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Records of the Past, 2nd series, Vol. III, ed. by A. H. Sayce, [1890], at

p. 104



1. Nebuchadrezzar
2. king of Babylon,
3. the prince exalted,
4. the favourite of Merodach,
5. the pontiff supreme,
6. the beloved of Nebo,
7. the serene, the possessor of wisdom,
8. who the way of their godhead
9. regardeth,
10. who feareth their lordship;
11. the servant 1 unwearied,
12. who for the maintenance 2
13. of Esagilla and Ezida 3
14. daily bethought him, and
15. the weal of Babylon
16. and Borsippa

p. 105

17. regardeth ever;
18. the wise, the prayerful,
19. the maintainer 1 of Esagilla and Ezida,
20. the chiefest son
21. of Nabopalassar,
22. king of Babylon, am I.
23. After that the lord my god had created me,
24. that Merodach had framed
25. the creature in the mother;
26. when I was born,
27. when I was created, even I,
28. the holy places of the god I regarded,
29. the way of the god I walked in.
30. Of Merodach, the great lord, the god my creator,
31. his cunning works
32. highly do I extol.
33. Of Nebo, his true son,
34. the beloved of my majesty,
35. the way of his supreme godhead
36. steadfastly do I exalt;
37. with all my true heart
38. I love the fear of their godhead,
39. I worship their lordship.
40. When Merodach, the great lord,
41. lifted up the head of my majesty and
42. with lordship over the multitude of peoples invested me; and
43. Nebo, the overseer of the multitude of heaven and earth,
44. for the governing of the peoples
45. a righteous sceptre
46. placed in my hands:
47. for me, of them I am heedful,
48. I have regard unto their godhead;
49. for the mention of their glorious name,
50. I worship the god and Ishtar2

p. 106

51. To Merodach my lord I made supplication,
52. prayers to him I undertook, and
53. the word which my heart looked for,
54. to him I spate:
55. "Of old, O prince, lord of all that is!
56. for the king whom thou lovest, and
57. whose name thou callest,
58. that to thee is pleasing;
59. thou leadest him aright, 1
60. a straight path thou appointest him.
61. I am a prince obedient unto thee,
62. a creature of thy hands;
63. thou it was that madest me, and
64. with sovereignty over the multitude of the peoples
65. didst invest me;
66. according to thy goodness, O Lord,
67. wherewith thou crownest
68. all of them.
69. Thy lordship supreme do thou make loving, 2 and
70. the fear of thy godhead
71. cause thou to be in my heart!
72. Yea, grant that to thee is pleasing,


1. for my life truly thou makest."
2. Himself; the leader glorious,
3. the open-eyed of the gods, the prince Merodach,
4. my supplications heard and
5. received my prayers.
6. Yea, he made gracious his supreme lordship,
7. the fear of his godhead
8. he implanted in my heart;
9. to draw his car (?) 3

p. 107

10. he made me submit the heart;
11. I worshipped his lordship.
12. In his high trust, 1
13. to far-off lands,
14. distant hills,
15. from the Upper Sea
16. to the Lower Sea, 2
17. immense journeys,
18. blocked ways,
19. a place where the path is broken,
20. feet are not;
21. a road of hardships,
22. a journey of straits,
23. I pursued, and
24. the unyielding I reduced,
25. I fettered the rebels.
26. The land I ordered aright, and
27. the people I made to thrive;
28. bad and good
29. among the people I removed. 3
30. Silver, gold, glitter of precious stones,
31. copper, mismakanna-wood, cedar
32. what thing soever is precious,
33. a large abundance;
34. the produce of mountains,
35. the fulness of seas,
36. a rich present,
37. a splendid gift,
38. to my city of Babylon
39. into his presence I brought.
40. In Esagilla,
41. the palace of his lordship,
42. I wrought repairs. 4
43. Ekua, the cell

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44. of the lord of the gods, Merodach,
45. I made to glisten like suns
46. the walls thereof;
47. with large gold,
48. like rubble (?) stone, 1
49. with uknû 2 and alabaster,
50. the habitation of the house I overlaid.
51. The gate Khilisu, even the Beautiful Gate,
52. and the gate of Ezida (and) Esagilla,
53. I had them made brilliant as the sun.
54. The bright seat, the place of them that determine destinies, .
55. which is the Quarter of Assembly, the chapel of the Fates,
56. wherein, at Zagmuku3 the opening of the year,
57. on the 8th day (and) the 11th day,
58. the divine king, the god of heaven (and) earth, the lord of heaven,
59. taketh up his abode;
60. the gods of heaven (and) earth
61. with awe submit unto him;
62. they bow, they take their stand before him;
63. a destiny of enduring days,
64. as the destiny of my life,
65. they predestine in the midst (thereof):—


1. that chapel, a chapel of majesty,
2. the chapel of the lordship

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3. of the open-eyed of the gods, the prince Merodach,
4. whose fabric a former king
5. in silver had fabricated,
6. with shining gold, a splendid decoration,
7. I overlaid it.
8. The vessels of the house Esagilla
9. with large gold,—
10. the Bark of Merodach with Zarirû-stones,—
11. I made bright,
12. as the stars of the heavens.
13. The temples of Babylon
14. I made, I filled.
15. Of Etimmen-ana-ki 1
16. in burnt brick (and) fine uknû stone,
17. I reared its summits.
18. To make Esagilla
19. my heart lifted me up 2;
20. in chief have I regarded it.
2 I. The choicest of my cedars,
22. which from Lebanon,
23. the noble forest, I brought,
24. for the roofing of Ekua,
25. the cell of his lordship,
26. I looked out, and my heart vowed. 3
27. The huge cedar-beams
28. for the roofing of Ekua
29. with shining gold I overlaid.
30. The panels under the cedar of the roofing
31. with gold and precious stones
32. I made bright.
33. For the making of Esagilla
34. daily I besought
35. the King of the gods, the Lord of lords.
36. Borsippa the city of his abode
37. I beautified, and

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38. Ezida, the Eternal House,
39. in the midst thereof I made.
40. With silver, gold, precious stones,
45. copper, mismakanna-wood, 1 cedar-wood,
42. I finished the work of it.
43. The cedar of the roofing
44. of the cells of Nebo
45. with gold I overlaid.
46. The cedar of the roofing of the gate of Nanâ,
47. I overlaid with shining silver.
48. The bulls, the leaves of the gate of the cell,
49. the lintels, the bars, the bolt, 2
50. the door-sill, 3 Zarirû-stone.
51. The cedar of the roofing
52. of its chambers (?) 4
53. with silver I made bright.
54. The path to the cell,
55. and the way to the house,
56. (was of) glazed (?) brickwork.
57. The seat of the chapel therein
58. (was) a work of silver.
59. The bulls, the leaves of the gates,
60. with plates of bronze (?),
61. brightly I made to glisten.
62. The house I made gloriously bright, and,
63. for gazings (of wonder),
64. with carved work 5 I had (it) filled.
65. The temples of Borsippa

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66. I made, I filled.
67. Of the House of the Seven Spheres of Heaven and Earth,
68. in burnt bricks, (and) gleaming uknû stone,
69. I reared the heads thereof.
70. The Bark of the river of Gan-ulu1
71. the car of his princeliness


1. the Bark of the Way of Zagmuku,
2. the festival of Babylon,
3. its sides
4. (and) the pavilion within it,
5. I overlaid
6. with Tîrisassû-stone.
7. The House of the Drink-offering, the exalted resting-place
8. of the lord of the gods, Merodach,
9. the master of the revels and rejoicings
10. of the Igigi and the Anunnaki2
11. on the ramparts of Babylon,
12. with bitumen and burnt brick
13. mountain-high I erected.
14. the great house, E-dimmer-nin-khar-shagga,
15. in the heart of Babylon,
16. for the Great Goddess, the Mother that made me,
17. in Babylon I built.
18. For Nebo, the exalted Messenger,
19. who bestowed a righteous sceptre
20. for governing all habitable places,
21. E-shapa-kalama-simma, his house,
22. in Babylon,
23. with bitumen and burnt brick
24. I constructed the structure thereof.
25. For Sin3 that brighteneth

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26. my boundary walls,
27. E-gishshir-gal, his house,
28. in Babylon I made.
29. For Shamash, the Judge Supreme,
30. who putteth the righteous purpose 1 in my mind,
31. E-sakud-kalama, his house,
32. in Babylon,
33. with bitumen and brick
34. loftily I made.
35. For Rimmon2 who causeth abundance
36. in my land, E-nam-ghe, his house,
37. in Babylon, I built.
38. For Gula that spareth,
39. that fostereth my life,
40. E-sa-bad, E-kharsagella,
41. her houses in Babylon,
42. with bitumen and burnt brick
43. in fair wise I built.
44. For the Dame of the House of Heaven,
45. the lady that loveth me,
46. Ekikukus, her house,
47. in the purlieus of the wall of Babylon
48. loftily I made.
49. For the Son of the House, that shattereth
50. the sword of my foes,
51. his house in Borsippa I made.
52. For Gula, the Lady
53. that maketh whole my flesh,
54. Egula, Etilla, Ezibatilla,
55. her three temples,
56. in Borsippa I made.
57. For Rimmon, that raineth
58. the rain of plenty in my land,
59. his house in Borsippa
60. in fair wise I built.

p. 113

61. For Sin, that lifteth 1 the snare
62. of my welfare,
63. E-dim-anna, his house,
64. at the side of the precinct of Ezida
65. splendidly I made.
66. Imgur-bel
67. and Nimitti-bel,
68. the great ramparts of Babylon 2
69. which Nabopolassar,
70. king of Babylon, the father that begot me,
71. had made and not finished
72. the work of them;


1. whose moat he had dug, and
2. the two strong walls
3. with bitumen and burnt brick
4. had constructed along its bank;
5. the dykes of the Arakhtu 3
6. had made, and
7. a fence of burnt brick
8. (on) the other side of Euphrates
9. had constructed, and
10. had not finished
11. the rest;
12. from the Bright Seat,
13. the place of them that determine destinies,
14. the shrine of the Fates,
15. unto A-ibur-shabu,
16. the causeway of Babylon,
17. before the Gate of Beltis,
18. with brick (and) tur-mina-banda 4 stone,

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19. along the way of the great lord Merodach
20. he beautified the road.
21. As for me, his eldest son,
22. the beloved of his heart,
23. Imgur-bel
24. and Nimitti-bel,
25. the great ramparts of Babylon,
26. I finished;
27. beside the scarp of its moat,
28. the two strong walls,
29. with bitumen and burnt brick I built, and
30. with the wall (which) my father had constructed,
31. I joined (them), and
32. the city, for cover,
33. I carried (them) round.
34. A wall of burnt brick,
35. at the ford of the setting sun,
36. the rampart of Babylon
37. I threw around.
38. Â-bur-shabu,
39. the causeway of Babylon,
40. for the way of the great lord Merodach,
41. to a high elevation
42. I raised, 1 and
43. with brick (and) dur-mina-banda stone,
44. and stone, the work 2 of mountains,
45. Â-ibur-shabû,
46. from the Shining Gate
47. to Ishtar that hurleth down them that assail her,
48. for the way of his godhead
49. I made fair, and
50. with what my father had done
51. I connected (it), and
52. I beautified
53. the road
54. of Ishtar, that hurleth down
55. them that assail her.

p. 115

56. Of Imgur-bel
57. and Nimitti-bel
58. the portals, on both sides,
59. through the raising
60. of the causeway of Babylon
61. had become low
62. in their entries:
63. those portals
64. I pulled down, and


1. over against the water their foundation
2. with bitumen and burnt brick
3. I firmly laid, and
4. with burnt brick (and) gleaming uknû stone,
5. whereof bulls and dreadful serpents
6. were made, the interior of them 1
7. cunningly I constructed.
8. Strong cedar beams
9. for the roofing of them
10. I laid on.
11. Doors of cedar
12. (with) plating of bronze,
13. lintels and hinges,
14. copper-work, in its gates
15. I set up.
16. Strong bulls of copper,
17. and dreadful serpents, standing upright,
18. on their thresholds I erected:
19. those portals,
20. for the gazings of the multitude of the people,
21. with carven work I caused to be filled.
22. As an outwork 2 for Imgur-bel,
23. the wall of Babylon, unapproachable,

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24. (what no king before me had done;)
25. at four thousand cubits off,
26. on the flanks of Babylon
27. from afar unapproachable,
28. a mighty rampart, at the ford of the sunrising,
29. Babylon I threw around.
30. Its moat I dug, and the bank of it
31. with bitumen and brick
32. I bound together, and
33. the mighty rampart on the marge of it
34. mountain-high I built.
35. Its portals broad
36. I constructed, and
37. the doors in cedar, with plating of bronze,
38. I set them up.
39. That foes might not present 1 the face,
40. the bounds of Babylon might not approach;
41. great waters,
42. like the volume of the sea,
43. the land I carried round, and
44. the crossing of them
45. (was) like the crossing of the great sea,
46. of the briny flood.
47. An outburst of that within them
48. not to suffer to befal,
49. with a bank of earth
50. I embanked them, and
51. walls of kiln-brick
52. I threw around them.
53. The ward skilfully
54. did I strengthen, and
55. the city of Babylon
56. I made a fortress.
57. Dhâbi-suburshu,
58. the wall of Borsippa,
59. anew I made.
60. Its moat I dug, and

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61. with bitumen and burnt brick
62. I fenced its bank.
63. Nebuchadrezzar,


1. king of Babylon,
2. whom Merodach, the great Lord,
3. for the weal of his city
4. Babylon did call, am I.
5. Esagilla and Ezida
6. like the brilliance of the sun I made shine.
7. The temples of the great gods
8. like day I made bright.
9. Formerly, from the days of yore
10. to the reign
11. of Nabopalassar, king of Babylon,
12. the father that begot me,
13. the many kings my predecessors,
14. whose name the god
15. named for the sovereignty;
16. in their favourite cities,
17. in a place they determined on,
18. palaces they built themselves,
19. they set up their abode.
20. Their wealth within
21. they heaped up;
22. they piled their substance.
23. On the feast of Zagmuku,
24. the merrymaking of the lord of the gods, Merodach,
25. they entered Babylon.
26. From the time that Merodach created me,
27. for sovereignty;
28. (from the time that) Nebo his true son
29. committed his subjects (to me);
30. like dear life
31. love I the building of their lodging-place:
32. Besides Babylon and Borsippa,

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33. I did not beautify a city.
34. In Babylon,
35. my favourite city, which I love,
36. the palace, the house of the gazings of the people,
37. the bond of the country,
38. the splendid mansion,
39. the abode of royalty,
40. in the land of Babylon,
41. that is in the midst of Babylonia,
42. from Imgur-bel
43. to Libil-khegalla,
44. the canal of the sunrising,
45. from the bank of the Euphrates
46. to A-ibur-shabû;
47. which Nabopalassar
48. king of Babylon, the father who begot me,
49. with sun-dried brick had erected, and
50. dwelt therein;
51. by the waters of a flood
52. its foundation was weakened, and
53. through the raising
54. of the causeway of Babylon,
55. of that palace
56. low had become the gates of it:
57. its walls of 1 sun-dried brick
58. I pulled down, and
59. its record I uncovered, and
60. the bottom of the water I reached;
61. over against the water its foundation
62. I firmly laid, and
63. with bitumen and burnt brick


1. I reared it high
2. as the wooded hills.

p. 119

3. Stout cedars for the roofing of it
4. I laid on.
5. Doors of cedar
6. (with) a plating of bronze,
7. sills and hinges
8. of copper-work, in its gates
9. I set up.
10. Silver, gold, precious stones,
11. everything that is prized,
12. is magnificent;
13. substance, wealth,
14. the ornaments of majesty,
15. I heaped up within it;
16. strength, splendour,
17. royal treasure,
18. I hoarded within it.
19. Because the establishment of my royalty
20. in another city
2 I. my heart loveth not;
22. in no dwelling-places
23. built I an abode of lordship:
24. riches (and) the ornaments of royalty,
25. I place not
26. among the lands.
27. In Babylon,
28. a stead for my abode,
29. for the insignia of my royalty,
30. was not to be found.
31. For that the fear of Merodach my lord
32. was in my heart,
33. in Babylon,
34. his fenced city,
35. to make large
36. the seat of my royalty,
37. his street I altered not,
38. his chapel I demolished not,
39. his canals I filled not up;
40. a stead far and wide
41. I looked for.

p. 120

42. For an outwork 1
43. to Imgur-bel,
44. the wall of Babylon, unapproachable,
45. at 490 cubits off,
46. on the flanks of Nimitti-bel,
47. The outer wall of Babylon,
48. for cover
49. of the two strong walls,
50. with bitumen and burnt brick
51. a rampart mountain-like I made. And
52. betwixt them
53. a structure of burnt brick I constructed, and
54. on the top of it a great stead,
55. for the seat of my royalty,
56. with bitumen and burnt brick
57. loftily I made, and
58. with my father's palace I joined (it), and
59. in a salutary month, on a lucky day,
60. the foundation of it in the bosom of broad Earth
61. I firmly laid, and
62. the top of it I reared
63. high as the wooded hills. 2
64. On the 15th day, the work of it


1. I finished, and
2. made splendid the seat of lordship.
3. Strong male 2 cedars,
4. the growth of high mountains,
5. huge female 2 cedars,
6. and cypresses,
7. costly stones glittering,
8. for the roofing of it I laid on.

p. 121

9. Doors of mismakanna,
10. cedar, cypress,
11. ushû 1 and ivory, 2
12. the frame of silver (and) gold,
13. and the plating bronze;
14. the thresholds and hinges
15. copper-work
16. in the gates of it I set up, and
17. with a cornice of uknû its tops
18. I surrounded.
19. A strong wall
20. in bitumen and burnt brick
21. mountain-like I threw around it.
22. On the flanks of the wall of brick,
23. a great wall
24. with huge stones,
25. the yield of great mountains,
26. I made, and
27. like mountains
28. I raised its heads.
29. That house for gazings
30. I caused to be made, and,
31. for the beholding of the multitude of the people,
32. with sculptures I had (it) filled.
33. The awe 3 of power, the dread
34. of the splendour of sovereignty,
35. its sides begird, and
36. the bad unrighteous man
37. cometh not within it.
38. That no foe might appear, 4

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39. on the sides of the wall of Babylon
40. a bulwark against him 1
41. I built afar, and
42. the city of Babylon
43. I made strong
44. as the wooded hills.
45. To Merodach, my lord,
46. I made supplication, and lifted up my hands:
47. "Merodach, lord, open-eyed of the gods,
48. glorious prince!
49. Thou it was that createdst me, and
50. with the sovereignty of a multitude of peoples
51. didst invest me.
52. Like dear life
53. I love the exaltation of thy lodging-place:
54. besides thy city of Babylon
55. In no place
56. have I adorned a city. 2
57. Like as I love
58. the fear of thy godhead,
59. (and) seek unto thy lordship;
60. favourably regard the lifting up of my hands,
61. hear my prayers!
62. I verily am the maintaining 3 king,
63. that maketh glad thine heart;
64. the careful servant,
65. that maintaineth 3 all thy town.


1. At thy behest,
2. O merciful Merodach,
3. may the house I have made
4. therewith 4 endure! and
5. with the fulness of it may I be satisfied, and

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6. within it
7. hoar age may I reach!
8. May I be satisfied with offspring!
9. Of the kings of the world,
10. of all men,
11. their heavy tribute
12. may I receive within it!
13. From nadir to zenith,
14. (and) where the sun riseth,
15. may I have no enemies,
16. foemen may I possess not!
17. My posterity within it!
18. for evermore
19. over the Blackheads 1 may they rule!"


104:1 Or minister, i.e. of the gods. The Accadian ideogram is foot + man; somewhat like the Chinese foot + firm, pronounced kân (= kín), "a servant." But Chinese actually possesses an identical ideogram in the term fu (= bu or ba), "to sit in state," "to make a low obeisance," "to sit cross-legged in worship"; a character compounded of foot + man. David "sat before the Lord" in prayer (2 Sam. vii. 18). This, at least, favours the opinion that sagganakku or sakkanakku meant a priestly rather than a secular personage; and that when Sargon called himself sagganak Bâbili, he meant not "Machthaber," but "high-priest of Babylon."

104:2 Literally "fillings," "filler" (zanânu is a synonym of malû, Rich Cyl. i. 17, 18).

104:3 The chief temples of Babylon and Borsippa. E-sagilla, the temple of Bel-Merodach, also contained a shrine dedicated to Nebo, called "E-zida of E-sagilla" (Cyl. A.H., 82-7-54. 1042, col. i. 31).

105:1 Literally "fillings," "filler" (zanânu is a synonym of malû, Rich Cyl. i. 17, 18).

105:2 The cylinder 85-4-30. 1, establishes this reading of the ideogram.

106:1 Literally "thou directest his name."

106:2 Cp. ii. 6. The meaning is, "Show thyself kind or gracious."

106:3 Cp. the words of Assurbanipal: "The yoke, the wood (= implement) of drawing, I made them (the conquered kings) put on; to the temple they drew beneath me" (i.e. drew me in my chariot): 5 R. 10.29.30a. See also Phillipp's Cyl., i, 11, 12. "Unto Merodach . I reverently submitted; to draw his car I bowed the neck:" and I, 61, below.

107:1 Or, lofty confidence. The word tukultu coincides in form and meaning with the Ethiopic tukelt, "trust," "confidence," "hope"; and "his trust" is equivalent to "trust in him" (obj. genit.)

107:2 [Lake Van and the Persian Gulf.—Ed.]

107:3 Or, deported, carried away, cp. 2 Kings xvii. 6.

107:4 Literally "fillings," as at i. 12.

108:1 I only guess the meaning of imtû from the context. Solomon "made silver to be in Jerusalem as stones," 1 Kings x. 27. Is imtû a noun of the form ikribu, from the root matû, "to strike," "break" (= LAL)?? Some common material must be meant; but unfortunately the reading "stone" is not certain. (See Amiaud and Méchineau, Tabl. Comp., No. 145 note.)

108:2 The Accadian ZAGIN is a compound term, denoting simply "bright," "pure," "white," and as such might be applied to various valuable stones, such as jade, jasper, onyx, and other veined and coloured quartzose stones, of which uknû may have been a specific kind.

108:3 From the Accadian ZAG, "head," i.e. beginning, and MU, "year."

109:1 [Meaning, in Accadian, "'The house of the foundation-stone of heaven and earth."—Ed.]

109:2 This phrase is found in Hebrew, Exod. xxxv. 21–26.

109:3 Literally "spake," "sware"; i.e. resolved to devote them to this use.

110:1 Mismakanna or Mishmakanna, which looks like "Makan-wood," (Makan being the Sinaitic Peninsula, or perhaps the east side of the Delta see Sayce, Hilbert Lectures, p. 31, note 2), is perhaps the origin of the Biblical shikmîm, Amos vii. 54 (St. Luke xvii. 6).

110:2 The ideogram is (GIS) ES-GAN-RU, shoot + bar + long. The last character, RU, is explained "to be long, of a pole." It is composed of the signs U, earth + GU, ox; like the Chinese mau, mu, "bolt," "sliding part of a lock," a character compounded of ox + earth (ngu + du).

110:3 With the Accadian KANA, cp. Chinese kan, and k‘an, "threshold," "door-sill," sometimes fixed, sometimes movable.

110:4 Perhaps related to the Heb. debîr, or inmost recess of the temple.

110:5 With lulû, which is probably of Accadian origin, cp. the Chinese lau, old lu, "to carve," and luh, luk, ditto.

111:1 Apparently this means "perennial abundance," or "flow."

111:2 [The spirits of heaven and earth.—Ed.]

111:3 The Moon-god. Sin means "bright."

112:1 The Accadian terms ALAM SHIG mean "bright or pure image," and so "pure, right thought, desire, or design." Cp. the old Chinese lam, "to see, perceive," lam, "desirous," and shing "bright," "pure," "holy."

112:2 [The Air-god.—Ed.]

113:1 Or, "beareth away," "removeth": cp. Sarg. Cyl. 57, where the same god is called "exposer of snares," and Ps. xci. 3.

113:2 The river of Babylon.

113:3 See Herod. i. 180.

113:4 This Accadian term recurs, with a different initial sign, in line 43. Those who know the difficulty of identifying the precious stones and trees mentioned in the Old Testament will not be surprised to find that similar difficulties exist in cuneiform documents. It may be that the material here mentioned (lines 18, 43) is only some kind of glazed or coloured brick, with a double determinative prefix (brick+ stone).

114:1 Literally "with a high filling I filled up." Cp. the Latin expression agger viae.

114:2 i.e. yield, or produce.

115:1 Or perhaps, "the interior of them, which was made with (or into) bulls and dreadful serpents, cunningly I constructed." The relative clause sometimes precedes its antecedent.

115:2 Cp. viii. 42; ix. 40. The Accadian GIN ME denotes that which turns back battle (GIN = târu, ME = takhâzu), in this case an outer wall.

116:1 Reading la babil; see Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., March 1889. Col. iii. 30 (la ba-bi-il).

118:1 Literally "a substance of."

120:1 ganû, kanû, Accadian GIN "bar," "barrier," "bulwark," "wall," answers to the old Chinese gan, gin, "outer wall," "bank," "barrier," and the like.

120:2 For this distinction, see 2 R. 46, No. 2, 29, 30, where it is applied to palms.

121:1 The Accadian DAN, "hard," "strong," is like the old Chinese dan (modern t‘an), which denotes several kinds of hard-wood trees, including sandal-wood.

121:2 The Accadian KA-AMA-SI(G) = mouth + wild-ax +horn, which is the ideogram for "ivory," recalls the Chinese k‘au, "mouth," ma, an obsolete name of the yak or wild-ox, and siang, "elephant," "ivory," as well as si, "rhinoceros" (written ox + tail).

121:3 baltu (from the same root as balak, i. 47. "I heed or care for," "regard," cp. Arab. bala). The phrase might be rendered "heed of wrath."

121:4 Literally "present face," as at vi. 40 supra.

122:1 Literally "the bulwark of his battle I carried to a distance" (from the inner wall); cp. vi. 40; viii. 42.

122:2 Borsippa was no exception, being part of Babylon.

122:3 See note on i. 12, 19 supra.

122:4 i.e. with Merodach's town, Babylon itself, ix. 65. Cp. ix. 54 sqq.

123:1 The Blackheads were the aboriginal population of Babylonia, i.e. the Accadians. The Chinese anciently bore the same title, a fact which is one of the innumerable proofs of their Accadian origin. The meaning appears to be black-haired; though the expression is said to refer to the colour of their caps or kerchiefs. The Chinese still call themselves by several synonymous titles meaning the black-haired folk.

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