:1 They are termed Kalpôpaga and Kalpâtîta.
226:2 I am not sure that these are the correct Sanskrit forms of the two last Kalpas; the original has Ânaya and Pânaya.
226:3 I.e. those who live on the neck (grîva), i.e. on the upper part of the universe.
226:4 I.e. those above whom there dwell no other gods.
228:1 From this verse to verse 241 the length of life increases by one Sâgarôpamâ in each following class of gods.
229:1 Viz. Vigaya, Vaigayanta, Gayanta, and Aparâgita.
229:2 Two MSS. (A and D) insert after verses 245 the following two verses: The longest interval between a Graivêyika's leaving his rank in Ânata, &c., and being again born to it, is an endless time, the shortest is from two to nine years. In the case of Anuttara gods the longest interval is a Sâgarôpamâ plus one Samkhyêya, the shortest is from two to nine years.
229:4 The last self-mortification, samlekhanâ, which is to end with death, is intended here. Some details about it will be found in part i, p. 74 ff.
230:1 Vigaî-niggûhana. The meaning is that at the end of his fasts a monk should eat âkâmla, nirvikritika, &c. In the Avakûri a verse from the Nisîthakûrni is quoted, which gives the same rule for the second four years.
230:2 Âyâma = âkâmla. Is this the same thing as the âyâmaga = âkâmaka mentioned XV, 13? See above, p. 72, note 2.
230:3 Kôdîsahiyam âyamam = kôtisahitam âkâmlam. The commentators give two explanations of this phrase: (1) Having fasted one day, one should take âkâmla on the next day; (2) one should on the second day continue to abstain from âkâmla.
230:4 The definition of these technical terms is given below, verses 262 ff.
231:1 Âlôkanâ = sramanaphalam. The Avakûri renders the last phrase: 'They are able to bring about the salvation of others.' The original, however, has sôum, to hear.'
231:2 The Abhiyôgidêvas are genii who serve the gods. This Bhâvanâ leads to being born as an Abhiyôgidêva; the next two Bhâvanâs, as a Kilvishadêva and an Asura.
232:1 Uttaragghâê in the original. The commentators give uttara here the meaning pradhâna, 'best, prominent.' The same explanation is given by the scholiast on the Nandî (Weber, Sacred Literature of the Jains, p.124). Perhaps the name refers to the tradition that Mahâvîra recited at the time of his death the thirty-six aputtha-vâgaranâim, which are identified by one commentator of the Kalpa Sûtra (Lives of the Ginas, § 147) with the Uttarâdhyayana; for uttara also means 'last.'
232:2 Bhavasiddhîya = bhavasiddhika, explained by bhavya.