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MANY and different are the names of good and bad spirits; but their proper and true names, as those of the stars, are known to God alone, who only numbers the multitude of stars, and calls them by their names, whereof none can be known by us but by divine revelation; very few are expressed to us in sacred writ. But the masters of the Hebrews think, that the names of angels are imposed on them by Adam, according to that which is written, "the Lord brought all things which he had made unto Adam, that he should name them, and as he called any thing, so the name of it was." Hence the Hebrew Mecubals think, together with Magicians and Cabalists, that it is in the power of man, to impose names upon spirits, but of such a man only who is dignified and elevated to this virtue by some divine gift or sacred authority: but because a name that may express the nature of divinity, or the whole virtue of angelical essences, cannot be made by any human voice, therefore names for the most part are put upon them from their works, signifying some certain office or effect which is required by the quire of spirits; which name then, and not otherwise, obtains efficacy and virtue to draw any spiritual substance from above, or beneath, to make any desired effect.

I have seen and known some writing on virgin parchment the name and seal of some spirit in the hour of the moon, which afterwards he gave to be devoured by a water-frog, and had muttered over some verse; the frog being let go into the water, rains and showers presently followed. I saw also the same man inscribing the name of another spirit with the seal thereof in the hour of Mars, which was given to a crow, who, being let go, after a verse muttered over, there followed from that part of the heaven whither it flew, lightnings, shaking, and horrible thunders, with thick clouds; neither were

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those names of spirits of an unknown tongue, neither did they signify any thing else but their offices; of this kind are the names of those angels, Raziel, Gabriel, Michael, Raphael, Haniel, which is as much as to say the vision of God, the virtue of God, the strength of God, the medicine of God, the glory of God. In like manner, in the offices of evil demons are read their names, viz. a player, a deceiver, a dreamer, a fornicator, and many such like. So we receive from many of the ancient fathers of the Hebrews the names of angels set over the planets and signs; over Saturn, Zaphiel; over Jupiter, Zadkiel; over Mars, Camael; over the Sun, Raphael; over Venus, Haniel; over Mercury, Michael; over the Moon, Gabriel. These are those seven spirits which always stand before the face of God, to whom is entrusted the disposing the whole celestial and terrene kingdoms which are under the moon: for these (as the more curious theologians say) govern all things by a certain vicissitude of hours, days, and years; as the astrologers teach concerning the planets which they are set over, which Mercurius Trismegistus calls the seven governors of the world, who, by the heavens as by instruments, distribute the influences of all the stars and signs upon their inferiors. There are some who ascribe them to the stars by names somewhat differing, saying, that over Saturn is set an intelligence called Oriphael, over Jupiter Zachariel, over Mars Zamael, over the Sun Michael, over Venus Anael, over Mercury Raphael, over the Moon Gabriel. And every one of these governs the world 354 years and four months; and the government begins from the intelligence of Saturn; afterwards, in order, the intelligences of Venus, Jupiter, Mercury, Mars, the Moon, and the Sun reign, and the government returns to the spirit of Saturn.

Tritemius writ to Maximilian Cæsar a special treatise concerning these, which he that will thoroughly examine may from thence draw great knowledge of future times.  1Over the twelve signs are set these, viz. over Aries, Malahidael; over Taurus, Asmodel; over Gemini, Ambriel; over Cancer, Muriel; over Leo, Verchiel; over Virgo, Hamaliel; over Libra, Zuriel; over Scorpio, Barchiel; over Sagittarius, Advachiel; over Capricorn, Hanael; over Aquarius, Cambiel; over Pisces, Barchiel. Of these spirits set over the planets and signs,

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signs, John made mention of in the Revelation, speaking of the former in the beginning; and the seven spirits which are in the presence of the throne of God, which I find are set over the seven planets, in the end of the book, where he describes the platform of the heavenly city, saying, that on the twelve orates thereof are twelve angels. There are again twenty-eight angels, who rule in the twenty-eight mansions of the moon, whose names are these; Geniel, Enediel, Anixiel, Azariel, Gabriel, Dirachiel, Scheliel, Amnediel, Barbiel, Ardefiel, Neciel, Abdizuel, Jazeriel, Ergediel, Atliel, Azeruel, Adriel, Egibiel, Amutiel, Kyriel, Bethnael, Geliel, Requiel, Abrinael, Agiel, Tagriel, Atheniel, Amnixiel. There are also four princes of the angels, which are set over the four winds, and over the four parts of the world. Michael is placed over the east-wind, Raphael over the west, Gabriel over the north, Nariel, who by some is called Ariel, is over the south. There are also assigned to the elements these, viz. to the air Cherub, to the water Tharsis, to the earth Ariel, to the fire Seraph. Now every one of these spirits is a great prince, and has much power and freedom in the dominion of his own planets and signs, and in their times, years, months, days and hours: and in their elements, and parts of the world, and winds. And every one of them rules over many legions; and after the same manner, among evil spirits, there are four, who, as most potent kings, are set over the rest, according to the four parts of the world, whose names are these, viz. Urieus, king of the east; Amaymon, king of the south; Paymon, king of the west; Egin, king, of the north; which the Hebrew doctors perhaps call more rightly thus, Samuel, Azazel, Azael, and Mahazuel, under whom many others rule as princes of legions and rulers. Likewise there are innumerable demons of private offices. Moreover, the ancient theologians of the Greeks reckon up six demons, which they call Telchines, others Alastores; which bearing ill-will to men, take up water out of the river Styx with their hands, sprinkle it upon the earth, whence follow calamities, plagues, and famines; and these are said to be Acteus, Megalezius, Ormenus, Lycus, Nicon, Mimon. But he that desires to know exactly the distinct names, offices, places, and times of angels, and evil demons, let him inquire into the book of Rabbi Simon of the Temples, and in his book of Lights, and in his treatise of the Greatness of Stature,

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and in the treatise of the Temples of Rabbi Ishmael, and in almost all the commentaries of his book of Formation, and he shall find it written at large concerning them.


56:1 TRITEMIUS on Spirits.

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