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Toppenish WA UFO Report (Part 3)

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     ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ *                                         * ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
                 *    L I T E R A R Y   F R E E W A R E    *
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                 *           F O U N D A T I O N           *
     ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ *                                         * ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
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                  -=ð P R O U D L Y  í  P R E S E N T S ð=-
                       David W. Akers, P.E.
                          P.O. Box 11517
                  Seattle, WA  98110-5517  USA
           Revised December 5, 1995 for Distribution on
                       Electronic Networks.
                   Copyright 1995, David W. Akers
                        All Rights Reserved.
 Reproduction or commercial use of this document or any of its
 photographs or illustrations without permission of the author is
 expressly prohibited.  This document may however be redistributed
 over electronic networks and to researchers as long as it is
 forwarded in its whole, without modifications and without charge.
      This report is intended as an update of earlier reports
 covering the efforts being made to discover the source of UFO
 activity on the Yakima Indian Reservation, near Toppenish,
 Washington. It is devoted to a brief description of the type and
 format of data being collected for statistical analysis and to
 reporting progress being made towards the discovery of patterns
 of behavior for the manifestation in the study area (1).
      A summary of selected data, obtained over the four year
 period of the study, is included at the end of the report.
      The value of a system for encoding and storing reports of
 UFO observations in a standardized form, which permits high-
 volume, computer-aided study, was recognized early by a number of
 investigators in the field. Unfortunately, there was little
 communication between the groups involved in establishing data
 files and, consequently, no standardization of data formats. This
 lack of standardization, along with substantial disagreement over
 just what information should be included in such a file, has made
 the exchange of information among the various investigators and
 groups extremely difficult.
      Faced with the above lack of standardization and detailed
 information regarding the formats being used by others, this
 investigator set-out to develop still another database format in
 1971. The file, called APDF, was originally intended to catalog
 the pertinent details of worldwide UFO sighting reports on a
 systematic basis. The format used for encoding data from the
 Toppenish study area is a modified version of the original format
 and, while it is not the last word in computer databases,
 provides a means of analyzing the patterns of many parameters of
 sighting reports, over a number of years and in a consistent time
 and location reference frame.  Table I. gives the parameters
 included in APDF encoded reports from the study area.
      (1)Earlier reports, dated November 2, 1972 and April 8, 1974,
         provide additional background on the work being conducted
         in the study area.
        Parameter              Remarks
 1.  Observation Date and      Date at Greenwich Mean.
     Serial Number
 2.  Observation Time          Time at Greenwich Mean (Universal
 3.  Observation Coordinates   Latitude and Longitude to nearest
                               tenth of a minute, when location
                               is off of Yakima Reservation grid.
                               Grid coordinates to the
                               nearest mile, when known and within
                               the Reservation study area.
 4.  Population Density
 5.  Topography
 6.  Temperature
 7.  Weather Conditions        Cloud cover, precipitation, etc.
 8.  Source of Report          Press, police, investigator, etc.
 9.  Strangeness Index         Subjective scale of 1 to 5.
 10. Probability Index         Subjective scale of 1 to 5.
 11. Observation Class         Nocturnal light, Radar-Visual,
                               Close encounter, daylight object,
 12. Length Or Observation
 13. Shape of object
 14. Color of Object
 15. Luminescence
 16. Kinetics
 17. How First Observed
 18. How Last Observed
 19. Observer Reaction
 20. Additional Observations   Smoke, odor, sound, photographs,
                               etc. (up to four of 27 choices,
                               plus a flag indicating other
                               observations of interest
                               in the source report, which were
                               not encoded.)
      Each report, with all of the parameters given in Table I.
 encoded, occupies one standard IBM Hollerith card. Rapid and
 consistent coding of reports is accomplished with a set of tables
 which closely define the characteristics of each parameter of the
 source report and convert that information into numerical data.
 The resulting punched card contains most of the information in
 the source report, but now in a form which can be analyzed by the
      All of the reports encoded using the above system are
 coarsely filtered, as described in earlier papers, to eliminate
 observations which have too little information content to be
 usable or those which include details strongly suggesting a known
 cause. In addition, reports which do not include a date are
 eliminated from the computer file, since such information is
 required by the operating program to unambiguously identify the
      It should be noted that the APDF format allows the deletion
 of any unknown parameters, with the exception of the year, month,
 day and, at least, the approximate location of the observation.
 Some of the reports gathered during the last four year were
 deleted from the computer file as a result of the above
 constraints.  In some cases, the deleted reports were of
 reasonably good quality, lacking only a date.
      The total number of reports, encoded since the study began
 in 1972, stands at 55. These reports breakdown into tho following
           Nocturnal Lights          43 (78.1%)
           Daylight Objects           3 ( 5.5%)
           Close Encounters I         6 (10.9%)
           Others                     3 ( 5.5%)
      Figure I. is a plot of the number of reports received over
 the four year study period versus the month Or the year. Figure
 II. graphs the number of reports versus the hour of the day, over
 the four year period.
      Further analysis of these data indicates, among other things,
 that there were nine photographs made, four cases involving the
 scouting of a terrestrial vehicle, at least one case involving
 electromagnetic effects, one case of a "beeping" sound and one
 case in which animals were affected.
      It seems certain that, as more cases are added to the data
 base and further analysis of the information is made, some
 patterns of behavior will become apparent.  The ultimate goal, of
 course, is to be able to forecast periods of activity and their
 most probable locations.  With such information, it should be
 possible to deploy an investigator and instruments in the field,
 with the greater probability that useful measurements will be
      Because of the relatively small number of reports available,
 caution should be used in drawing conclusions from the data at
 this time.  A pattern which does seem to emerge from the
 information available at the present time, is the relationship
 between the number of sightings and the hour of the day (Figure
 II.).  It would appear that the time of highest probability for a
 sighting in the study area is in the zone between 7 pm and 12
 midnight, local standard time.  The peak in reports, centered
 about the month of July, in the plot of Figure I., might be
 reasonably expected, since more observers are in the field during
 this period.  The February-March-April peak, found in Figure I.,
 lacks a satisfactory explanation at the present time.
      At the time of this writing, activity in the study area is
 very low.  Reports reached a peak towards the end of May, 1975 and
 abruptly dropped to only two reports in the following 5 month
 period.  Such behavior has been observed before and is not
 considered to be unusual.
      The collection of the data for study in the Toppenish
 project would be impossible without the patience and hard work of
 those people who have forwarded reports to this investigator.
 Without the assistance of Bill Vogel, the ladies in the fire
 lookouts, the Yakima Reservation Tribal Council and many other
 individuals, this on-going study would be impossible.  Many thanks
 for their help.
                                    C U F O N
                              Computer UFO Network
                            Seattle Washington,  USA
                (206) 776-0382 8 Data Bits, No Parity, 1 Stop Bit
                          v.32bis, v.42.bis, MNP4, MNP5
              SYSOP - Jim Klotz  Information Director - Dale Goudie
                      UFO Reporting and Information Service
                           Voice Line - (206) 721-5035
                    P.O.Box 832, Mercer Island, WA 98040, USA
             - Please credit CUFON as the source of this material -

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