1. Now at that time the Blessed One walked up and down in the open air 3 unshod. Noticing that, 'The Master walks unshod,' the Elders (the Thera Bhikkhus) also went unshod when they were walking up and down 3. But though the Master and the Thera Bhikkhus went unshod, the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus walked up and down with coverings on their feet.
The temperate Bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, saying, 'How can these Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus walk shod, when the Master and the Thera Bhikkhus walk unshod?'
2. Then those Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.
'Is it true, what they say, O Bhikkhus, that the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus walk shod, though the Master and the Elders walk unshod?'
'It is true, Lord.'
The Blessed Buddha rebuked them, saying,
'How, O Bhikkhus, can these foolish persons walk shod, though (&c., as in §§ 1, 2). For even the lay-men, O Bhikkhus, who are clad in white, for the sake of some handicraft that may procure them a living, will be respectful, affectionate, hospitable to their teachers. [3.] Do you, therefore, O Bhikkhus, so let (your light) shine forth, that you having left the world (to enter into) so well taught a doctrine and discipline may be respectful, affectionate, hospitable to your teachers (âkariyas), or those who rank as teachers 1, and to your superiors (upagghâyas), or those who rank as superiors 2. This will not conduce, O Bhikkhus, to the conversion of the unconverted, and to the augmentation of the number of the converted:
but it will result, O Bhikkhus, in the unconverted being repulsed (from the faith), and in many of the converted becoming estranged.' Having thus rebuked them, and having delivered a religious discourse, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus:
None of you, O Bhikkhus, is to walk shod, when your teachers or those who rank as teachers, or your superiors, or those who rank as superiors, are walking unshod. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukkata offence.
'And no one of you, O Bhikkhus, is to wear shoes in the open Ârâma. Whosoever does so, is guilty of a dukkata offence.'
17:3 This walking up and down thinking is represented as a constant habit of the early Buddhist Samanas.
18:1 Avassikassa khabbasso âkariyamatto. So hi katuvassakâle tam nissâya vakkhati (Mahâvagga I, 35). Evam ekavassassa sattavasso, duvassassa atthavasso, tivassassa dasavasso (B.).
18:2 Upagghâyassa samdittha-sambhattâ pana sahâyâ bhikkhû, ye vâ pana keki dasahi vassehi mahantatarâ, te sabbe pi upagghâyamattâ nâma. This confirms the view expressed in a note to the first Book (chap. 32. I), that the Upagghâya is a more important person than the Âkariya. The former must have ten years, the latter need only have six years, seniority.