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Jaina Sutras, Part II (SBE45), tr. by Hermann Jacobi, [1895], at



Learn the true road leading to final deliverance, which the Ginas have taught; it depends on four causes and is characterised by right knowledge and faith. (1)

I. Right knowledge; II. Faith; III. Conduct; and IV. Austerities; this is the road taught by the Ginas who possess the best knowledge. (2)

Right knowledge, faith, conduct, and austerities; beings who follow this road, will obtain beatitude. (3)

I. Knowledge is fivefold: 1. Sruta, knowledge derived from the sacred books; 2. Âbhinibôdhika, perception 1; 3. Avadhi, supernatural knowledge; 4. Manahparyâya 2, knowledge of the thoughts of other people; 5. Kêvala, the highest, unlimited knowledge. (4)

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This is the fivefold knowledge. The wise ones have taught the knowledge of substances, qualities, and all developments 1. (5)

Substance is the substrate of qualities; the qualities are inherent in one substance; but the characteristic of developments is that they inhere in either (viz. substances or qualities). (6)

Dharma, Adharma, space, time, matter, and souls (are the six kinds of substances 2); they make up this world, as has been taught by the Ginas who possess the best knowledge. (7)

Dharma, Adharma, and space are each one substance only; but time, matter, and souls are an infinite number of substances. (8)

The characteristic of Dharma is motion, that of Adharma immobility, and that of space 3, which contains all other substances, is to make room (for everything) 4. (9)

The characteristic of time is duration 5, that of soul the realisation 6 of knowledge, faith, happiness, and misery. (10)

The characteristic of Soul is knowledge, faith, conduct, austerities, energy, and realisation (of its developments). (11)

The characteristic of matter is sound, darkness,

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lustre (of jewels, &c.), light, shade, sunshine; colour, taste, smell, and touch. (12)

The characteristic of development is singleness, separateness 1, number, form, conjunction, and disjunction. (13)

1. gîva, Soul; 2. agîva, the inanimate things; 3. bandha, the binding of the soul by Karman; 4. punya, merit; 5. pâpa, demerit; 6. âsrava, that which causes the soul to be affected by sins; 7. samvara, the prevention of âsrava by watchfulness; 8. the annihilation of Karman; 9. final deliverance: these are the nine truths (or categories). (14)

He who verily believes the true teaching of the (above nine) fundamental truths, possesses righteousness. (15)

II. Faith is produced by 1. nisarga, nature; 2. upadêsa, instruction; 3. âgñâ, command; 4. sûtra, study of the sûtras; 5. bîga, suggestion; 6. abhigama, comprehension of the meaning of the sacred lore; 7. vistâra, complete course of study; 8. kriyâ, religious exercise; 9. samkshêpa, brief exposition; 10. dharma, the Law. (16)

1. He who truly comprehends, by a spontaneous effort of his mind 2, (the nature of) soul, inanimate things, merit, and demerit, and who puts an end to sinful influences 3, (believes by) nature. (17)

He who spontaneously believes the four truths (explicitly mentioned in the last verse), which the

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[paragraph continues] Ginas have taught, (thinking) they are of this and not of a different nature, believes by nature. (18)

2. But he who believes these truths, having learned them from somebody else, either a Khadmastha 1 or a Gina, believes by instruction. (19)

3. He who has got rid of love, hate, delusion, and ignorance, and believes because he is told to do so, believes by command. (20)

4. He who obtains righteousness by (the study of) the Sûtras, either Aṅgas or other works 2, believes by the study of Sûtras. (21)

5. He who by correctly comprehending one truth arrives at the comprehension of more -- just as a drop of oil expands on the surface of water--believes by suggestion. (22)

6. He who truly knows the sacred lore, viz. the eleven Aṅgas, the Prakîrnas 3, and the Drishtivâda, believes by the comprehension of the sacred lore. (23)

7. He who understands the true nature of all substances by means of all proofs (pramâna) and nayas 4, believes by a complete course of study. (24)

8. He who sincerely performs (all duties implied)

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by right knowledge, faith, and conduct, by asceticism and discipline, and by all Samitis and Guptis, believes by religious exercise. (25)

9. He who though not versed in the sacred doctrines 1 nor acquainted with other systems 2, holds no wrong doctrines, believes by brief exposition. (26)

10. He who believes in the truth 3 of the realities 4, the Sûtras, and conduct, as it has been explained by the Ginas, believes by the Law. (27)

Right belief depends on the acquaintance with truth 5, on the devotion to those who know the truth, and on the avoiding of schismatical and heretical tenets. (28)

There is no (right) conduct without right belief 6, and it must be cultivated (for obtaining) right faith; righteousness and conduct originate together, or righteousness precedes (conduct). (29)

Without (right) faith there is no (right) knowledge, without (right) knowledge there is no virtuous conduct 7, without virtues there is no deliverance 8, and without deliverance there is no perfection. (30)

(The excellence of faith depends on the following) eight points: 1. that one has no doubts (about the truth of the tenets); 2. that one has no preference (for heterodox tenets); 3. that one does not doubt

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its saving qualities 1; 4. that one is not shaken in the right belief (because heretical sects are more prosperous); 5. that one praises (the pious); 6. that one encourages (weak brethren); 7. that one supports or loves the confessors of the Law; 8. that one endeavours to exalt it. (31)

III. Conduct, which produces the destruction of all Karman, is 1. sâmâyika 2, the avoidance of everything sinful; 2. khêdôpasthâpana, the initiation of a novice; 3. parihâravisuddhika, purity produced by peculiar austerities 3; 4. sûkshma samparâya, reduction of desire; 5. akashâya yathâkhyâta, annihilation of sinfulness according to the precepts of the Arhats, as well in the case of a Khadmastha as of a Gina. (32, 33)

IV. Austerities are twofold: external and internal; both external and internal austerities are sixfold. (34) By knowledge one knows things, by faith one believes in them, by conduct one gets (freedom from Karman), and by austerities one reaches purity. (35)

Having by control and austerities destroyed their Karman, great sages, whose purpose is to get rid of all misery, proceed to (perfection).

Thus I say.


152:1 This is usually called mati, and is placed before sruta. The same enumeration recurs in XXXIII, 4, p. 193. Umâsvâti in Môksha Sûtra I, 14, gives the following synonyms of mati: smriti, kintâ, abhinibôdha.

152:2 Mananânam.

153:1 Dravya, guna, paryâya (paggava in Gaina Prâkrit). Guna, quality, is generally not admitted by the Gainas as a separate category, see Sîlâṅka's refutation of the Vaisêshika doctrines at the end of his comments on Sûtrakritâṅga I, 12 (Bombay edition, p. 482).

153:2 They are frequently called astikâyas, or realities.

153:3 It is here called nabhas instead of âkâsa.

153:4 Avagâha.

153:5 Vartanâ.

153:6 Upayôga.

154:1 Singleness (êkatva) makes a thing appear as one thing, separateness (prithaktva) as different from others.

154:2 Sahasamuiya = svayamsamudita. It is usually rendered sahasammati.

154:3 Âsravasamvara, see above, verse 14, 6 and 7.

155:1 A khadmastha is one who has not yet obtained Kêvala, or the highest knowledge; he is in the two gunasthânas (the fourteen stages in the development of the soul from the lowest to the highest) characterised as 1. upasântamôha, and 2. kshînamôha; viz. 1. that in which delusion is only temporarily separated from the soul, and 2. that in which delusion is finally destroyed.

155:2 Bâhira; apparently the same works are intended which are elsewhere called anaṅgapravishta.

155:3 The original has the singular.

155:4 The seven nayas are 'points of view or principles with reference to which certain judgments are arrived at or arrangements made.' Bhandarkar, Report, p. 112.

156:1 Pravakana.

156:2 E. g. that of Kapila, &c., Comm.

156:3 Dharma.

156:4 Astikâya; see note on verse 7.

156:5 I.e. true things as soul, &c.

156:6 Samyaktva righteousness.'

156:7 Karanaguna. The commentators make this a dvandva compound, and interpret karana as vratâdi, and guna as pindavisuddhi, &c.

156:8 By deliverance I have rendered môksha, and by final perfection nirvâna. Môksha denotes freedom from Karman, a condition which in Brâhmanical philosophy is called gîvanmukti.

157:1 Nivvitigikkhâ = nirvikikitsa. According to the commentary it may stand for nir-vid-gugupsâ 'without loathing the saints.'

157:2 See Bhandarkar, Report, p. 98, note ‡.

157:3 The Dîpikâ contains the following details. Nine monks resolve to live together for eighteen months. They make one of their number their superior, kalpasthita, four become parihârikas, and the remaining four serve them (anuparihârikas). After six months the parihârikas become anuparihârikas and vice versa. After another six months the kalpasthita does penance and all the other monks serve him as anuparihârikas.

Next: Twenty-Ninth Lecture. The Exertion in Righteousness