Hieroglyphics of Horapollo, tr. Alexander Turner Cory, , at sacred-texts.com
When they would signify God, or height, or lowness, or excellence, or blood, or victory, (or Ares, or Aphrodite,) [Hor or Hathor] 2, they delineate a HAWK. They symbolize by it God, because the bird is prolific and long-lived, or perhaps rather because it seems to be an image of the sun, being capable of looking more intently towards his rays than all other winged creatures: and hence physicians for the cure of the eyes use the herb hawkweed: hence
also it is, that under the form of a HAWK, they sometimes depict the sun as lord of vision. And they use it to denote height, because other birds, when they would soar on high, move themselves from side to side, being incapable of ascending vertically; but the hawk alone soars directly upwards. And they use it as a symbol of lowness, because other animals move not in a vertical line, but descend obliquely; the hawk, however, stoops directly down upon any thing beneath it. And they use it to denote excellence, because it appears to excel all birds—and for blood, because they say that this animal does not drink water, but blood—and for victory, because it shews itself capable of overcoming every winged creature; for when pressed by some more powerful bird, it directly turns itself in the air upon its
back, and fights with its claws extended upwards, and its wings and back below; and its opponent being unable to do the. like, is overcome.
III. This figure is constantly found over the head of the Egyptian kings in the representations of their victories, as well as upon other occasions.
13:2 Ald. and Treb. omit.