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Thirty Minor Upanishads, tr. by K. Narayanasvami Aiyar, [1914], at

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Chapter I

Param-Ḍhyāna (the supreme meditation) should be upon ṭejo binḍu, which is the Āṭmā of the universe, which is seated in the heart, which is of the size of an atom, which pertains to Śiva, which is quiescent and which is gross and subtle, as also above these qualities. That alone should be the ḍhyāna of the Munis as well as of men, which is full of pains, which is difficult to meditate on, which is difficult to perceive, which is the emancipated one, which is decayless and which is difficult to attain. One whose food is moderate, whose anger has been controlled, who has given up all love for society, who has subdued his passions, who has overcome all pairs (heat and cold etc.), who has given up his egoism, who does not bless anyone nor take anything from others, and also who goes where they naturally ought not to go, and naturally would not go where they like to go—such persons also obtain three 2 in the face. Hamsa is said to have three seats. Therefore know it is the greatest of mysteries, without sleep and without support. It is very subtle, of the form of Soma, and is the supreme seat of Vishṇu. That seat has three faces, three guṇas and three ḍhāṭus, and is formless, motionless, changeless, sizeless, and supportless. That seat is without upāḍhi, and is above the reach of speech and

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mind. It is Svabhāva (Self or nature) reachable only by bhāva (being). The indestructible seat is associateless, without bliss, beyond mind, difficult to perceive, emancipated and changeless. It should be meditated upon as the liberated, the eternal, the permanent and the indestructible. It is Brahman, is aḍhyāṭma (or the deity presiding as Āṭmā) and is the highest seat of Vishṇu. It is inconceivable, of the nature of Chiḍāṭmā and above the ākāś, is void and non-void, and beyond the void, and is abiding in the heart. There is (in It) neither meditation nor meditator, nor the meditated, nor the non-meditated. It is not the universe. It is the highest space; it is neither supreme nor above the supreme. It is inconceivable, unknowable, non-truth, and not the highest. It is realised by the Munis, but the Ḍevas do not know the supreme One. Avarice, delusion, fear, pride, passion, anger, sin, heat, cold, hunger, thirst, thought and fancy—(all these do not exist in It). (In It) there is no pride of (belonging to) the Brāhmaṇa caste, nor is there the collection of the knot of salvation. (In It) there is no fear, no happiness, no pains, neither fame nor disgrace. That which is without these states is the supreme Brahman.

Yama, 1 (forbearance), niyama (religious observance), tyāga (renunciation), mouna (silence) according to time and place, āsana (posture), mūlabanḍha, seeing all bodies as equal, the position of the eye, prāṇa-samyamana (control of breath), praṭyāhāra (subjugation of the senses), ḍhāraṇa, āṭma-ḍhyāna and samāḍhi—these are spoken of as the parts (of yoga) in order. That is called yama in which one controls all his organs (of sense and actions) through the vijñāna that all is Brahman; this should be practised often and often. Niyama, in which there is the supreme bliss enjoyed through the flowing (or inclination) of the mind towards things of the same (spiritual) kind, (viz., Brahman) and the abandoning of things differing from one another is practised by the sages as a rule. In tyāga (renunciation), one abandons the manifestations (or objects) of the universe through the cognition of Āṭmā that is Saṭ and Chiṭ. This is practised by the great and is the giver of immediate salvation.

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[paragraph continues] Mouna (the silence), in which, without reaching That, speech returns along with mind, is fit to be attained by the Yogins and should be ever worshipped by the ignorant (even). How is it possible to speak of "That", from which speech returns? How should it be described as the universe as there is no word to describe it? It is "That" which is (really) called silence, and which is naturally understood (as such). There is silence in children, but with words (latent); whereas the knowers of Brahman have it (silence) but without words. That should be known as "the lonely seat" in which there is no man in the beginning, middle, or end, and through which all this (universe) is fully pervaded. The illusion of Brahmā and all other beings takes place within one twinkling (of His eye). That should be known as āsana (posture), in which one has with ease and without fatigue (uninterrupted) meditation of Brahman; that is described by the word kāla (time), that is endless bliss and that is secondless. Everything else is the destroyer of happiness. That is called siḍḍhāsana (siḍḍha-posture) in which the siḍḍhas (psychical personages) have succeeded in realising the endless One as the support of the universe containing all the elements, etc. That is called the mūlabanḍha, which is the Mūla (root) of all worlds, and through which the root Chiṭṭa is (baṇdha) bound. It should be always practised by the Rājayogins.

One after having known the equality of the aṅgas (or parts of yoga) point to one and the same Brahman, should be absorbed in that equal (or uniform) Brahman; if not, there is not that equality (attained). Then like a dry tree, there is straightness (or uniformity throughout). Making one's vision full of spiritual wisdom, one should look upon the world as full of Brahman. That vision is very noble. It is (generally) aimed at the tip of the nose; but it should be directed towards that seat (of Brahman) wherein the cessation of seer, the seen, and sight will take place, and not towards the tip of the nose. That is called prāṇāyāma (the control of breath), in which there is the control of the modifications (of mind) through the cognition of Brahman in all the states of chiṭṭa, and others. The checking of

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[paragraph continues] (the conception of the reality of) the universe, is said to be expiration. The conception of "I am Brahman" is inspiration. The holding on (long) to this conception without agitation is cessation of breath. Such is the practice of the enlightened. The ignorant close their nose. That should be known as praṭyāhāra, through which one sees Āṭmā (even) in the objects of sense, and pleases chiṭṭa through manas. It should be practised often and often. Through seeing Brahman wherever the mind goes, the ḍhāraṇa of the mind is obtained. Ḍhāraṇā is thought of highly by the wise. By ḍhāraṇa is meant that state where one indulges in the good thought, "I am Brahman alone," and is without any support. This ḍhyāna is the giver of supreme bliss. Being first in a state of changelessness, and then thoroughly forgetting (even) that state owing to the cognition of the (true) nature of Brahman—this is called samāḍhi. This kind of bliss should be practised (or enjoyed) by a wise person till his cognition itself united in a moment with the state of praṭyag (Āṭmā). Then this King of Yogins becomes a Siḍḍha, and is without any aid (outside himself). Then he will attain a state, inexpressible and unthinkable.

When samāḍhi is practised, the following obstacles arise with great force—absence of right inquiry, laziness, inclination to enjoyment, absorption (in material object), ṭamas, distraction, impatience, sweat, and absent-mindedness. All these obstacles should be overcome by inquirers into Brahman. Through bhāvavṛṭṭis (worldly thoughts), one gets into them. Through śūnya-vṛṭṭis (void or empty thoughts), one gets into them. But through the vṛṭṭis of Brahman, one gets fullness. Therefore one should develop fullness through this means (of Brahman). He who abandons this vṛṭṭi of Brahman, which is very purifying and supreme—that man lives in vain like a beast. But he who understands this vṛṭṭi (of Brahman), and having understood it makes advances in it, becomes a good and blessed person, deserving to be worshipped by the three worlds. Those who are greatly developed through the ripening (of their past karmas) attain the state of Brahman; others are simply reciters of words.

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[paragraph continues] Those who are clever in arguments about Brahman, but are without the action pertaining to Brahman, and who are greatly attached to the world—those certainly are born again and again (in this world) through their ajñāna; (the former) never remain, even for half a moment—without the vṛṭṭi of Brahman, like Brahma and others, Sanaka, 1 etc., Śuka and others. When a cause is subject to changes, it (as an effect) must also have its cause. When the cause ceases to exist in truth, the effect perishes through right discrimination. Then that substance (or principle) which is beyond the scope of words, remains pure. After that, vṛṭṭi jñāna arises in their purified mind; through meditation with transcendental energy, there arises a firm certitude. After reducing the visible into the invisible state, one should see everything as Brahman. The wise should ever stay in bliss with their understanding full of the essence of Chiṭ. Thus ends the first chapter of Ṭejobinḍu.

Chapter II

Then the Kumāra 2 asked Śiva: "Please explain to me the nature of Chinmāṭra, that is the partless non-dual essence." The great Śiva replied: "The partless non-dual essence is the visible. It is the world, it is the existence, it is the Self, it is manṭra, it is action, it is spiritual wisdom, it is water. It is the earth, it is ākāś, it is the books, it is the three Veḍas, it is the Brahman, it is the religious vow, it is Jīva, it is Aja (the unborn), it is Brahma, it is Vishṇu, it is Ruḍra; it is I, it is Āṭma, it is the Guru. It is the aim, it is sacrifice, it is the body, it is manas, it is chiṭṭa, it is happiness, it is viḍyā; it is the undifferentiated, it is the eternal, it is the supreme, it is everything. O six-faced one, different from It there is nothing. None, none but It; It is I. It is gross, it is subtle, it is knowable, it is thou; it is the mysterious; it is the knower; it is existence, it is mother, it is father, it is brother, it is husband, it is Sūṭra (Āṭmā), it is Virāt.

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[paragraph continues] It is the body, it is the head, it is the internal, it is the external, it is full, it is nectar, it is goṭra (clan), it is gṛha (the house), it is the preservable, it is the moon, it is the stars, it is the sun, it is the holy seat. It is forgiveness, it is patience, it is the guṇas, it is the witness. It is a friend, it is a relative, it is an ally, it is the king, town, kingdom and subjects. It is Om, japa, meditation, the seat, the one worthy to be taken (in), the heart, the Jyoṭis, Swarga (heaven) and Self."

"All the partless and non-dual essence should be regarded as Chinmāṭra. Chinmāṭra alone is the Absolute Consciousness; and this partless non-dual essence alone is the (real) essence. All having consciousness alone except those having changes, are Chinmāṭra. All this is Chinmāṭra. He is Chinmaya; the state of Āṭmā is known as Chinmāṭra and the partless non-dual essence. The whole world is Chinmāṭra. Your state and my state are Chinmāṭra. Ākāś, earth, water, vāyu, agni, Brahmā, Vishṇu, Śiva and all else that exist or do not, are Chinmāṭra. That which is the partless non-dual essence is Chinmāṭra. All the past, present, and future are Chinmāṭra. Substance and time are Chinmāṭra. Knowledge and the knowable are Chinmāṭra. The knower is Chinmāṭra. Everything is Chinmāṭra. Every speech is Chinmāṭra. Whatever else is Chinmāṭra. Asaṭ and Saṭ are Chinmāṭra. The beginning and end are Chinmāṭra; that which is in the beginning and end is Chinmāṭra ever. The Guru and the disciple are Chinmāṭra. If the seer and the seen are Chinmāṭra, then they are always Chinmaya. All things wondrous are Chinmāṭra. The (gross) body is Chinmāṭra, as also the subtle and causal bodies. There is nothing beyond Chinmāṭra. I and thou are Chinmāṭra. Form and non-form are Chinmāṭra. Virtue and vice are Chinmāṭra. The body is a symbol of Chinmāṭra. Saṅkalpa, knowing, manṭra, and others, the gods invoked in manṭras, the gods presiding over the eight quarters, the phenomenal and the supreme Brahman are nothing but Chinmāṭra. There is nothing without Chinmāṭra. Māyā is nothing without Chinmāṭra. Pūjā (worship) is nothing without Chinmāṭra. Meditation, truth, sheaths and others, the (eight) valus, silence, non-silence, and indifference to objects

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[paragraph continues] —are nothing without Chinmāṭra. Everything is from Chinmāṭra. Whatever is seen and however seen—it is Chinmāṭra so far. Whatever exists and however distant, is Chinmāṭra. Whatever elements exist, whatever is perceived, and whatever is veḍānṭa—all these are Chinmāṭra. Without Chinmāṭra, there is no motion, no Moksha and no goal aimed at. Everything is Chinmāṭra. Brahman that is the partless non-dual essence is known to be nothing but Chinmāṭra. Thou, O Lord, art the partless non-dual essence (stated) in the books, in me, in Thee, and in the ruler. He who thus perceives 'I' as of one homogeneity (pervading everywhere) will at once be emancipated through this spiritual wisdom. He is his own Guru with this profound spiritual wisdom. Thus ends the second chapter of Ṭejobinḍu."

Chapter III

The Kumāra addressed his father (again): "Please explain to me the realisation of Āṭma." To which the great Śiva said: "I am of the nature of the Parabrahman. I am the supreme bliss. I am solely of the nature of divine wisdom. I am the sole supreme, the sole quiescence, the sole Chinmaya, the sole unconditioned, the sole permanent and the sole Saṭṭva. I am the 'I' that has given up 'I'. I am one that is without anything. I am full of Chiḍākāś. I am the sole fourth one. I am the sole one above the fourth (state of ṭurya). I am of the nature of (pure) consciousness. I am ever of the nature of the bliss-consciousness. I am of the nature of the non-dual. I am ever of a pure nature, solely of the nature of divine wisdom, of the nature of happiness, without fancies, desires or diseases, of the nature of bliss, without changes or differentiations, and of the nature of the eternal one essence and Chinmāṭra. My real nature is indescribable, of endless bliss, the bliss above Saṭ and Chiṭ and the interior of the interior. I am beyond reach of manas and speech. I am of the nature of Āṭmic bliss, true bliss and one who plays with (my) Āṭmā. I am Āṭmā and Saḍāśiva. My nature is Āṭmic spiritual effulgence. I am the essence of the jyoṭis of Āṭmā. I am without beginning, middle, or end. I am like the

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sky. I am solely Saṭ, Ānanḍa, and Chiṭ which is unconditioned and pure. I am the Sachchiḍānanḍa that is eternal, enlightened and pure. I am ever of the nature of the eternal Śesha (serpent-time). I am ever beyond all. My nature is beyond form. My form is supreme ākāś. My nature is of the bliss of earth. I am ever without speech. My nature is the all-seat (foundation of all). I am ever replete with consciousness, without the attachment of body, without thought, without the modifications of chiṭṭa, the sole essence of Chiḍāṭma, beyond the visibility of all and of the form of vision. My nature is ever full. I am ever fully contented, the all, and Brahman, and the very consciousness; I am 'I'. My nature is of the earth. I am the great Āṭmā and the supreme of the supreme; I appear sometimes as different from myself; sometimes as possessing a body, sometimes as a pupil and sometimes as the basis of the worlds. I am beyond the three periods of time, am worshipped by the Veḍas, am determined by the sciences and am fixed in the chiṭṭa. There is nothing left out by me, neither the earth nor any other objects here. Know that there is nothing which is out of myself. I am Brahma, a Siḍḍha, the eternally pure, non-dual one, Brahman, without old age or death. I shine by myself; I am my own Āṭmā, my own goal, enjoy myself, play in myself, have my own spiritual effulgence, am my own greatness, and am used to play in my own Āṭmā, look on my own Āṭmā and am in myself happily seated. I have my own Āṭmā as the residue, stay in my own consciousness, and play happily in the kingdom of my own Āṭmā. Sitting on the real throne of my own Āṭmā, I think of nothing else but my own Āṭma. I am Chiḍrūpa alone, Brahman alone, Sachchiḍānanḍa, the second-less, the one replete with bliss and the sole Brahman and ever without anything, have the bliss of my own Āṭmā, the unconditioned bliss, and am always Āṭma-Ākāś. I alone am in the heart like Chiḍāḍiṭya (the consciousness-sun). I am content in my own Āṭmā, have no form, or no decay, am without the number one, have the nature of an unconditionod and emancipated one, and I am subtler than ākāś; I am without the existence of beginning or end, of the nature of the

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all-illuminating, the bliss greater than the great, of the sole nature of Saṭ, of the nature of pure Moksha, of the nature of truth and bliss, full of spiritual wisdom and bliss, of the nature of wisdom alone, and of the nature of Sachchiḍānanḍa. All this is Brahman alone. There is none other than Brahman and that is 'I'.

"I am Brahman that is Saṭ, and bliss, and the ancient. The word 'thou' and the word 'that' are not different from me. I am of the nature of consciousness. I am alone the great Śiva. I am beyond the nature of existence. I am of the nature of happiness. As there is nothing that can witness me, I am without the state of witness. Being purely of the nature of Brahman, I am the eternal Āṭmā. I alone am the Āḍiśesha (the primeval Śesha). 1 I alone am the Śesha. I am without name and form, of the nature of bliss, of the nature of being unperceivable by the senses, and of the nature of all beings; I have neither bondage nor salvation. I am of the form of eternal bliss. I am the primeval consciousness alone, the partless and non-dual essence, beyond reach of speech and mind, of the nature of bliss everywhere, of the nature of fullness everywhere, of the nature of earthly bliss, of the nature of contentment everywhere, the supreme nectary essence, and the one and secondless Saṭ, (viz.,) Brahman. There is no doubt of it. I am of the nature of all-void. I am the one that is given out by the Veḍas. I am of the nature of the emancipated and emancipation, of Nirvāṇic bliss, of truth and wisdom, of Saṭ alone and bliss, of the one beyond the fourth, of one without fancy, and ever of the nature of Aja (the unborn). I am without passion or faults. I am the pure, the enlightened, the eternal, the all-pervading and of the nature of the significance of Om, of the spotless, and of Chiṭ. I am neither existing nor non-existing. I am not of the nature of anything. I am of the nature of the actionless. I am without parts. I have no semblance, no manas, no sense, no buḍḍhi, no change, none of the three bodies, neither the waking, dreaming, or dreamless sleeping states. I am neither of the nature of the three pains nor of the three desires. I have neither

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[paragraph continues] śravaṇa nor manana in Chiḍāṭma in order to attain salvation. There is nothing like me or unlike me. There is nothing within me. I have none of the three bodies.

"The nature of manas is unreal, the nature of buḍḍhi is unreal, the nature of aham (the 'I') is unreal; but I am the unconditioned, the permanent and the unborn. The three bodies are unreal, the three periods of time are unreal, the three guṇas are unreal, but I am of the nature of the Real and the pure. That which is heard is unreal, all the Veḍas are unreal, the Śāsṭras are unreal, but I am. the Real and of the nature of Chiṭ. The Mūrṭis (Brahma, Vishṇu, and Ruḍra having limitation) are unreal, all the creation is unreal, all the ṭaṭṭvas are unreal, but know that I am the great Saḍāśiva. The master and the disciple are unreal, the manṭra of the Guru is unreal, that which is seen is unreal, but know me to be the Real. Whatever is thought of is unreal, whatever is lawful is unreal, whatever is beneficial is unreal, but know me to be the Real. Know the Purusha (ego) to be unreal, know the enjoyments to be unreal, know things seen and heard are unreal as also the one woven warp-wise and woof-wise, viz., this universe; cause and non-cause are unreal, things lost or obtained are unreal. Pains and happiness are unreal, all and non-all are unreal, gain and loss are unreal, victory and defeat are unreal. All the sound, all the touch, all the forms, all the taste, all the smell, and all ajñāna are unreal. Everything is always unreal—the mundane existence is unreal—all the guṇas are unreal. I am of the nature of Saṭ.

"One should cognize his own Āṭmā alone. One should always practise the manṭra of his Āṭmā. The manṭra (Ahambrahmāsmi) 'I am Brahman' removes all the sins of sight, destroys all other manṭras, destroys all the sins of body and birth, the noose of Yama, the pains of duality, the thought of difference, the pains of thought, the disease of buḍḍhi, the bondage of chiṭṭa, all diseases, all griefs and passions instantaneously, the power of anger, the modifications of chiṭṭa, saṅkalpa, crores of sins, all actions and the ajñāna of Āṭmā. The manṭra 'I am Brahman' gives indescribable bliss, gives the state of ajada (the non-inertness or the undecaying) and

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kills the demon of non-Āṭmā. The thunderbolt 'I am Brahman' clears all the hill of not-Āṭmā. The wheel 'I am Brahman' destroys the asuras of not-Āṭmā. The manṭra 'I am Brahman' will relieve all (persons). The manṭra 'I am Brahman' gives spiritual wisdom and bliss. There are seven crores of great manṭras and there are vraṭas (vows) of (or yielding) hundred crores of births. Having given up all other manṭras, one should ever practise this manṭra. He obtains at once salvation, and there is not even a particle of doubt about it. Thus ends the third chapter of the Ṭejobinḍu-Upanishaḍ."

Chapter IV

The Kumāra asked the great Lord: "Please explain to me the nature of Jīvanmukṭi (embodied salvation) and viḍehamu.kti (disembodied salvation)." To which the great Śiva replied: "I am Chiḍāṭmā. I am Para-Āṭmā. I am the Nirguṇa, greater than the great. One who will simply stay in Āṭmā is called a Jivanmukṭa. He who realises: 'I am beyond the three bodies, I am the pure consciousness and I am Brahman,' is said to be a Jivanmukṭa. He is said to be a Jivanmukṭa, who realises: 'I am of the nature of the blissful and of the supreme bliss, and I have neither body nor any other thing except the certitude "I am Brahman" only'. He is said to be a Jivanmukṭa who has not at all got the 'I' in myself, but who stays in Chinmāṭra (absolute consciousness) alone, whose interior is consciousness alone, who is only of the nature of Chinmāṭra, whose Āṭma is of the nature of the all-full, who has Āṭmā left over in all, who is devoted to bliss, who is undifferentiated, who is all-full of the nature of consciousness, whose Āṭmā is of the nature of pure consciousness, who has given up all affinities (for objects), who has unconditioned bliss, whose Āṭmā is tranquil, who has got no other thought (than Itself), and who is devoid of the thought of the existence of anything. He is said to be a Jivanmukṭa who realises: I have no chiṭṭa, no buḍḍhi, no ahaṅkāra, no sense, no body at any time, no prāṇas, no Māyā, no passion and no anger, I am the great, I have nothing of these objects or

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of the world, and I have no sin, no characteristics, no eye, no manas, no ear, no nose, no tongue, no hand, no waking, no dreaming, or causal state in the least or the fourth state.' He is said to be a Jivanmukṭa, who realises: 'All this is not mine, I have no time, no space, no object, no thought, no snāna (bathing), no sanḍhyās (junction-period ceremonies), no deity, no place, no sacred places, no worship, no spiritual wisdom, no seat, no relative, no birth, no speech, no wealth, no virtue, no vice, no duty, no auspiciousness, no Jīva, not even the three worlds; no salvation, no duality, no Veḍas, no mandatory rules, no proximity, no distance, no knowledge, no secrecy, no Guru, no disciple, no diminution, no excess, no Brahma, no Vishṇu, no Ruḍra, no moon, no earth, no water, no vāyu, no ākāś, no agni, no clan, no lakshya (object aimed at), no mundane existence, no meditator, no object of meditation, no manas, no cold, no heat, no thirst, no hunger, no friend, no foe, no illusion, no victory, no past, present, or future, no quarters, nothing to be said or heard in the least, nothing to be gone (or attained) to, nothing to be contemplated, enjoyed or remembered, no enjoyment, no desire, no yoga, no absorption, no garrulity, no quietude, no bondage, no love, no joy, no instant joy, no hugeness, no smallness, neither length nor shortness, neither increase nor decrease, neither aḍhyāropa (illusory attribution) nor apavāḍa (withdrawal of that conception) no oneness, no manyness, no blindness, no dullness, no skill, no flesh, no blood, no lymph, no skin, no marrow, no bone, no skin, none of the seven ḍhāṭus, no whiteness, no redness, no blueness, no heat, no gain, neither importance nor non-importance, no delusion, no perseverance, no mystery, no race, nothing to be abandoned or received, nothing to be laughed at, no policy, no religious vow, no fault, no bewailments, no happiness, neither knower nor knowledge nor the knowable, no Self, nothing belonging to you or to me, neither you nor I, and neither old age nor youth nor manhood; but I am certainly Brahman. "I am certainly Brahman. I am Chiṭ, I am Chiṭ "' He is said to be a Jivanmukṭa who cognizes: I am Brahman alone, I am Chiṭ alone, I am the supreme.' No doubt need be entertained about this; 'I am Hamsa itself, I remain of my own will, I can see

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myself through myself, I reign happy in the kingdom of Āṭmā and enjoy in myself the bliss of my own Āṭmā.' He is a Jivanmukṭa who is himself, the foremost and the one undaunted person who is himself the lord and rests in his own Self.

"He is a Viḍehamukṭa who has become Brahman, whose Āṭma has attained quiescence, who is of the nature of Brāhmic bliss, who is happy, who is of a pure nature, and who is a great mouni (observer of silence). He is a Viḍehamukṭa who remains in Chinmāṭra alone without (even) thinking thus: 'I am all Āṭmā, the Āṭmā that is equal (or the same) in all, the pure, without one, the non-dual, the all, the self only, the birth-less and the deathless—I am myself the undecaying Āṭmā that is the object aimed at, the sporting, the silent, the blissful, the beloved and the bondless salvation—I am Brahman alone—I am Chiṭ alone.' He is a Viḍehamukṭa who having abandoned the thought: 'I alone am the Brahman' is filled with bliss. He is a Viḍehamukṭa who having given up the certainty of the existence or non-existence of all objects is pure Chiḍānanḍa (the consciousness-bliss), who having abandoned (the thought): 'I am Brahman' (or) 'I am not Brahman' does not mingle his Āṭmā with anything, anywhere or at any time, who is ever silent with the silence of Saṭya, who does nothing, who has gone beyond guṇas, whose Āṭmā has become the All, the great, and the purifier of the elements, who does not cognize the change of time, matter, place, himself or other differences, who does not see (the difference of) 'I,' 'thou,' 'this' or 'that,' who being of the nature of time is yet without it, whose Āṭmā is void, subtle and universal, but yet without (them), whose Āṭmā is divine and yet without Ḍevas, whose Āṭma is measurable and yet without measure, whose Āṭmā is without inertness and within every one, whose Jima is devoid of any saṅkalpa, who thinks always: 'I am Chinmāṭra, I am simply Paramāṭman, I am only of the nature of spiritual wisdom, I am only of the nature of Saṭ, I am afraid of nothing in this world,' and who is without the conception of Ḍevas, Veḍas and sciences, 'All this is consciousness, etc.,' and regards all as void. He is a Viḍehamukṭa who has realised himself to be Chaiṭanya alone, who is remaining at ease in the pleasure-garden

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of his own Āṭmā, whose Āṭmā is of an illimitable nature, who is without the conception of the small and the great, and who is the fourth of the fourth state and the supreme bliss. He is a Viḍehamukṭa whose Āṭmā is nameless and formless, who is the great spiritual wisdom of the nature of bliss, and of the nature of the state beyond ṭurya, who is neither auspicious nor inauspicious, who has yoga as his Āṭmā, whose Āṭmā is associated with yoga, who is free from bondage or freedom, without guṇa or non-guṇa, without space, time, etc., without the witnessable and the witness, without the small or the great, and without the cognition of the universe or even the cognition of the nature of Brahman, but who finds his spiritual effulgence in his own nature, who finds bliss in himself, whose bliss is beyond the scope of words and mind, and whose thought is beyond the beyond. He is said to be a Viḍehamukṭa who has gone beyond (or mastered quite) the modifications of chiṭṭa, who illumines such modifications, and whose Āṭmā is without any modifications at all. In that case, he is neither embodied nor disembodied. If such a thought is entertained (even), for a moment, then he is surrounded (in thought) by all. He is a Viḍehamukṭa whose external Āṭmā invisible to others is the supreme bliss aiming at the highest veḍānṭa, who drinks of the juice of the nectar of Brahman, who has the nectar of Brahman as medicine, who is devoted to the juice of the nectar of Brahman, who is immersed in that juice, who has the beneficent worship of the Brāhmic bliss, who is not satiated with the juice of the nectar of Brahman, who realises Brāhmic bliss, who cognizes the Śiva bliss in Brāhmic bliss, who has the effulgence of the essence of Brāhmic bliss, who has become one with it, who lives in the household of Brāhmic bliss, has mounted the car of Brāhmic bliss, who has an imponderable Chiṭ being one with it, who is supporting (all), being full of it, who associates with me having it, who stays in Āṭmā having that bliss and who thinks: 'All this is of the nature of Āṭmā, there is nothing else beside Āṭmā, all is Āṭmā, I am Āṭma, the great Āṭmā, the supreme Āṭmā, and Āṭmā of the form of bliss.' He who thinks: 'My nature is full, I am the great Āṭmā, I am the all-contented and the permanent Āṭmā. I am

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the Āṭmā pervading the heart of all, which is not stained by anything, but which has no Āṭmā; I am the Āṭmā whose nature is changeless, I am the quiescent Āṭmā; and I am the many Āṭmā.' He who does not think this is Jīvāṭmā and that is Paramāṭmā, whose Āṭmā is of the nature of the emancipated and the non-emancipated, but without emancipation or bondage, whose Āṭmā is of the nature of the dual and the non-dual one, but without duality and non-duality; whose Āṭmā is of the nature of the All and the non-All, but without them; whose Āṭmā is of the nature of the happiness arising from objects obtained and enjoyed, but without it; and who is devoid of any saṅkalpa—such a man is a Viḍehamukṭa. He whose Āṭmā is partless, stainless, enlightened, Purusha, without bliss, etc., of the nature of nectar, of the nature of the three periods of time, but without them; whose Āṭmā is entire and non-measurable, being subject to proof though without proof; whose Āṭmā is the eternal and the witness, but without eternality and witness; whose Āṭmā is of the nature of the secondless, who is the self-shining one without a second, whose Āṭmā cannot be measured by viḍyā and aviḍyā but without them; whose Āṭmā is without conditionedness or unconditionedness, who is without this or the higher worlds, whose Āṭmā is without the six things beginning with śama, who is without the qualifications of the aspirant after salvation, whose Āṭmā, is without gross, subtle, causal, and the fourth bodies, and without the anna, prāṇa, manas, and vijñāna sheaths; whose Āṭmā is of the nature of ānanḍa (bliss) sheath, but without five sheaths; whose Āṭmā is of the nature of nirvikalpa, is devoid of saṅkalpa, without the characteristics of the visible or the audible, and of the nature of void, owing to unceasing samāḍhi, who is without beginning, middle, or end; whose Āṭmā is devoid of the word Prajñāna, who is without the idea 'I am Brahman,' whose Āṭmā is devoid (of the thought) of 'thou art', who is without the thought 'this is Āṭmā', whose Āṭmā is devoid of that which is described by Om, who is above the reach of any speech or the three states, and is the indestructible and the Chiḍāṭmā, whose Āṭmā is not the one which can be known by Āṭmā and whose Āṭma has neither

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light nor darkness. Such a personage is a Viḍehamukṭa. Look only upon Āṭmā; know It as your own. Enjoy your Āṭmā yourself, and stay in peace. O six-faced one, be content in your own Āṭma, be wandering in your own Āṭmā, and be enjoying your own Āṭmā. Then you will attain Viḍehamukṭi."

Chapter V

The Sage named Niḍāgha addressed the venerable Ṛbhu: "O Lord please explain to me the discrimination of Āṭmā from non-Āṭmā." The Sage replied thus:

"The furthest limit of all vāk (speech) is Brahman; the furthest limit to all thoughts is the Guru. 1 That which is of the nature of all causes and effects but yet without them, that which is without saṅkalpa, of the nature of all bliss and the auspicious, that which is the great one of the nature of bliss, that which illuminates all luminaries and that which is full of the bliss of nāḍa (spiritual sound), without any enjoyment and contemplation and beyond nāḍas and kalās (parts)—that is Āṭmā, that is the 'I', the indestructible. Being devoid of all the difference of Āṭmā and non-Āṭmā, of heterogeneity and homogeneity, and of quiescence and non-quiescence—that is the one Jyoṭis at the end of nāḍa. Being remote from the conception of Mahā-vakyārṭha (i.e., the meaning of Maha-vākyas) as well of 'I am Brahman,' being devoid of or without the conception of the word and the meaning, and being devoid of the conception of the destructible and indestructible—that is the one Jyoṭis at the end of nāḍa. Being without the conception 'I am the partless non-dual essence' or 'I am the blissful,' and being of the nature of the one beyond all—that is one Jyoṭis at the end of nāḍa. He who is devoid of the significance of Āṭmā (viz. motion) and devoid of Sachchiḍānanḍa—he is alone Āṭmā, the eternal. He who is undefinable and unreachable by the words of the Veḍas, who has neither externals nor internals, and whose symbol is either the universe or Brahman—he is undoubtedly Āṭmā. He who has no body, nor

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is a Jīva made up of the elements and their compounds, who has neither form nor name, neither the enjoyable nor the enjoyer, neither Saṭ nor asaṭ, neither preservation nor regeneration, neither guṇa nor non-guṇa—that is undoubtedly my Āṭmā. He who has neither the described nor description, neither śravaṇa nor manana, neither Guru nor disciple, neither the world of the Ḍevas nor the Ḍevas nor Asuras, neither duty nor non-duty, neither the immaculate nor non-immaculate, neither time nor non-time, neither certainty nor doubt, neither manṭra nor non-manṭra, neither science nor non-science, neither the seer nor the sight which is subtle, nor the nectar of time—that is Āṭmā. Rest assured that not-Āṭmā is a misnomer. There is no manas as not-Āṭmā. There is no world as not-Āṭma. Owing to the absence of all saṅkalpas and to the giving up of all actions, Brahman alone remains, and there is no not-Āṭmā. Being devoid of the three bodies, the three periods of time, the three guṇas of Jīva, the three pains and the three worlds, and following the saying 'All is Brahman,' know that there is nothing to be known through the absence of chiṭṭa; there is no old age through the absence of body; no motion through the absence of legs; no action through the absence of hands; no death through the absence of creatures; no happiness through the absence of buḍḍhi; no virtue, no purity, no fear, no repetition of manṭras, no Guru nor disciple. There is no second in the absence of one. Where there is not the second, there is not the first. Where there is truth alone, there is no non-truth possible; where there is non-truth alone, there is no truth possible. If you regard a thing auspicious as inauspicious, then auspiciousness is desired (as separate) from inauspiciousness. If you regard fear as non-fear, then fear will arise out of non-fear. If bondage should become emancipation, then in the absence of bondage will be no emancipation. If birth should imply death, then in the absence of birth, there is no death. If 'thou' should imply 'I,' then in the absence of 'thou' there is no 'I'. If 'this' should be 'that,' 'this' does not exist in the absence of 'that'. If being should imply non-being, then non-being will imply being. If an effect implies a cause, then in the absence

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of effect, there is no cause. If duality implies non-duality, then in the absence of duality, there is no non-duality. If there should be the seen, then there is the eye (or sight); in the absence of the seen, there is no eye. In the absence of the interior, there is no exterior. If there should be fullness, then non-fullness is possible. Therefore (all) this exists nowhere. Neither you nor I, nor this nor these exist. There exists no (object of) comparison in the true one. There is no simile in the unborn. There is (in it) no mind to think. I am the supreme Brahman. This world is Brahman only. Thou and I are Brahman only. I am Chinmāṭra simply, and there is no not-Āṭmā. Rest assured of it. This universe is not (really at all). This universe is not (really) at all. It was nowhere produced and stays nowhere. Some say that chiṭṭa is the universe. Not at all. It exists not. Neither the universe nor chiṭṭa nor ahaṅkāra nor Jīva exists (really). Neither the creation of Māyā nor Māyā itself exists (really). Fear does not (really) exist. Actor, action, hearing, thinking, the two samāḍhis, the measurer, the measure, ajñāna and aviveka—none of these exists (truly) anywhere. Therefore the four moving 1 considerations and the three kinds of relationship exist not. There is no Gaṅgā, no Gaya, no Seṭu (bridge), no elements or anything else, no earth, water, fire, vāyu, and ākas anywhere, no Ḍevas, no guardians of the four quarters, no Veḍas, no Guru, no distance, no proximity, no time, no middle, no non-duality, no truth, no untruth, no bondage, no emancipation, no Saṭ, no asaṭ, no happiness, etc., no class, no motion, no caste, and no worldly business. All is Brahman only and nothing else—all is Brahman only and nothing else. There exists then nothing (or statement) as that 'consciousness alone is'; there is (then) no saying such as 'Chiṭ is I'. The statement 'I am Brahman' does not exist (then); nor does exist (then) the statement: 'I am the eternally pure'. Whatever is uttered by the mouth, whatever is thought by manas, whatever is determined by buḍḍhi, whatever is cognized by chiṭṭa—all these do not exist. There is no Yogin or

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yoga then. All are and are not. Neither day nor night, neither bathing nor contemplating, neither delusion nor non-delusion—all these do not exist then. Know that is no not-Āṭmā.

The Veḍas, Sciences, Purāṇas, effect and cause, Īśvara and the world and the elements and mankind—all these are unreal. There is no doubt of it. Bondage, salvation, happiness, relatives, meditation, chiṭṭa, the Ḍevas, the demons, the secondary and the primary, the high and the low—all these are unreal. There is no doubt of it. Whatever is uttered by the mouth, whatever is willed by saṅkalpa, whatever is thought by manas—all these are unreal. Whatever is determined by the buḍḍhi, whatever is cognized by chiṭṭa, whatever is discussed by the religious books, whatever is seen by the eye and heard by the ears, and whatever exists as Saṭ, as also the ear, the eye, and the limbs—all these are unreal. Whatever is described as such and such, whatever is thought as so-and-so, all the existing thoughts such as 'thou art I', 'that is this,' and 'He is I,' and whatever happens in moksha, as also all saṅkalpas, delusion, illusory attribution, mysteries and all the diversities of enjoyment and sin—all these do not exist. So is also not-Āṭmā. Mine and thine, my and thy, for me and for thee, by me and by thee—all these are unreal. (The statement) that Vishṇu is the preserver, Brahmā is the creator, Ruḍra is the destroyer—know that these undoubtedly are false. Bathing, utterings of manṭras, japas (religious austerities) homa (sacrifice), study of the Veḍas, worship of the Ḍevas, manṭra, ṭanṭra, association with the good, the unfolding of the faults of guṇas, the working of the internal organ, the result of aviḍyā, and the many crores of mundane eggs—all these are unreal. Whatever is spoken of as true according to the verdict of all teachers, whatever is seen in this world and whatever exists—all these are unreal. Whatever is uttered by words, whatever is ascertained, spoken, enjoyed, given or done by anyone, whatever action is done, good or bad, whatever is done as truth—know all these to be unreal. Thou alone art the transcendental Āṭmā and the supreme Guru of the form of ākāś, which is devoid of fitness (for it) and of the nature of all creatures.

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[paragraph continues] Thou art Brahman; thou art time; and thou art Brahman, that is ever and imponderable. Thou art everywhere, of all forms, and full of consciousness. Thou art the truth. Thou art one that has mastered the siḍḍhis, and thou art the ancient, the emancipated, emancipation, the nectar of bliss, the God, the quiescent, the diseaseless, Brahman the full, and greater than the great. Thou art impartial, Saṭ and the ancient knowledge, recognised by the words 'Truth, etc'. Thou art devoid of all parts. Thou art the ever-existing—thou appearest as Brahmā, Ruḍra, Inḍra, etc.—thou art above the illusion of the universe—thou shinest in all elements—thou art without saṅkalpa in all—thou art known by means of the underlying meaning of all scriptures; thou art ever content and ever happily seated (in thyself); thou art without motion; etc. In all things, thou art without any characteristics; in all things thou art contemplated by Vishṇu and other Ḍevas at all times; thou hast the nature of Chiṭ, thou art Chinmāṭrā unchecked, thou stayest in Āṭmā itself, thou art void of everything and without gums, thou art bliss, the great, the one secondless, the state of Saṭ and asaṭ, the knower, the known, the seer, the nature of Sachchiḍānanḍa, the lord of Ḍevas, the all-pervading, the deathless, the moving, the motionless, the all and the non-all with quiescence and non-quiescence, Saṭ alone, Saṭ commonly (found in all), of the form of Niṭya-Siḍḍha (the unconditioned developed one), and yet devoid of all siḍḍhis. There is not an atom which thou dost not penetrate; but yet thou art without it. Thou art devoid of existence and non-existence as also the aim and object aimed at. Thou art changeless, decayless, beyond all nāḍas, without kāla or kāshta (divisions of time) and without Brahmā, Vishṇu, and Śiva. Thou lookest into the nature of each and art above the nature of each. Thou art immersed in the bliss of Self. Thou art the monarch of the kingdom of Self, and yet without the conception of Self. Thou art of the nature of fullness and incompleteness. There is nothing that thou seest which is not in thyself. Thou dost not stir out of thy nature. Thou attest according to the nature of each. Thou art nothing but the nature of each. Have no doubt 'thou art I'.

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"This universe and everything in it, whether the seer or the seen, resembles the horns of a hare (or are illusory). Earth, water, agni, vāyu, ākāś, manas, buḍḍhi, ahaṅkāra, ṭejas, the worlds and the sphere of the universe, destruction, birth, truth, virtue, vice, gain, desires, passion, anger, greed, the object of meditation, wisdom, guru, disciple, limitation, the beginning and end, auspiciousness, the past, present, and future, the aim and the object of aim, mental restraint, inquiry, contentment, enjoyer, enjoyment, etc., the eight parts of yoga, yama, etc., the going and coming (of life), the beginning, middle and end, that which can be taken and rejected, Hari, Śiva, the organs, manas, the three states, the twenty-four ṭaṭṭvas, the four means, one of the same class or different classes, Bhūḥ and other worlds, all the castes and orders of life with the rules laid down for each, manṭras and tanṭras, science and nescience, all the Veḍas, the inert and the non-inert, bondage and salvation, spiritual wisdom and non-wisdom, the enlightened and the non-enlightened, duality and non-duality, the conclusion of all Veḍānṭas and Śāsṭras, the theory of the existence of all souls and that of one soul only, whatever is thought by chiṭṭa, whatever is willed by saṅkalpa, whatever is determined by buḍḍhi, whatever one hears and sees, whatever the guru instructs, whatever is sensed by all the organs, whatever is discussed in mīmāmsā, whatever is ascertained by nyāya (philosophy) and by the great ones who have reached the other side of the Veḍas, the saying 'Śiva destroys the world, Vishṇu protects it, and Brahma creates it', whatever is found in the purāṇas, whatever is ascertained by the Veḍas, and is the signification of all the Veḍas—all these resemble the horns of a hare. The conception 'I am the body' is spoken of as the internal organ; the conception 'I am the body' is spoken of as the great mundane existence; the conception 'I am the body' constitutes the whole universe. The conception 'I am the body' is spoken of as the knot of the heart, as non-wisdom, as the state of asaṭ, as nescience, as the dual, as the true Jīva and as with parts, is certainly the great sin, and is the disease generated by the fault of thirst after desires. That

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which is saṅkalpa, the three pains, passion, anger, bondage, all the miseries, all the faults and the various forms of time—know these to be the result of manas. Manas alone is the whole world, the ever-deluding, the mundane existence, the three worlds, the great pains, the old age and others, death and the great sin, the saṅkalpa, the Jīva, the chiṭṭa, the ahaṅkāra, the bondage, the internal organ and earth, water, agni, vāyū, and ākāś. Sound, touch, form, taste, and odour, the five sheaths, the waking, the, dreaming, and dreamless sleeping states, the guardians of the eight quarters, Vasus, Ruḍras, Āḍiṭyas, the seen, the inert, the pairs and non-wisdom—all these are the products of manas. Rest assured that there is no reality in all that is saṅkalpa. The whole world, the guru, disciple, etc., do not exist, yea, do not exist. Thus ends the fifth chapter of this Upanishaḍ."

Chapter VI

Ṛbhu continued again: "Know everything as Sachchinmaya (full of Saṭ and consciousness). It pervades everything. Sachchiḍānanḍa is non-dual, decayless, alone and other than all. It is 'I'. It alone is ākāś and 'thou'. It is I. There is (in it) no manas, no buḍḍhi, no ahaṅkāra, no chiṭṭa, or the collection of these—neither 'thou' nor I, nor anything else nor everything. Brahman alone is. Sentence, words, Veḍas, letters, beginning, middle, or end, truth, law, pleasure, pain, existence, māyā, prakṛṭi, body, face, nose, tongue, palate, teeth, lip, forehead, expiration and inspiration, sweat, bone, blood, urine, distance, proximity, limb, belly, crown, the movement of hands and feet, Śāsṭras, command, the knower, the known, and the knowledge, the waking, dreaming and dreamless sleeping and the fourth state—all these do not belong to me. Everything is Sachchinmaya interwoven. No attributes pertaining to body, elements and spirit, no root, no vision, no Ṭaijasa, no Prājña, no Virāt, no Sūṭrāṭma, no Īśvara, and no going or coming, neither gain nor loss, neither the acceptable nor the rejectable, nor the censurable, neither the pure nor the impure, neither the stout nor the lean, no sorrow, time, space, speech,

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all, fear, duality, tree, grass or mountain, no meditation, no siḍḍhi of yoga, no Brāhmaṇa, Kshaṭṭriya or Vaiśya, no bird or beast, or limb, no greed, delusion, pride, malice, passion, anger or others, no woman, Śūḍra, castes or others, nothing that is eatable or enjoyable, no increase or decrease, no belief in the Veḍas, no speech, no worldliness or unworldliness, no transaction, no folly, no measure or measured, no enjoyment or enjoyed, no friends, son, etc., father, mother, or sister, no birth or death, no growth, body or 'I', no emptiness or fullness, no internal organs or mundane existence, no night, no day, no Brahmā, Vishṇu, or Śiva, no week, fortnight, month, or year, no unsteadiness, no Brahmaloka, Vaikuṇtha, Kailāsa and others, no Swarga, Inḍra, Agniloka, Agni, Yamaloka, Yama, vāyuloka, guardians of the world, three worlds—Bhūḥ, Bhuvaḥ, Svaḥ, Pāṭāla or surface of earth, no science, nescience, māyā, prakṛṭi, inertness, permanency, transience, destruction, movement, running, object of meditation, bathing, manṭra or object, no adorable object, anointment or sipping with water, no flower, fruit, sandal, light waved before god, praise, prostrations or circumambulation, no entreaty, conception of separateness even, oblation of food, offered food, sacrifice, actions, abuse, praise, Gāyaṭrī and sanḍhi (period of junction, such as twilight, etc.), no mental state, calamity, evil desire, bad soul, chaṅdāla (low caste person) pulkasa, unbearableness, unspeakableness, kirāṭa (hunter), kaiṭava (demon), partiality, partisanship, ornament, chief, or pride, no manyness, no oneness, durability, triad, tetrad, greatness, smallness, fullness, or delusion, no kaiṭava, Benares, ṭapas, clan, family, sūṭra, greatness, poverty, girl, old woman or widow, no pollution, birth, introvision or illusion, no sacred sentences, identity, or the siḍḍhis, aṇimā, etc.

"Everything being consciousness alone, there is no fault in anything. Everything being of the nature of Saṭ alone, is Sachchiḍānanḍa only. Brahman alone is everything and there is nothing else. So 'That' is 'I'. 'That' is 'I'. 'That' alone is 'I'. 'That' alone is 'I'. 'That' alone is 'I'. The eternal Brahman alone is 'I'. I am Brahman alone without being subject to mundane existence. I am Brahman alone

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without any manas, any buḍḍhi, organs or body. I am Brahman alone not perceivable. I am Brahman alone and not Jīva. I am Brahman alone and not liable to change. I am Brahman alone and not inert. I am Brahman alone and have no death. I am Brahman alone and have no prāṇas. I am Brahman alone and greater than the great. This is Brahman. Great is Brahman. Truth is Brahman. It is all-pervading. Time is Brahman. Kāla is Brahman. Happiness is Brahman. It is self-shining. One is Brahman. Two is Brahman. Delusion is Brahman. Kāma and others are Brahman. Badness is Brahman. Goodness is Brahman. It is of the form of restraint, quiescence, the all-pervading and the all-powerful. The Loka (world) is Brahman. Guru is Brahman. Disciple is Brahman. It is Saḍāśiva. (That which) is before is Brahman. (That which will be) hereafter is Brahman. Purity is Brahman. Auspiciousness and inauspiciousness are Brahman. Jīva always is Brahman. I am Sachchiḍānanḍa. All are of the nature of Brahman. The universe is said to be of the nature of Brahman. Brahman is itself. There is no doubt of it. There is nothing out of itself. The letter Om of the form of consciousness is Brahman alone. Everything is itself. I alone am the whole universe and the highest seat, have crossed the guṇas and am greater than the great, the supreme Brahman, Guru of Gurus, the support of all and the bliss of bliss. There is no universe besides Āṭmā. The universe is of the nature of Āṭmā. There is nowhere (or no place) without Āṭmā. There is not even grass different from Āṭmā. There is not husk different from Brahman. The whole universe is of the nature of Āṭmā. All this is of the nature of Brahman. Asaṭ is not of the nature of Brahman. There is not a grass different from Brahman. There is not a seat different from Brahman; there is not a Guru different from Brahman; there is not a body different from Brahman. There is nothing different from Brahman like I-ness or you-ness. Whatever is seen in this world, whatever is spoken of by the people, whatever is enjoyed everywhere—all these are asaṭ (unreal) only. The differences arising from the actor, action, qualities, likes, taste and gender—all these arise from asaṭ and are (but) pleasurable.

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[paragraph continues] The differences arising from time, objects, actions, success or defeat and whatever else—all these are simply asaṭ. The internal organ is asaṭ. The organs are asaṭ. All the prāṇas, the collections of all these, the five sheaths, the five deities, the six changes, the six enemies, the six seasons, and the six tastes, are asaṭ. I am Sachchiḍānanḍa. The universe is rootless. I am Āṭmā alone, Chiṭ and Ānanḍa. The scenes of mundane existence are not different. I am the Truth of the nature of Ānanḍa and of the nature of the imponderable Chiṭ. All this is of the nature of jñāna.

"I am the secondless, having jñāna and bliss. I am of the nature of an illuminator of all things. I am of the nature of all non-being. I alone shine always. Therefore how can I with such a nature become asaṭ? That which is called 'thou' is the great Brahman of the nature of the bliss of consciousness and of the nature of chiṭ having chiḍākāś and chiṭ alone as the great bliss. Āṭmā alone is 'I'. Asaṭ is not 'I'. I am Kūtasṭha, the great guru and Sachchiḍānanḍa alone. I am this born universe. No time, no universe, no māyā, no prakṛṭi (in me). I alone am the Hari. Personally, I alone am the Saḍāśiva. I am of the nature of pure consciousness. I am the enjoyer of pure saṭṭva. I am the only essence full of chiṭ. Everything is Brahman and Brahman alone. Everything is Brahman and is chiṭ alone. I am of the nature of the all-latent and the all-witness. I am the supreme Āṭmā, the supreme Jyoṭis, the supreme wealth, the supreme goal, the essence of all veḍānṭas, the subject discussed in all the Śāsṭras the nature of yogic bliss, the ocean of the chief bliss, the brightness of all wisdom, of the nature of chief wisdom, the brightness of the fourth state and the non-fourth but devoid of them, the indestructible chiṭ, truth, Vāsuḍeva, the birthless, and the deathless Brahmā, Chiḍākāś, the unconditioned, the stainless, the immaculate, the emancipated, the utterly emancipated, the soulless, the formless and of the nature of the non-created universe.

"The universe which is assumed as truth and non-truth does not really exist. Brahman is of the nature of eternal bliss and

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is even by itself. It is endless, decayless, quiescent and of one nature only. If anything is other than myself, then it is as unreal as the mirage in an oasis. If one should be afraid of the son of a barren woman, or if a powerful elephant be killed by means of the horns of a hare, then the world (really is). If one (person) can quench his thirst by drinking the waters of the mirage, or if one should be killed by the horns of a man, then the universe really is. The universe exists always in the true Ganḍharva city (merely unreal). When the blueness of the, sky really exists in it, then the universe really is. When the silver in mother-of-pearl can be used in making an ornament, when a man is bitten by (the conception of) a snake in a rope, when the flaming fire is quenched by means of a golden arrow, when milky food is obtained in the (barren) forest of Vindhya (mountains), when cooking can take place by means of the fuel of (wet) plantain trees, when a female (baby) just born begins to cook, when curds resume the state of milk, or when the milk (milked) goes back through the teats of a cow, then will the universe really be. When the dust of the earth shall be produced in the ocean, when the maddened elephant is tied by means of the hair of a tortoise, when (mountain) Meru is shaken by the thread in the stalk of a lotus, when the ocean is bound by its rows of tides, when the fire flames downwards, when flame shall become (really) cold, when the lotus shall grow out of flaming fire, when Inḍranīla (sapphire) arises in the great mountains, when Meru comes and sits in the lotus-eye, when a mountain can become the offspring of a black bee, when Meru shall shake, when a lion is killed by a gnat, when the three worlds can be found in the space of the hollow of an atom, when the fire which burns a straw shall last for a long time, when the objects seen in a dream shall come in the waking state, when the current of a river shall stand still (of itself), when the delivery of a barren woman shall be fruitful, when the crow shall walk like a swan, when the mule shall fight with a lion, when a great ass shall walk like an elephant, when the full moon shall become a sun, when Rāhu (one of the nodes) shall abandon the sun and the moon, when a good crop shall arise out of the

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waste (burnt) seeds, when the poor shall enjoy the happiness of the rich, when the lions shall be conquered by the bravery of dogs, when the heart of Jñānīs is known by fools, when the ocean is drunk by the dogs without any remainder, when the pure ākāś shall fall upon men, when heaven shall fall on the earth, when the flower in the sky shall emit fragrance, when a forest appearing in pure ākāś shall move, and when reflection shall arise in a glass simply (without mercury or anything else in its back), then the world really is. There is no universe in the womb of Aja (the unborn Brahman)—there is no universe in the womb of Āṭma. Duality and non-duality, which are but the results of differentiation, are really not. All this is the result of māyā. Therefore, there should be Brahma-Bhāvanā. If misery should arise from the conception of 'I am the body,' then it is certain 'I am Brahman.' The knot of the heart is the wheel of Brahman, which cuts asunder the knot of existence. When doubt arises in one, he should have faith in Brahman. That non-dual Brahman, which is eternal and of the form of unconditioned bliss, is the guard of Āṭmā against the chief of the form of not-Āṭmā. Through instances like the above is established the nature of Brahman. Brahman alone is the all-abode. Abandon the name even of the universe. Knowing for certain 'I am Brahman,' give up the 'I'. Everything disappears as the flower from the hands of a sleeping person. There is neither body nor karma. Everything is Brahman alone. There are neither objects, nor actions, nor the four states. Everything which has the three characteristics of vijñāna is Brahman alone. Abandoning all action, contemplate 'I am Brahman,' 'I am Brahman'. There is no doubt of this. I am Brahman of the nature of chiṭ. I am of the nature of Sachchiḍānanḍa.

"This great science of Śaṅkara should never be explained to any ordinary person, to an atheist or to a faithless, ill-behaved or evil-minded person. It should be, after due examination, given to the high-souled ones whose minds are purified with devotion to their gurus. It should be taught for a year and a half. Leaving off thoroughly and entirely the practice

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recommended by the (other) Upanishaḍs, one should study the Ṭejobinḍu-Upanishaḍ always with delight. By once studying it, he becomes one with Brahman. Thus ends the sixth chapter. Thus ends the Upanishaḍ."


78:1 Ṭejas is spiritual light and binḍu is seed; hence the seed or source of spiritual light.

78:2 This probably refers to the triangle appearing in the disciples.

79:1 All these parts of yoga are explained here from the standpoint of veḍānṭa.

82:1 Sanaka is one of the four Kumāras in the Purāṇas who refused to create; Suka is the son of Veḍa-Vyās.

82:2 The Kumāra is the son of Śiva called Kārṭikēya the six-faced, symbolising the six-faced Mars in one sense.

86:1 Sesha, meaning remainder is the serpent representing time.

93:1 Herein is given the hint as to the difference of functions between an Ishta-ḍevaṭā and a Guru.

95:1 The four moving considerations (of veḍānṭa) are subject (Brahman), object, relationship, and the qualified person.

Next: 13. Brahmopanishaḍ of Kṛshṇa-Yajurveḍa