1. Formerly men and gods lived together in this world. Then the gods in reward of their sacrifices went to heaven, but men were left behind. Those men who perform sacrifices in the same manner as the gods did, dwell (after death) with the gods and Brahman in heaven. Now (seeing men left behind), Manu revealed this ceremony, which is designated by the word Srâddha (a funeral-oblation). 1
2. And (thus this rite has been revealed) for the salvation of mankind. 2
3. At that (rite) the Manes (of one's father, grandfather, and great-grand father) are the deities (to whom the sacrifice is offered). But the Brâhmanas, (who are fed,) represent the Âhavanîya-fire. 3
4. That rite must be performed in each month. 4
5. The afternoon of (a day of) the latter half is preferable (for it). 5
6. The last days of the latter half (of the month) likewise are (preferable to the first days).
7. (A funeral-oblation) offered on any day of the latter half of the month gladdens the Manes. But it procures different rewards for the sacrificer according to the time observed. 7
8. If it be performed on the first day of the half-month, the issue (of the sacrificer) will chiefly consist of females.
9. (Performed on the second day it procures) children who are free from thievish propensities.
10. (If it is performed) on the third day children will be born to him who will fulfil the various vows for studying (portions of the Veda).
11. (The sacrificer who performs it) on the fourth day becomes rich in small domestic animals.
12. (If he performs it) on the fifth day, sons (will be born to him). He will have numerous and distinguished offspring, and he will not die childless. 12
13. (If he performs it) on the sixth day, he will become a great traveller and gambler.
14. (The reward of a funeral-oblation performed) on the seventh day is success in agriculture.
15. (If he performs it) on the eighth day (its reward is) prosperity
16. (If he performs it) on the ninth day (its reward consists in) one-hoofed animals.
17. (If he performs it) on the tenth day (its reward is) success in trade.
18. (If he performs it) on the eleventh day (its reward is) black iron, tin, and lead.
19. (If he performs a funeral-oblation) on the twelfth day, he will become rich in cattle.
20. (If he performs it) on the thirteenth day, he will have many sons (and) many friends, (and) his offspring will be beautiful. But his (sons) will die young. 20
21. (If he performs it) on the fourteenth day (its reward is) success in battle. 21
22. (If he performs it) on the fifteenth day (its reward is) prosperity.
23. The substances (to be offered) at these (sacrifices) are sesamum, mâsha, rice, yava, water, roots, and fruits. 23
24. But, if food mixed with fat (is offered), the satisfaction of the Manes is greater, and (lasts) a longer time,
25. Likewise, if money, lawfully acquired, is given to worthy (persons).
26. Beef satisfies (the Manes) for a year, 26
27. Buffalo's (meat) for a longer (time) than that.
28. By this (permission of the use of buffalo's meat) it has been declared that the meat of (other) tame and wild animals is fit to be offered.
140:1 16. 'Intending to give the rules regarding the monthly Srâddha, he premises this explanatory statement in order to praise that sacrifice.'--Haradatta.
140:2 The reading 'nihsreyasâ ka' apparently has given great trouble to the commentators. Their explanations are, however, grammatically impossible. The right one is to take 'nihsreyasâ as a Vedic instrumental, for nihsreyasena, which may designate the 'reason'. If the dative is read, the sense remains the same.
140:3 'The comparison of the Brâhmanas with the Âhavanîya indicates that to feed Brâhmanas is the chief act at a Srâddha.'--Haradatta.
140:4 Manu III, 122, 123; Yâgñ. I, 217.
141:5 Manu III, 255, 278.
141:7 Manu III, 277; Yâgñ. I, 264, 265.
141:12 The translation follows the corrected reading given in the Addenda to the Critical Notes.
142:20 Others read the last part of the Sûtra, ayuvamârmas-tu bhavanti, 'they will not die young'--Haradatta. If the two halves of the Sûtra are joined and Darsanîyâpatyoyuvamârinah is read, the Sandhi may be dissolved in either manner.
142:21 Manu III, 276, and Yâgñ. I, 263, declare the fourteenth day to be unfit for a Srâddha, and the latter adds that Srâddhas for men killed in battle may be offered on that day. This latter statement explains why Âpastamba declares its reward to be 'success in battle.' The nature of the reward shows that on that day Kshatriyas, not Brâhmanas, should offer their Srâddhas.
142:23 Manu III, 267; Yâgñ. I, 257.
142:26 Manu III, 271.