Jaina Sutras, Part II (SBE45), tr. by Hermann Jacobi, , at sacred-texts.com
I shall declare the correct behaviour (sâmâkârî) which causes freedom from all misery; by practising it the Nirgranthas have crossed the ocean of Samsâra. (1)
The correct behaviour of monks consists of (the following) ten parts: 1. âvasyikâ; 2. naishêdhikî; 3. âprikkhanâ; 4. pratiprikkhanâ; 5. khandanâ; 6. ikkhâkâra; 7. mithyâkâra; 8. tathâkâra; 9. abhyutthâna; 10. upasampad. (2-4)
The âvasyikâ is required when he leaves a room (or the presence of other monks on some necessary business); the naishêdhikî, on entering a place; âprikkhanâ, (or asking the superior's permission) for what he is to do himself; pratiprikkhanâ, for what somebody else is to do; khandanâ, (or placing at the disposal of other monks) the things one has got; ikkhâkâra, in the execution (of one's intention by oneself or somebody else); mithyâkâra, in the blaming oneself (for sins committed); tathâkâra, (assent) in making a promise; abhyutthâna, in serving those who deserve respect; and upasampad, in placing oneself under another teacher. Thus the twice fivefold behaviour has been declared. (5-7)
After sunrise during the first quarter (of the first Paurushî) 1 he should inspect (and clean) his things and pay his respects to the superior. (8)
Then, with his hands joined, he should ask him:
[paragraph continues] 'What shall I do now? I want to be employed, sir, in doing some work or in studying.' (9)
If he is ordered to do some work, he should do it without tiring; if he is ordered to study, he should do it without allowing himself to be affected by any pains. (10)
A clever monk should divide the day into four (equal) parts (called paurushî), and fulfil his duties (uttaraguna) in all four parts. (11)
In the first Paurushî he should study, in the second he should meditate, in the third he should go on his begging-tour, and in the fourth he should study again. (12)
In the month Âshâdha the Paurushî (of the night) contains two feet (pada) 1; in the month Pausha, four; in the months Kaitra and Asvayuga, three. (13)
(The Paurushî) increases or decreases a digit 2 (aṅgula) every week, two digits every fortnight, four digits every month. (14)
The dark fortnight of Âshâdha, Bhâdrapada, Kârttika, Pausha, Phâlguna, and Vaisâkha are known as avamarâtrâs 3. (15)
In the quarter of the year comprising the three months Gyêshthâmûla, Âshâdha, and Srâvana, the (morning-) inspection is to last six digits (beyond ¼ Paurushî); in the second quarter, eight; in the third, ten; in the fourth, eight 1. (16)
A clever monk should divide the night too into four parts, and fulfil his duties (uttaraguna) in all four parts. (17)
In the first Paurushî he should study, in the second he should meditate, in the third he should leave off sleep, and in the fourth he should study again. 08)
When the nakshatra which leads the night 2 has reached the first quarter of the heaven, at dawn he should cease to study. (19)
When a small part of the quarter is left 3, in which the (leading) nakshatra stands, during that space of time, being considered intermediate 4 (between two) days, a monk should watch. (20)
In the first quarter (of the first Paurushî) he should inspect (and clean) his things, pay his respects to his superior, and then begin to study, not allowing himself to be affected by any pains 5. (21)
In the (last) quarter of the first Paurushî, after paying his respect to the Guru, a monk should inspect his almsbowl, without, however, performing the Kâla-pratikramana 1. (22)
He should first inspect his mouth-cloth 2, then his broom 3, and taking the broom in his hand he should inspect his cloth. (23)
Standing upright he holds his cloth firmly and inspects it first leisurely, then he spreads it, and at last he wipes it. (24)
(He should spread the cloth) without shaking or crushing it, in such a way as to make the folds disappear, and to avoid friction of its parts against each other; he should fold it up six times in length, and nine times in breadth, and then he should remove living beings with his hand (spreading the cloth on the palm of his hand) 4. (25)
He must avoid want of attention: 1. in beginning his work; 2. in taking up the corners of the cloth; 3. in folding it up; 4. in shaking out the dust; 5. in putting it down (on some other piece of cloth); 6. in sitting upon the haunches 5. (26)
(One must further avoid) to hold the cloth loosely, or at one corner, or so as to let it flap, or so as to subject it to friction, or so as to shake it in different ways, or if one has made a mistake in the number of foldings (see verse 25) to count (aloud or with the help of the fingers, &c.) 1 (27)
There should be neither too little nor too much of inspection, nor an exchange (of the things to be inspected); this is the right way to do (the inspection), all other methods are wrong:-- (28)
(This is) if one engaged in inspecting his things converses or gossips (with anybody), renounces something 2, teaches another his lesson, or receives his own lesson from another, (he neglects his inspection). (29)
He who is careful in the inspection, protects the six kinds of living beings, viz. the earth-bodies, water-bodies, fire-bodies, wind-bodies, plants, and animals. (30)
He who is careless in the inspection, injures the six kinds of living beings (just enumerated) 3. (31)
In the third Paurushî he should beg food and drink, (he may do so) for any of the following six reasons: (32)
1. To prevent an illness; 2. to serve the Guru; 3. to be able to comply with the rules about walking 1; 4. to be able to comply with the rules of self-control 2; 5. to save one's life; 6. to be able to meditate on the Law. (33)
A zealous Nirgrantha or Nirgranthî may omit to beg food for the following six reasons, when it will not be considered a transgression of his duties: (34)
1. In case of illness; 2. in case of a disaster; 3. to preserve one's chastity and the Guptis; 4. out of compassion for living beings; 5. in the interest of penance; 6. to make an end of one's life 3. (35)
Taking his whole outfit a monk should inspect it with his eye; he then may walk about, but not beyond half a Yôgana. (36)
In the fourth Paurushî he should put away his almsbowl (after having eaten his meal), and then begins his study which reveals all existent things. (37)
In the last quarter of the fourth Paurushî he should pay his reverence to the Guru, and after having performed Kâla-pratikramana 4, he should inspect his lodging. (38)
A zealous monk should also inspect the place where to discharge his excrements and urine, and then (till the sun sets) he should go through Kâyôtsarga without allowing himself to be affected by any pains. (39)
Then he should, in due order, reflect on all transgressions he has committed during the day, with regard to knowledge, faith, and conduct. (40)
Having finished Kâyôtsarga, and paid his reverence to the Guru, he should, in due order, confess his transgressions committed during the day. (41)
Then having recited the Pratikramana Sûtra 1, and having annihilated his sins, he should pay his reverence to the Guru (asking absolution) 2, and go through Kâyôtsarga without allowing himself to be affected by any pains. (42)
Having finished Kâyôtsarga, and paid his reverence to the Guru, he should pronounce the customary (three) praises, and then wait for the proper time. (43)
In the first Paurushî (of the night) he should study; in the second he should meditate; in the third he should leave off sleep; and in the fourth he should study again 3. (44)
In the fourth Paurushî he should wait for the proper time and then begin to study without waking the householders. (45)
In the last quarter of the fourth Paurushî he should pay his reverence to the Guru, and performing Kâla-pratikramana 4 he should wait for the proper time. (46)
When the (time for) Kâyôtsarga has arrived, he
should go through it, without allowing himself to be affected by any pains. (47)
Then he should, in due order, reflect on all transgressions he has committed during the night with regard to knowledge, faith, and conduct. (48)
Having finished Kâyôtsarga and paid his reverence to the Guru, he should, in due order, confess his transgressions committed during the night. (49)
Then having recited the Pratikramana Sûtra &c. (see verse 41). (50)
He should consider what kind of austerities he will undertake. Having finished his Kâyôtsarga, he pays his reverence to the Guru. (51)
Having finished Kâyôtsarga and paid his reverence to the Guru, he should practise those austerities which he has decided upon, and praise the perfected saints. (52)
Thus has been summarily declared the correct behaviour, by practising which many souls have crossed the ocean of Samsâra. (53)
Thus I say.
142:1 The southern half of the sky or horizon, between east and west, is divided into four quarters, each of which corresponds in time to a paurushî, the fourth part of a day or a night.
143:1 A paurushî is the fourth part of a day or a night; about the time of the equinoxes, when the day as well as the night contains twelve hours, the paurushî contains three hours. At the same time, in the months Kaitra and Âsvina, as we learn from our verse, the paurushî has three feet, padas. The pada therefore is equal to one hour exactly. The duration of the night at the summer solstice was therefore estimated at eight hours and at the winter solstice at sixteen, just as in the Vedic Gyôtisha.
143:2 A digit, aṅgula, is apparently the twelfth part of a foot, pada = one hour. The digit is therefore equal to five minutes.
143:3 The fortnights, mentioned in the text, consist of fourteen days only, the remaining ones of fifteen days. In this way the lunar year is made to consist of 354 days.
144:1 Or thirty, forty, fifty, forty minutes respectively.
144:2 I.e. the nakshatra which is in opposition to the sun, and accordingly rises at the same time with the setting sun, and sets with the rising sun, compare Râmâyana III, 16, 12.
144:3 I.e. is about to set.
144:4 Vêrattiya, translated vairâtrika; but there is no such word in Sanskrit. It apparently stands for dvairâtrika, belonging to two days. As the Hindus reckon the day from sunrise, the time immediately preceding it may be considered to belong to two days.
144:5 Compare verse 8.
145:1 I.e. expiation of sins concerning time, cf. Bhandarkar's Report, p. 98, note ‡. It seems to consist in Kâyôtsarga.
145:2 This is a piece of muslin which the Gaina monks place before their mouth in speaking, in order to prevent insects being drawn in the mouth by the breath.
145:3 It is here called gôkkhaga = gukkhaka, originally a bunch of peacocks' feathers, it is so still, if I am not mistaken, with the Digambaras, whilst the Svêtâmbaras use other materials, especially cotton threads.
145:4 Much in my translation is conjectural. There are some technicalities in these verses which I fail to understand clearly, notwithstanding the explanations of the scholiasts.
146:1 I am not sure of having hit the true meaning. The commentators reckon this counting as a fault, while the text itself seems to enjoin it.
146:2 Dêi pakkakkhânam. The meaning is, I believe, that during the time of inspection one should not make up one's mind to abstain from this or that because one is to devote one's whole attention to the inspection of one's things.
146:3 The Dîpikâ places this verse before the last and construes it with verse 29, making out the following meaning: if one, engaged in inspecting his things, converses or gossips, &c., then, being careless in the inspection, he injures, &c.
147:1 Iriyatthâê; for one will not be careful about walking (îryâ-samiti) if too hungry or thirsty.
147:2 For one might eat forbidden food if too hungry.
147:3 It may be remarked here that the verses 25, 16, 19, 20, 24, 26, 27, 29, 33, 34, 35 are in the Âryâ-metre while the rest of the lecture is in Slôka.
147:4 Compare note 1, p. 145.
148:1 Padikamittu = pratikramya, explained pratikramanasûtram uktvâ.
148:2 According to the Dîpikâ: having repeated the three Gâthâs beginning âriyauvagghâya.
148:3 This verse is the same as verse 18, except a verbal difference in the last line.
148:4 Padikamittu kâlassa, see p. 145, note 1. The Dîpikâ here explains this phrase by: doing acts proper for that time.