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At this time Bimbisâra Râga, bowing his head, requested the honoured of the world to change his

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place of abode for the bamboo grove 1; graciously accepting it, Buddha remained silent. . 1380

Then the king, having perceived the truth, offered his adoration and returned to his palace. The world-honoured, with the great congregation, proceeded on foot, to rest for awhile in the bamboo garden 2. . 1381

(There he dwelt) to convert all that breathed 3, to kindle once for all 4 the lamp of wisdom, to establish Brahma and the Devas, and to confirm the lives 5 of saints and sages. . 1382

At this time Asvagit and Vâshpa 6, with heart composed and every member (sense) subdued, the time having come for begging food, entered into the town of Râgagriha: . 1383

Unrivalled in the world were they for grace of person, and in dignity of carriage excelling all. The lords and ladies of the city seeing them, were filled with joy; . 1384

Those who were walking stood still, those before waited, those behind hastened on. Now the Rishi: Kapila amongst all his numerous disciples . 1385

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Had one of wide-spread fame, whose name was Sâriputra; he, beholding the wonderful grace of the Bhikshus, their composed mien and subdued senses, . 1386

Their dignified walk and carriage, raising his hands, enquiring, said: 'Young in years, but pure and graceful in appearance, such as I before have never seen, . 1387

'What law most excellent (have you obeyed)? and who your master that has taught you? and what the doctrine you have learned? Tell me, I pray you, and relieve my doubts.' . 1388

Then of the Bhikshus, one 1, rejoicing at his question, with pleasing air and gracious words, replied: 'The omniscient, born of the Ikshvâku family, . 1389

'The very first ’midst gods and men, this one is my great master. I am indeed but young, the sun of. wisdom has but just arisen, . 1390

'How can I then explain the master's doctrine? Its meaning is deep and very hard to understand, but now, according to my poor capability (wisdom), I will recount in brief the master's doctrine: . 1391

'"Whatever things exist all spring from cause, the principles (cause) of birth and death (may be) destroyed, the way is by the means he has declared 2."' . 1392

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Then the twice-born Upata (Upatishya), embracing heartily what he had heard, put from him all sense-pollution, and obtained the pure eyes of the law. . 1393

The former explanations he had trusted, respecting cause and what was not the cause, that there was nothing that was made, but was made by Îsvara, . 1394

All this, now that he had heard the rule of true causation, understanding (penetrating) the wisdom of the no-self, adding thereto the knowledge of the minute (dust) troubles 1, which can never be overcome in their completeness (completely destroyed), . 1395

But by the teaching of Tathâgata, all this he now for ever put away; leaving no room for thought of self, the thought of self will disappear 2. . 1396

'Who, when the brightness of the sun gives light, would call for the dimness of the lamp? for, like the severing of the lotus, the stem once cut, the pods (?) will also die; . 1397

'So Buddha's teaching cutting off the stem of sorrow, no seeds are left to grow or lead to further increase.' Then bowing at the Bhikshu's feet, with grateful mien, he wended homewards. . 1398

The Bhikshus after having begged their food, likewise went back to the bamboo grove. Sâriputra

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on his arrival home, (rested) with joyful face and full of peace. . 1399

His friend the honoured Mugalin (Maudgalyâyana), equally renowned for learning, seeing Sâriputra in the distance 1, his pleasing air and lightsome step, . 1400

Spoke thus: 'As I now see thee, there is an unusual look I notice, your former nature seems quite changed, the signs of happiness I now observe, . 1401

'All indicate the possession of eternal truth, these marks are not uncaused.' Answering he said: The words of the Tathâgata are such as never yet were spoken;' . 1402

And then, requested, he declared (what he had heard). Hearing the words and understanding them, he too put off the world's defilement, and gained the eyes of true religion, . 1403

The reward of a long-planted virtuous cause; and, as one sees by a lamp that comes to hand, so he obtained an unmoved faith in Buddha; and now they both set out for Buddha's presence, . 1404

With a large crowd of followers, two hundred men and fifty. Buddha seeing the two worthies 2 coming, spoke thus to his disciples: . 1405

'These two men who come shall be my two most eminent followers, one unsurpassed for wisdom, the other for powers miraculous;' . 1406

And then with Brahma's voice 3, profound and

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sweet, he forthwith bade them 'Welcome!' Here is the pure and peaceful law (he said); here the end of all discipleship! . 1407

Their hands grasping the triple-staff 1, their twisted hair holding the water-vessel 2, hearing the words of Buddha's welcome, they forthwith changed into complete Sramanas 3; . 1408

The leaders two and all their followers, assuming the complete appearance of Bhikshus, with prostrate forms fell down at Buddha's feet, then rising, sat beside him 4: . 1409

And with obedient heart listening to the word, they all became Rahats. At this time there was a twice-(born) sage 5, Kâsyapa Shi-ming-teng (Eggidatta) (Agnidatta), . 1410

Celebrated and perfect in person, rich in possessions, and his wife most virtuous. But all this he

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had left and become a hermit, seeking the way of salvation. . 1411

And now in the way by the To-tseu 1 tower he suddenly encountered Sâkya Muni, remarkable for his dignified and illustrious appearance, as the embroidered flag of a Deva (temple); . 1412

Respectfully and reverently approaching, with head bowed down, he worshipped his feet, whilst he said: 'Truly, honoured one, you are my teacher, and I am your follower, . 1413

'Much and long time have I been harassed with doubts, oh! would that you would light the lamp 2 (of knowledge).' Buddha knowing that this twice-(born) sage was heartily desirous of finding the best mode of escape 3, . 1414

With soft and pliant voice, he bade him come and welcome. Hearing his bidding and his heart complying, losing all listlessness of body or spirit, . 1415

His soul embraced the terms of this most excellent salvation 4. Quiet and calm, putting away defilement, the great merciful, as he alone knew how, briefly explained the mode of this deliverance, . 1416

Exhibiting the secrets of his law, ending with}

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the four indestructible acquirements 1. The great sage, everywhere celebrated, was called Mahâ Kâsyapa, . 1417

His original faith was that 'body and soul are different,' but he had also held that they are the same, that there was both 'I' and a place 2 for I; but now he for ever cast away his former faith, . 1418

And considered only (the truth) that 'sorrow' is ever accumulating; so (he argued) by removing sorrow there will be 'no remains' (i.e. no subject for suffering); obedience to the precepts and the practice of discipline, though not themselves the cause, yet he considered these the necessary mode by which to find deliverance. . 1419

With equal and impartial mind, he considered the nature of sorrow, for evermore freed from a cleaving heart. Whether we think 'this is,' or 'this is not' (he thought), both tend to produce a listless (idle) mode of life; . 1420

But when with equal mind we see the truth, then certainty is produced and no more doubt. If we rely for support on wealth or form, then wild confusion and concupiscence result, . 1421

Inconstant and impure. But lust and covetous desire removed, the heart of love and equal thoughts produced, there can be then no enemies or friends (variance), . 1422

But the heart is pitiful and kindly disposed to all, and thus is destroyed the power of anger and of hate. Trusting to outward things and their relationships, then crowding thoughts of every kind are gendered; . 1423

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Reflecting well, and crushing out confusing thought, then lust for pleasure is destroyed. Though born in the Arûpa world (he saw) that there would be a remnant of life still left; . 1424

Unacquainted with the four right truths, he had felt an eager longing for this deliverance, for the quiet resulting from the absence of all thought. And now putting away for ever covetous desire for such a formless state of being, . 1425

His restless heart was agitated still, as the stream is excited by the rude wind. Then entering on deep reflection in quiet he subdued his troubled mind, . 1426

And realised the truth of there being no 'self,' and that therefore birth and death are no realities; but beyond this point he rose not, his thought of 'self' destroyed, all else was lost. . 1427

But now the lamp of wisdom lit, the gloom of every doubt dispersed, he saw an end to that which seemed without an end; ignorance finally dispelled, . 1428

He considered the ten points of excellence; the ten seeds of sorrow destroyed, he came once more to life, and what he ought to do, he did. And now regarding with reverence the face of his lord, . 1429

He put away the three 1 and gained the three 2; so were there three disciples 3 in addition to the

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three 1; and as the three stars range around the Trayastrimsas heaven, . 1430

Waiting upon the three and five 2, so the three wait on Buddha. . 1431


193:1 This garden, called the Karanda Venuvana, was a favourite residence of Buddha. For an account of it, see Spence Hardy, Manual of Buddhism, p. 194. It was situated between the old city of Râgagriha and the new city, about three hundred yards to the north of the former (see Fă-lien, chap. xxx, Beal's translation, p. 117 and note 2).

193:2 I have translated Ku’an 'to rest awhile,' it might be supposed to refer to the rest of the rainy season. But it is doubtful whether this ordinance was instituted so early.

193:3 All living things.

193:4 To establish and settle the brightness of the lamp of wisdom.

193:5 To establish the settlement of sages and saints.

193:6 He is sometimes called Dasabala Kâsyapa (Eitel, Handbook, p. 158 b).

194:1 In the Pâli account of this incident Asvagit alone is represented as begging his food; but here Asvagit and Vâshpa are joined according to the later rule (as it would seem) which forbad one mendicant to proceed alone through a town. (Compare Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiii, p. 344.)

194:2 For the Southern version of this famous stanza, see Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiii, p. 146; also Manual of Buddhism, p. 195 p. 196. For a similar account from the Chinese, see Wong Puh, § 77.

195:1 The 'dust troubles' are the troubles caused by objects of sense, as numerous as motes in a sunbeam.

195:2 'Look upon the world as void, O Mogharâgan, being always thoughtful; having destroyed the view of oneself-(as really existing), so one may overcome death; the king of death will not see him who thus regards the world,' Sutta Nipâta, Fausböll, p. 208.

196:1 'Then the paribbâgaka Sâriputta went to the place where the paribbâgaka Moggallâna was,' Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiii, p. 147.

196:2 The two 'bhadras,' i.e. 'sages,' or 'virtuous ones.'

196:3 Or, with 'Brahma-voice' (Brahmaghosha), for which, see Childers sub voce.

197:1 This triple (three-wonderful) staff is, I suppose, a mark of a Brahman student.

197:2 Twisted hair holding the pitcher; this may also refer to some custom among the Brahmans. Or the line may be rendered, 'their hair twisted and holding their pitchers.'

197:3 This sudden transformation from the garb and appearance of laymen into shorn and vested Bhikshus, is one often recounted in Buddhist stories.

197:4 Or, sat on one side (ekamantam).

197:5 This expression, which might also be rendered 'two religious leaders' (’rh sse), may also, by supplying the word 'sing,' be translated a 'twice-born sage,' i.e. a Brahman; and this appears more apposite with what follows, and therefore I have adopted it. The Brahman alluded to would then be called Kâsyapa Agnidatta. The story of Eggidatta is given by Bigandet (Legend, p. 180, first edition), but there is nothing said about his name Kâsyapa. Eitel (Handbook, sub voce Mahâkâsyapa) gives an explanation of the name Kâsyapa,' he who swallowed light;' but the literal translation of the words in our text is, 'Kâsyapa giving in charity a bright lamp.'

198:1 This 'many children' tower is perhaps the one at Vaisâlî alluded to by Fă-hien, chap. xxv.

198:2 Here the phrase 'teng ming,' light of the lamp, seems to be a play on the name 'ming teng,' bright lamp. The method and way in which a disciple (saddhivihârika) chooses a master (upagghâya) is explained, Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiii, p. 154.

198:3 Literally, '(had) a heart rejoicing in the most complete method of salvation (moksha).'

198:4 Or, 'the mode of salvation explained by the most excellent (Buddha).'

199:1 Katuh-samyak-pradhâna?

199:2 'the place of.'

200:1 The three poisons, lust, hatred, ignorance.

200:2 The three treasures (triratna), Buddha, the law, the community.

200:3 The three disciples, as it seems, were Sâriputra, Maudgalyâyana, and Agnidatta (Kâsyapa).

201:1 In addition to the three brothers (the Kâsyapas).

201:2 The allusion here is obscure; there may be a misprint in the text.

Next: Varga 18. Conversion of the 'Supporter of the Orphans and Destitute'