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1. Now we will explain the rule for entering the order of ascetics (samnyâsa).

2. Some (teachers say), 'He who has finished his studentship may become an ascetic immediately on (the completion of) that.' 2

3. But (according to others, asceticism is befitting) for Sâlînas and Yâyâvaras who are childless; 3

4. Or a widower (may become an ascetic). 4

5. (In general) they prescribe the profession of asceticism after the completion of the seventieth year and after the children have been firmly settled in (the performance of) their sacred duties.

6. Or a hermit in the woods (may become an 6

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ascetic) on finishing the (special) ceremonies (prescribed for him).

7. 'That eternal greatness of the Brâhmana is neither increased nor diminished by works. The soul knows the nature of that (greatness). He who knows that, is not stained by evil deeds.' 7

8. 'It leads to the cessation of births.'

9. 'The eternal one leads (him) to glory.' The greatness (of asceticism is declared by these passages).

10. After having caused the hair of his head, his beard, the hair on his body, and his nails to be cut, he prepares

11. Sticks, a rope, a cloth for straining water, a water vessel, and an alms-bowl. 11

12. Taking these (implements, let him go) to the extremity of the village, or to- the extremity of the boundary (of the village), or to the house where the sacred fires are kept, partake of a threefold (mixture of) clarified butter, milk, (and) sour milk, and (afterwards) fast;

13. Or (he may partake of) water.

14. (Saying), 'Om, Bhûh, I enter the Sâvitrî, tat savitur varenyam; Om, Bhuvah, I enter the Sâvitrî, bhargo devasya dhîmahi; Om, I enter the Sâvitrî, dhiyo yo nah pr.akodayât;' (he shall recite the Sâvitrî) foot by foot, half-verse by half-verse, (and finish by repeating) the whole or the parts (of the verse). 14

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15. It is declared in the Veda, 'Entering order after order, (man) becomes (one with) Brahman.'

16. Now they quote also (the following verse) 'He who has passed from order to order, has offered burnt oblations and kept his organs in subjection, becomes afterwards, tired with (giving) alms and (making) offerings, an ascetic.' 16

17. Such an ascetic (becomes one with) the infinite (Brahman).

18. Before the sun sets, he heaps fuel on the Gârhapatya fire, brings the Anvâhâryapakana fire (to the spot), takes the flaming Âhavanîya. fire out (of the Gârhapatya), melts butter on the Gârhapatya fire, cleanses it (with Kusa grass), takes four times (portions of it) in the sacrificial spoon (called Sruk), and offers in the Âhavanîya fire on which sacred fuel has been heaped, (four times) a full oblation, (saying), 'Om, Svâhâ!' 18

19. It is declared in the Veda that this (offering is) the Brahmânvâdhâna (putting fuel on the sacred fires for the sake of the universal soul).

20. Now in the evening, after the Agnihotra has been offered, he scatters grass to the north of the Gârhapatya fire, places the sacrificial vessels in pairs, the upper part turned downwards, on it, strews Darbha grass to the south of the Âhavanîya fire on the seat destined for the Brahman priest, covers

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it with the skin of a black antelope, and remains awake during that night.

21. A Brâhmana who, knowing this, dies after fasting during the night of Brahman and repositing within himself the sacred fires, conquers all guilt, even (that of) killing a Brâhmana. 21

22. Then he rises in the muhûrta sacred to Brahman, and offers the early Agnihotra just at the (appointed) time.

23. Next, after covering the (part of the altar called) Prishthyâ and bringing water, he prepares (an offering) to (Agni) Vaisvânara (which is cooked) in twelve potsherds. That (well-)known Ishti is the last (which he performs).

24. Afterwards he throws the sacrificial vessels, which are neither made of earth nor of stone, into the Âhavanîya fire,

25. (And) throwing the two Aranis into the Gârhapatya fire (with the words), 'May ye be of one mind with us,' he reposits the sacred fires in himself. 25

26. (Reciting the sacred text), 'O Fire, that body of thine, which is fit for the sacrifice,' he inhales the smell of (the smoke of) each fire thrice three times.

27. Then, standing within the sacrificial enclosure, (he says) thrice in a low voice and thrice aloud, 'Om, Bhûh, Bhuvah, Svah, I have entered the order of ascetics, I have entered the order of ascetics, I have entered the order of ascetics,'

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28. It is declared in the Veda, 'The gods are trebly true.' 28

29. (Finally) he pours out as much water as will fill his joined hands, (saying), 'I promise not to injure any living being.' 29

30. Now they quote also (the following verse) An ascetic who roams about after having given a promise of safety to all living beings, is not threatened with danger by any creature.' 30

31. (Henceforth) he must restrain his speech. 31

32. He grasps his staff, (saying), '(Thou art my) friend, protect me.'

33. He takes the rope, (reciting the verse), 'The brilliant light,' &c. 33

34. He takes the cloth for straining water, (reciting the text), 'With which means of purification the gods,' &c.

35. He takes the waterpot, (reciting the verse), Through that light, by which the gods rose on high,' &c. 35

36. He takes the alms-bowl, (reciting the Vyâhritis).

37. Taking with him the staves, the rope, the 37

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cloth for straining water, the waterpot, (and) the alms-bowl, he goes where water (is to be obtained), bathes, sips water, (and) washes himself, (reciting the verses called) Surabhimatî, Abliṅgâs, Vârunîs, Hiranyavarnâs, and Pâvamânîs. Entering the water, he performs sixteen suppressions of the breath, (mentally repeating) the Aghamarshana hymn, ascends the bank, wrings out his dress, puts on another pure dress, sips water, takes the cloth for straining, (saying), 'Om, Bhûh, Bhuvah, Svah,' and performs the Tarpana (with the following texts), 'Om, Bhûh, I satiate,' 'Om, Bhuvah --, Om, Svah --, Om, Mahah --, Om, Ganah --, Om, Tapah --, Om, Satyam --.'

38. He takes up as much water as his joined hands will hold for the manes, (and satiates them 38

with it) exactly in the same manner as the gods, (saying), 'Om, Bhûh Svadhâ, Om, Bhuvah Svadhâ,' &c.

39. Then he worships the sun, (reciting) the two verses (which begin), 'Ud u tyam kitram,' &c. 40

40. (Saying), 'Om, this (syllable Om), forsooth, is Brahman; this (syllable) which sheds warmth is light; this which gives warmth is the Veda; this must be known as that which sheds warmth;' he thus satiates the soul (and afterwards) worships the soul (with these texts), 'The soul (is) Brahman, (is) light.'

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41. Let him repeat the Sâvitrî one thousand times, or one hundred times, or an unlimited number of times.

42. (Saying), 'Bhûh, Bhuvah, Suvah,' he takes up the cloth for straining, (and) fetches water.

43. Let him not, (at any period) after that (moment), sip water which has not been drawn up (from a well and the like), which has not been strained, and which has not been completely cleansed. 43

44. Let him not wear any longer a white dress.

45. (He may carry) one staff or three staves.


273:2 17. Gautama III, 1.

273:3 Regarding the two terms Sâlîna and Yâyâvara, see below, III, I, 3.4.

273:4 Vidhura, translated, according to Govinda's explanation, by 'widower,' perhaps includes all persons who have been separated from their families.

273:6 Regarding the ceremonies to be performed by hermits in the wood, see above, II, 6, 11, 15, and below, III, 3.

274:7 See above, II, 6, 11, 30.

274:11gñavalkya III, 58-60.

274:14 This part of the ceremony is called Sâvitrîpravesa, 'entering the Sâvitrî: According to the Dharmasindhu, fol. 84 a, 1. 8, the last Mantra is 'Om, Bhûh, Bhuvah, Svah, I enter the Sâvitrî; we meditate on that adorable light of divine Savitri, who may impel our thoughts.'

275:16 Manu VI, 34.

275:18 Anvâhâryapakana is another name of the so-called Dakshinâgni, in which the sacrificial viands are cooked. The cleansing of the butter (utpavana) is performed by taking hold of the ends of blades of Kusa grass and dipping the bent middle part into the melted butter and then drawing it upwards. A full burnt oblation (pûrnâhuti) consists of a whole spoonful. As four spoonfuls are to be taken out, it follows that four oblations are to be offered.

276:21 The night during which the ascetic keeps watch near the fires is called 'the night of Brahman.'

276:25 The Aranis are the two pieces of wood used for producing fire by friction, Taittirîya Samhitâ I, 3, 7, 1-2.

277:28 Taittirîya Âranyaka II, 18, 6.

277:29 All gifts must be confirmed by a libation of water, which ii other cases is poured into the hand of the recipient. The ceremony proves more clearly even than the numerous other passages of the Smritis, in which ascetic, are exhorted to abstain from injuring living beings, that the so-called ahimsâ doctrine is not of Buddhistic, but of Brâhmanical origin.

277:30 Vasishtha X, 1-2.

277:31 Gautama III, 27.

277:33 Taittirîya Brâhmana III, 7, 8, 1.

277:35 Taittirîya Samhitâ V, 7, 2, 2,

277:37 The Surabhimatî occurs Taittirîya Brâhmana III, 9, 7, 5. For the other texts named, see above, II, 4, 7, 2. The Tarpana has been fully described above, II, 5, 9-20.

278:38 'In he same manner as the gods,' i.e. without passing the sacred string over the right shoulder.--Govinda.

278:40 The Gugarât and Dekhan MSS., including K., place after the first Om two additional Mantras, 'Brahman (is) Om; this universe (is) Om.' The object of the Mantras given in the Madras MSS. is to identify the Pranava with the Brahman, the sun, and the Veda.

279:43 Manu VI, 46. Aparipûtâbhih, 'which has not been completely cleansed,' probably refers to the so-called drishtyâ paripavana, 'carefully looking at it in order to see if any living being remains in it.'

Next: Prasna II, Adhyâya 10, Kandikâ 18