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IN the scene which illustrates the THIRD DIVISION of the Tuat, which is passed through by the Sun-god


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The Boat of Af, the dead Sun-god, in the Third Hour.


during the THIRD HOUR of the night, we see the boat of the god making its way over the waters of the river

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in the underworld. The dead Sun-god AF stands within a shrine in the form of a ram-headed man, as before, but there is a change in the composition of the crew, which now consists only of four mariners, two of whom stand before the shrine and two behind, and the goddess of the hour and a hawk-beaded deity, one of


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The Boat which capsizeth.


the forms of Horus, who is occupied in tying loops of rope to the elongated hawk-headed rowlocks in which the paddles may be worked. The boat of AF follows in the train of three boats, which may be thus described:--

The foremost boat is called UAA-PENAT,

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i.e., "The boat which capsizeth"; it contains three hawk-headed forms of the god Horus, and is steered by two male figures, who stand one in the bows and the other at the stern. In the middle of the boat stand the hawk-god BAK, and the hawk-goddess BAKET, and behind them, standing on a snake, is the


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The Boat of Rest.


third form of Horus. Between the front steersman and BAKET is the serpent TEKA-HRA, i.e., "Fiery face," and the aft steersman bears a name of similar meaning, NAB-HRA.

The second boat is called UAA-HERER,

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i.e., "The boat of Rest," and has in the middle an Osiris god in the form of a mummy; each end of the boat terminates in the head of a cynocephalus, and it is steered by two beings, one of whom is called TESEM-HRA-F, i.e., "He whose face is like a knife," and the other KHEN-EN-URT-F,


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The Boat of the Branch.


i.e., "The ferryman who resteth not." The Osiris god stands between two gods, one of whom is called AU-MATU, and the serpent which stands on its tail between the steersman in the bows and the first god is called SET-EM-HRA-F.

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The third boat is called PA-KHET, "The Branch," and each end terminates in the head of a lion. In the middle of it stands the form of Osiris, who is called SHEFSHEF, and he wears on his head a pair of ram's horns; his arms and the upper


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The Four Forms of Osiris.


portion of his body are swathed. Behind him stands the mummied form called AM-TA, and before him the god NEB-UAST. Of the two steersmen, only the name of the second, KHEN, or KHENNU is given; the name of the serpent

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which stands on its tail is SET-EM-MAAT-F.

The procession of boats is met by four forms of Osiris, who stand with the upper portion of their bodies swathed. Their names are:--1. NEB-NET, 2. MENI, ARA-TCHERU, 4. MAA-TCHERU.

The text written above the boats reads:--

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"This great god journeyeth over NET-NEB-UA-KHEPER-AUT (i.e., the Water of the Lord One, the Creator of food). [He who is in] this picture transporteth the boats which are in the earth, and he paddleth Osiris to this City. This great god resteth for a period in this City, and he sendeth forth his voice to Osiris, and to those who are in his following, and [then] these hidden boats guide him into this Field. This great god paddleth through this Field towards the Hour TENT-BAIU, and these boats journey round to the district of THETTU, after traversing this City. Whosoever knoweth these things shall have both his habitation and his bread with Ra."

In the upper register are the following:--

1. A dog-headed ape seated on an oval mass of sand; he is called HER-SHA-F, "He who is on his sand."

2. A dog-headed ape called TCHEB-NETER, or TEBI-NETER, seated in a coffer(?) with a vaulted roof.

3, 4. Two jackal-headed gods called ANPU and NEHEM-KHERU, or NEHA-KHERU.

5, 6. A man and a woman, who hold in each hand a pupil of the Eye of Horus, or Ra; the man is called

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[paragraph continues] ANTH, i.e., "He who brings," and the woman ANTET, i.e., "She who brings."

7. The ram SMA-KHEFTIU-F.

8. A mummied form, with projecting hands, called PET-AHAT.


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Third Hour. Upper Register. Gods Nos. 1-6.


9. ANUBIS of Thebes, in the form of a jackal, couchant on a pylon.

10. A kneeling man, who holds in his left hand a pupil of the Eye of RA, and is called AN-MAAT-RA-SEHETEP-NETERU, i.e., "The bringer of the Eye of RA, who maketh content the gods."

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Third Hour. Upper Register. Gods Nos. 7-11.


11. The papyrus sceptre UR-HEKAU, i.e., "Great one of words of power," surmounted by a piece of flesh.

12-15. Four gods, whose names are SAU-AB,


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Third Hour. Upper Register. Gods Nos. 12-19.


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[paragraph continues] THEMA, HUN-SAHU, and THET-EM-KERH.

16-19. Four mummied forms. The first has a pair of horns on his head, the second two curved plumes (?), the third a winged uraeus, and the head of the fourth is without ornament; their names appear to be PEBA-F,


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Third Hour. Upper Register. Gods Nos. 20-26.


[paragraph continues] KA-ARU, AUAI, and TEBA.

20-23. Four goddesses, whose names are HAIT, AKEBTIT, MATHI, and REMIT, these, as their names testify, were professional mourners.

24. The god HERU-KHETI, followed by

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the HENNU, standard, i.e., the hawk of SEKER upon a standard.

25, 26. The gods MEH-MAAT and NETER-NEFERU.

The text which refers to the above reads:--

"Those who are in this picture in the TUAT have the flesh of their own bodies, and their souls speak

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over them, and their shadows are united unto them, and after this great god hath addressed them, they speak to him, and they say words of praise to him, and they weep after he hath passed them by. The work which is theirs in Amentet is to take vengeance upon the Seba fiend of Ra, to make Nu to come into being, to make Hap (i.e., the Nile) to flow, and when


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Third Hour. Lower Register. Gods Nos. 1-6.


he hath come forth in the earth from them, they send forth their voice, and take vengeance upon the Seba fiend. Whosoever knoweth [these things] shall, when he passeth by these beings, not be driven away by their roarings, and he shall never fall down into their caverns."

In the lower register are:--

1. The god KHNEMU, ram-headed.

2. A bearded male figure called NERTA, with hands raised in adoration.

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3-6. Four forms of Osiris, mummified, bearded, and wearing the White Crown, and seated on chairs of state; their names are ASAR-NEB-AMENTET, ASAR-KHENT-AMENTET, ASAR-ASTI, and ASAR-THET-HEH, that is, "Osiris, lord of


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Third Hour. Lower Register. Gods Nos. 7-13.


[paragraph continues] Amentet," "Osiris at the head of Amentet," "Osiris of the two seats," and "Osiris, conqueror of millions of years."

7-11. Five goose-headed beings, each holding a knife in his right hand; four of their names are NEHA-HRA, AKEBSEN, ATEMTI, and TUATUI.

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12-14. A male figure called SEPAASHAT, who holds a knife with both hands, and stands between two women, whose names are MESKH-SET, and TEPT-BES-S.

15. The male bearded figure AMENTI.


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Third Hour. Lower Register. Gods Nos. 14-19.


16-19. Four forms of Osiris, mummified, bearded, and wearing the Red Crown, and seated on chairs of state; their names are ASAR-KA-AMENTET, ASAR-HER-KHENTU-F, ASAR-BATTI, and ASAR-KHERP-NETERU.

20, 21. The two goddesses SEH, and AHAU,

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who stand grasping the sceptre with both hands, and have their heads turned behind them.

22. The goddess BA-KHATI, who holds in each hand one of the eyes of Horns or RA.

23. The god KHETRA, holding a sceptre and an ankh.


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Third Hour. Lower Register. Gods Nos. 20-26.


24-26. Three gods, with bowed backs who touch the earth with their hands.

The text relating to the above reads:--

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"Those who are in this picture [and those who are in] the house of TET praise this great god, and when this great god hath sent forth words to them, they come to life, for when he hath called to them and hath sent forth his words to them [they have] their water, and they receive their due (literally, heads) in addition to the utterance of his mouth. The work which they have to do in Ament is to hew and to hack souls in pieces, and set restraint upon shadows, and to destroy such doomed beings as have their being in their place of destruction which blazeth with

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fire. They send forth flames and they cause fires to spring up, and the enemies are as those who have their knives over (or, on) their heads. They wail and they lament when this great god hath passed them by. The name of the warder of this Field is KHETRA. Whosoever knoweth this shall be in the condition of a spirit who hath dominion over his legs."

M. Maspero, in his description of the THIRD HOUR, 1

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includes an extract from the speech which the Sun-god Ra makes to the inhabitants of NET-NEB-UA-KHEPER-AUT; as he points out, though three copies of the speech are extant, all are mutilated (see Lefébure, Le Tombeau de Seti Ier., 1re partie, pll. xv.-xvii., pll. xviii.-xx., and pl. xxii.), and it is impossible at present to reconstruct the text, although the general meaning of several sentences is clear enough.


60:1 The portions rendered by M. Maspero read thus:--Ce grand dieu dit aux Biou shetiou (Ames mystérieuses) qui suivent Osiris: "O vous dont j'ai rendu mystérieuses, dont j'ai occulté les âmes, que j'ai mis à la suite d'Osiris pour le défendre, pour escorter ses images, pour anéantir ceux qui l'attaquent, si bien que le dieu Hon est à toi, ô Osiris, derrière toi, pour te défendre, pour escorter tes images, pour anéantir ceux qui l'attaquent, si bien que Hon est à toi, ô Osiris, que Sa est à toi, ô Khontamentit, vous dont les formes sont stables, vous dont les rites assurent l'existence, vous qui respirez l'air [de vos narines, qui voyez] de vos faces, qui écoutez de vos oreilles, qui êtes coiffés de vos coufièh, qui êtes vêtus de vos bandelettes, qui avez des revenus d'offrandes à vous sur terre par l'office des prêtres du dieu, qui avez des champs à vous de votre propre domaine, vous dont les âmes ne sont point renversées, dont les corps ne sont point culbutés, ouvrez vos cercles et tenez-vous à vos places, car je suis venu pour voir mes corps, inspecter mes images qui sont dans l'autre monde, et vous m'avez convoyé pour me permettre de leur apporter mon aide, si bien que je conduis à la rame ton âme au ciel, ô Osiris, ton âme à la terre, ô Khontaougrit, avec tes dieux derrière toi, tes mânes devant toi, ton être et tes formes [sur toi?], et alors ton mâne est enchanté, ô Osiris, vos mânes sont enchantés, ô vous qui suivez Osiris. Je monte en terre et le jour est derrière moi; je traverse la nuit, et mon âme se réunit à vos formes pendant le jour, j'accomplis de nuit les rites qui vous sont nécessaires, j'ai créé vos âmes pour moi, afin qu'elles soient derrière moi, et ce que j'ai fait pour elles vous empêche de tomber au lieu d'anéantissement."

Next: Chapter IV: The Fourth Division of the Tuat, Which Is Called Ankhet-Kheperu